match fixing


  • Games that are deliberately lost are sometimes called “thrown games”, especially when a team has nothing to play for (either having already qualified for the next stage of
    competition or in the process of being eliminated.)

  • In the 1983–84 season, several teams were accused of deliberately losing games in an attempt to gain a top position in the 1984 draft, which would eventually produce four
    Hall of Fame players.

  • The Badminton World Federation found the four pairs guilty of “not using one’s best efforts to win a match” and “conducting oneself in a manner that is clearly abusive or
    detrimental to the sport.”[15] • In the women’s football tournament, Japan intentionally played a draw with South Africa in Cardiff, allowing it to finish second in its group so it would not have to travel to Glasgow, more than 300 miles away,
    for the first round of the knockout stage.

  • More favorable schedule next year[edit] NFL teams have been accused of tanking games to obtain a more favorable schedule the following season; this was especially true between
    1977 and 1993, when a team finishing last in a five-team division would get to play four of its eight non-division matches the next season against other last-place teams.

  • [7] In the Canadian Football League, since the introduction of the cross-over rule, Western teams have been occasionally accused of tanking near the end of the season in situations
    where a loss would cause them to finish fourth place in their division and where such a finish was still good enough to secure a berth in the league’s East Division playoffs.

  • [18] The loser would thus avoid Blackman until the regional final, a game whose participants would both advance to the sectional tournament (one step short of the state tournament).

  • Although Italy beat Bulgaria by only one goal to finish level with Sweden and Denmark on five points and would hypothetically have been eliminated using the FIFA tie-breaker
    too, some Italian fans bitterly contended that the FIFA tie-breaker would have motivated their team to play harder and deterred their Scandinavian rivals from, in their view, at the very least half-heartedly playing out the match after the
    score became 2–2.

  • In recent years, the East has often been viewed to be a weaker division than the West; however, if any Western team has actually attempted such a strategy, it has not paid
    significant dividends for them in view of the fact that, up to and including the 2014 season, Western cross-over teams have only won a single Eastern playoff game, and have never advanced to the Grey Cup championship game from the Eastern

  • Partly as an effort to avoid this sort of controversy, early World Series sometimes saw all scheduled games played even if the Series winner was already determined.

  • Unlike FIFA, UEFA takes the result of the game between the two tied teams (or in a three-way tie, the overall records of the games played with the teams in question only)
    into consideration before overall goal difference when ranking teams level on points.

  • For example, the disgraced former National Basketball Association referee Tim Donaghy has been alleged to have perpetrated some of his fixes by calling games in such a manner
    as to ensure more points than expected were scored by both teams, thus affecting “over-under” bets on the games whilst also ensuring that Donaghy at least did not look to be outright biased.

  • One of the earliest examples of this sort of match fixing in the modern era occurred in 1898 when Stoke City and Burnley intentionally drew in that year’s final “test match”
    so as to ensure they were both in the First Division the next season.

  • Among other things, the so-called “Brush Rules” stipulated that the players would only receive a share of ticket revenue from the first four games, thus eliminating any financial
    incentive for the players to deliberately prolong the World Series.

  • [20][21] Even though the lottery in place through the 2018 draft gave the team with the worst record only the same chance at the top pick as the 2nd and 3rd worst teams (with
    that team guaranteed no worse than the fourth pick), there was still perceived incentive for a team to tank.

  • Because the players received a percentage of the gate receipts for postseason games (a privilege they did not enjoy in the regular season), there was a perception that the
    players had an incentive to fix an equal number of early games in favor of each team so as to ensure the series would run the maximum number of games (or very close thereto).

  • In contrast, when a team intentionally loses a game, or does not score as high as it can, to obtain a perceived future competitive advantage, the team is often said to have
    “tanked” the game instead of having thrown it.

  • [17] On the other hand, the practice of coaches on a playoff-bound team deliberately benching a team’s best players for some or all of the final match(es) of the regular season
    is often defended as a common sense measure to avoid unnecessarily risking injuries and fatigue to the team’s star players.

  • [9] As the two teams involved – Thailand and Indonesia – had both already qualified for the semi-finals, it was in both teams’ interest to lose the match and finish in second

  • This lottery system prevented teams from receiving fixed draft positions based on record place, which the league hoped would discourage them from deliberately losing.

  • There have been incidents (especially in basketball) where players on a favored team have won the game but deliberately ensured the quoted point spread was not covered (see
    point shaving).

  • [11][12] In 2012, Major League Baseball added a second wild card in each league, with the two wild cards playing a single-elimination game in order to give more importance
    to winning the division.

  • Proponents of the UEFA tie-breaker argue that it reduces the value of blow-outs, whether these be the result of a much stronger team running up the score or an already-eliminated
    side allowing an unusually large number of goals.

  • Since the Czechs had already clinched first place in the group, this move was seen to have the potential to allow Germany a better chance get the win they needed to advance
    at the expense of the winner of the Netherlands–Latvia game.

  • Abuse of tie-breaking rules[edit] On several occasions, creative use of tie-breaking rules have allegedly led teams to play less than their best.

  • [19] Some argue that a coach should not only have the right to select a starting lineup for a match that gives the team the best chances of winning titles in the long run — should
    this be a different lineup than the one that gives the team the best chances of winning the game at hand — but that doing so is the smartest course of action.

  • As a result, by losing a match, a team can face an easier opponent in the next round, making them more likely to win.

  • However, in 2014–15, two elite prospects widely considered to be “generational talents,” Connor McDavid and Jack Eichel, were projected to enter the 2015 NHL Entry Draft,
    thus ensuring the last place team at least one of the two prospects.

  • [31] Similarly, a National Football League (NFL) team has also been accused of throwing its final regular-season game in an attempt to keep a rival out of the playoffs.

  • Also, bets are increasingly being taken on individual performances in team sporting events, which, in turn, has seen the rise of a phenomenon known as spot fixing although
    it is now unlikely that enough is bet on average players to allow someone to place a substantial wager on them without being noticed.

  • Effective with the 2019 draft, the teams with the three worst records have equal odds of landing the #1 pick (barring one of these teams also owning another lottery team’s
    pick), and the top four picks are allocated in the lottery instead of the top three.

  • Competitors may also intentionally perform poorly to gain a future advantage, such as a better draft pick[A] or to face an easier opponent in a later round of competition.

  • One notorious example of this particular type of alleged fix was the 1909 Scottish Cup Final, which sparked a riot after being played twice to a draw.

  • [8] The 1998 Tiger Cup – an international football tournament contested by countries in Southeast Asia – saw an example of two teams trying to lose a match.

  • Until the 2014–15 NHL season, the National Hockey League assured the last place team of at least the second position in its entry draft, with the first overall pick being
    subject to a draft lottery among the five worst teams.

  • [17] The winner of the game would enter the same side of the regional tournament bracket as defending state champion[17] Blackman High School (ranked as one of the country’s
    top 10 teams by some national publications), setting up a potential match in the regional semifinals.

  • The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the only one of the four major professional sports leagues of the United States and Canada in which home advantage in the playoffs
    is based strictly on regular-season record without regard to seeding.

  • [6] Better playoff chances[edit] Many sports have tournaments where the result of one round determines their opponent in the next round.

  • [23] The Australian Football League, the main competition of Australian rules football, has used a system of priority draft picks since 1993, with poorly performing teams
    receiving extra selections at or near the start of the draft.

  • Match fixing includes point shaving and spot-fixing, which center on smaller events within a match that can be wagered upon, but which are unlikely to prove decisive in determining
    the final result of the game.

  • The 2012 Summer Olympics saw two examples of tanking of this type: • Members of four badminton teams from China, Indonesia and South Korea were ejected from the women’s doubles
    tournament for intentionally losing matches to allow better pairings in the knockout stages of the competition.

  • As NHL drafts typically include only one NHL-ready prospect, if any at all, in any given year (most others must continue developing in junior ice hockey or the minor leagues
    for several years before reaching the NHL), this rudimentary lottery has historically been enough of a deterrent to avoid deliberate tanking.

  • Another example took place on the next-to-last weekend of the 1992–93 Serie A season.

  • Often, substitutions made by a coach designed to deliberately increase the team’s chances of losing (such as having key players sit out, using minimal or phantom injuries
    as an excuse), rather than ordering the players actually on the field to intentionally underperform, are cited as the main factor in cases where this has been alleged.

  • Intentional loss to prejudice third-party rival[edit] A team may deliberately lose a match, giving a victory to the opposing team that damages a third-party rival.

  • [37] Although the Denmark–Sweden game above led to calls for UEFA to adopt FIFA’s tiebreaking formula for future tournaments, it is not clear if this solves the problem; the
    Argentina-Peru game shows a possible abuse of the FIFA tie-breaker.

  • [10] In the final month of the 2010 Major League Baseball season, the New York Yankees and Tampa Bay Rays were in a tight race for the American League East division title
    and by the final week, both teams had already clinched at least the wild card.

  • The Somerset players calculated that a large enough loss could see them miss the quarter-finals.

  • In the current scheduling formula which has been in place since 2002 and slightly amended in 2021, only three games in a team’s schedule are dependent on a team’s placement
    the previous season.

  • In response, the Football League expanded the divisions to 18 teams that year, thus permitting the intended victims of the fix (Newcastle United and Blackburn Rovers) to remain
    in the First Division.

  • As a result, a team may have a significant incentive to tank games to secure a higher pick in the league’s next draft, and a number of leagues have changed their draft rules
    to remove (or at least limit) potential incentives to tank.

  • Going into that match, Somerset led their group with three wins from three matches, but would end in a three-way tie for the top spot if they lost to Worcestershire and Glamorgan
    defeated the then-winless Minor Counties South.

  • Better draft position[edit] Main article: Tanking (sports) Most top-level sports leagues in North America and Australia hold drafts to allocate young players to the league’s

  • In 2022, the postseason was further expanded, adding a third wild card and making the round a best-of-three series.

  • Eventually, following the controversy at the conclusion of the 1904 season in which the New York Giants boycotted the World Series in part because of dissatisfaction with
    the financial arrangements surrounding the Series, Major League Baseball agreed to a number of reforms proposed by Giants owner John T. Brush.

  • In organized sports, match fixing is the act of playing or officiating a match with the intention of achieving a pre-determined result, violating the rules of the game and
    often the law.

  • Tie-breaking rules played the central role in one of cricket’s more notorious matches.

  • Many sports writers have speculated that in leagues with high player salaries, it is far more likely for a referee to become corrupt since their pay in such competitions is
    usually much less than that of the players.

  • As a result, FIFA changed its tournament scheduling for subsequent World Cups so that the final pair of matches in each group are played simultaneously.

  • For example, during Euro 2004 the Czech Republic rested nearly all of its starters from the first two group matches for the final group match against Germany.

  • In a 2004 retrospective on the “dodgiest games” in football history, two British journalists said about the match, “For over 80 minutes, the two teams engaged in a shameful
    game of cat-and-mouse, in which the cat appeared to have fallen asleep and the mouse was on tranquilisers.”

  • A more recent example occurred in the 1982 FIFA World Cup, West Germany played Austria in the last match of group B.

  • One such attempt was described by retired footballer Matthew Le Tissier, who in 2009 admitted that while he was playing with Southampton FC back in 1995, he tried (and failed)
    to kick the ball out of play right after the kick-off of a Premier League match against Wimbledon FC so that a group of associates would collect on a wager made on an early throw-in.

  • Additional allegations came up in 2012, when Yankees general manager Brian Cashman commented in response to a possible playoff expansion that his team had “conceded the division”
    and that winning it meant “nothing more than a T-shirt and a hat”.

  • This was most prominent with the Buffalo Sabres, whose fans openly rooted against their team in the hopes they would clinch last place in the league for much of the season
    (the Sabres themselves denied they were tanking and openly criticized their fans for suggesting the notion).

  • The most lopsided professional football match in history, AS Adema 149–0 SO l’Emyrne, was a result of SO l’Emyrne intentionally losing the game in protest against the referee’s
    action in a previous game.

  • From 1966 to 1984, the NBA used a coin flip between the teams with the worst records in each of the league’s two conferences to determine the recipient of the top pick.

  • Prior to 2012, a team automatically received a priority pick if its win–loss record met pre-defined eligibility criteria.

  • Conversely, there are cases where a team not only lost (which might be honest) but lost by some large amount, perhaps to ensure a point spread was covered, or to grant some
    non-gambling related favor to the victor.

  • Individual performance in team sports[edit] Bookmakers in the early 21st century accept bets on a far wider range of sports-related propositions than ever before.

  • Since 2004, separate scandals have erupted in prominent sports leagues in Portugal,[dead link][25] Germany (Bundesliga scandal), Brazil (Brazilian football match-fixing scandal)
    and the United States (see Tim Donaghy scandal), all of which concerned referees who fixed matches for gamblers.

  • Argentina needed a four-goal victory over Peru in order to advance over Brazil, a large margin at this level of competition, yet Argentina won 6–0.

  • The same situation happened to Italy in 2012, leading to many pre-game complaints from Italy, who many commentators suggested were right to be concerned because of their own
    extensive experience in this area.

  • The 1–1 draw gave Milan their title, but in the end did not help Brescia; other results went against them and they suffered the drop.

  • As it happened, the Czechs’ decision to field a “weaker” side did not matter since the Czechs won the match anyway to eliminate the Germans.


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Photo credit:’]






  • Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation, and production from any living organisms and
    any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable
    operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment
    and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).

  • Jointly biotechnology and synthetic biology play a crucial role in generating cost-effective products with nature-friendly features by using bio-based production instead of

  • This can be considered as the use of knowledge from working with and manipulating biology to achieve a result that can improve functions in plants and animals.

  • These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food’s genetic structure than previously afforded by methods
    such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.

  • Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals.

  • [27] It is commonly considered as the next phase of green revolution, which can be seen as a platform to eradicate world hunger by using technologies which enable the production
    of more fertile and resistant, towards biotic and abiotic stress, plants and ensures application of environmentally friendly fertilizers and the use of biopesticides, it is mainly focused on the development of agriculture.

  • [1] The term biotechnology was first used by Károly Ereky in 1919,[2] meaning the production of products from raw materials with the aid of living organisms.

  • The application of biotechnology to basic science (for example through the Human Genome Project) has also dramatically improved our understanding of biology and as our scientific
    knowledge of normal and disease biology has increased, our ability to develop new medicines to treat previously untreatable diseases has increased as well.

  • [90] Regulation varies in a given country depending on the intended use of the products of the genetic engineering.

  • [3] The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science
    of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock.

  • Regulation[edit] Main articles: Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms The regulation of genetic engineering concerns
    approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the use of genetic engineering technology, and the development and release of genetically modified organisms (GMO), including genetically modified crops and genetically
    modified fish.

  • [6][7][8] The utilization of biological processes, organisms or systems to produce products that are anticipated to improve human lives is termed biotechnology.

  • Throughout the history of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other
    plants — one of the first forms of biotechnology.

  • [59] There is a scientific consensus[60][61][62][63] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,[64][65][66][67][68]
    but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.

  • A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for example: • Bioinformatics (also called “gold biotechnology”) is an interdisciplinary
    field that addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization as well as analysis of biological data possible.

  • As crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain, it was discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilize, restore
    nitrogen, and control pests.

  • Definition The concept of biotechnology encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals,
    cultivation of the plants, and “improvements” to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization.

  • History Although not normally what first comes to mind, many forms of human-derived agriculture clearly fit the broad definition of “‘utilizing a biotechnological system to
    make products”.

  • [81] In the current decades, significant progress has been done in creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that enhance the diversity of applications and economical
    viability of industrial biotechnology.

  • White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.

  • This includes biotechnology-based approaches for the control of harmful insects, the characterisation and utilisation of active ingredients or genes of insects for research,
    or application in agriculture and medicine and various other approaches.

  • Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching.

  • [4] As per the European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products
    and services.

  • [24] Examples Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non-food (industrial) uses of
    crops and other products (e.g., biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

  • [84] For instance, E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a consortium could be used as industrial microbes to produce precursors of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel
    by applying the metabolic engineering in a co-culture approach to exploit the benefits from the two microbes.

  • An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides.

  • [9] By contrast, bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field that more heavily emphasizes higher systems approaches (not necessarily the altering or using of
    biological materials directly) for interfacing with and utilizing living things.

  • For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of microorganisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products).

  • Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteur’s work in 1857, it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into
    another form.

  • One application is the creation of enhanced seeds that resist extreme environmental conditions of arid regions, which is related to the innovation, creation of agriculture
    techniques and management of resources.

  • [17][18] Biosensor MOSFETs were later developed, and they have since been widely used to measure physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters.

  • [80] However, opponents have objected to GM crops per se on several grounds, including environmental concerns, whether food produced from GM crops is safe, whether GM crops
    are needed to address the world’s food needs, and economic concerns raised by the fact these organisms are subject to intellectual property law.

  • [12] For thousands of years, humans have used selective breeding to improve the production of crops and livestock to use them for food.

  • Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.

  • [85] Another example of synthetic biology applications in industrial biotechnology is the re-engineering of the metabolic pathways of E. coli by CRISPR and CRISPRi systems
    toward the production of a chemical known as 1,4-butanediol, which is used in fiber manufacturing.

  • [76][77][78][79] GM crops also provide a number of ecological benefits, if not used in excess.

  • Vallero and others have argued that the difference between beneficial biotechnology (e.g., bioremediation is to clean up an oil spill or hazard chemical leak) versus the adverse
    effects stemming from biotechnological enterprises (e.g., flow of genetic material from transgenic organisms into wild strains) can be seen as applications and implications, respectively.

  • One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture.

  • [33][27] Medicine[edit] In medicine, modern biotechnology has many applications in areas such as pharmaceutical drug discoveries and production, pharmacogenomics, and genetic
    testing (or genetic screening).

  • Through early biotechnology, the earliest farmers selected and bred the best-suited crops (e.g., those with the highest yields) to produce enough food to support a growing

  • Biotechnology is the integration of natural sciences and engineering sciences in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues
    for products and services.

  • [11] These processes were introduced in early Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India, and still use the same basic biological methods.

  • [27] On the other hand, some of the uses of green biotechnology involve microorganisms to clean and reduce waste.

  • [13] In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products.

  • [49] Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents,[50] biofuels,[51] and other industrially useful goods,[52] as well as for bioremediation.

  • [37][38] Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding
    Biotechnology has contributed to the discovery and manufacturing of traditional small molecule pharmaceutical drugs as well as drugs that are the product of biotechnology – biopharmaceutics.

  • For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety.

  • Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

  • [82] Synthetic biology is considered one of the essential cornerstones in industrial biotechnology due to its financial and sustainable contribution to the manufacturing sector.

  • The genetically engineered bacteria are able to produce large quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost.

  • [55] Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA with the methods of genetic engineering.

  • Indeed, the cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise.


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matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide, and we can conclude that the scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazard directly connected with the use of GM crops.

The literature about Biodiversity
and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of
the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns.
61. ^ “State of Food and Agriculture 2003–2004. Agricultural Biotechnology:
Meeting the Needs of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Currently available transgenic crops and foods derived from them have been judged
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(WHO, 2002). These foods have been assessed for increased risks to human health by several national regulatory authorities (inter alia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, the United Kingdom and the United States) using their national food safety procedures
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62. ^ Ronald, Pamela (May 1, 2011). “Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security”. Genetics.
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Plants, National Research Council and Division on Earth and Life Studies 2002). Both the U.S. National Research Council and the Joint Research Centre (the European Union’s scientific and technical research laboratory and an integral part of the European
Commission) have concluded that there is a comprehensive body of knowledge that adequately addresses the food safety issue of genetically engineered crops (Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on
Human Health and National Research Council 2004; European Commission Joint Research Centre 2008). These and other recent reports conclude that the processes of genetic engineering and conventional breeding are no different in terms of unintended consequences
to human health and the environment (European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation 2010).
63. ^
But see also:
Domingo, José L.; Bordonaba, Jordi Giné (2011). “A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified
plants” (PDF). Environment International. 37 (4): 734–742. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. PMID 21296423. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM
plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans)
are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those
obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants. Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published
in recent years in scientific journals by those companies.
Krimsky, Sheldon (2015). “An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment”. Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40 (6): 883–914. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. S2CID 40855100. I began
this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.
And contrast:
Panchin, Alexander
Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I. (January 14, 2016). “Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 37 (2): 213–217. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684. ISSN 0738-8551. PMID 26767435.
S2CID 11786594. Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation
of the data. Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm.

The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention.
However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them
should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.
Yang, Y.T.; Chen, B. (2016). “Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health”. Journal of the Science of
Food and Agriculture. 96 (4): 1851–1855. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523. PMID 26536836. It is therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011). Overall,
a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food… Major national and international science and medical associations have stated that no adverse human health effects related to GMO food
have been reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.

Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many independent international science organizations
agree that GMOs are just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome.
64. ^ “Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors
On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods” (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science. October 20, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2019. The EU, for example, has invested more than €300
million in research on the biosafety of GMOs. Its recent report states: “The main conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of more than 25 years of research and involving more than 500 independent
research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies.” The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences,
the British Royal Society, and every other respected organization that has examined the evidence has come to the same conclusion: consuming foods containing ingredients derived from GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients
from crop plants modified by conventional plant improvement techniques.

Pinholster, Ginger (October 25, 2012). “AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could “Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers”” (PDF). American Association for
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65. ^ European Commission. Directorate-General for Research (2010). A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010) (PDF). Directorate-General
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66. ^ “AMA Report on
Genetically Modified Crops and Foods”. American Medical Association. January 2001. Retrieved August 30, 2019 – via International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications.”REPORT 2 OF THE COUNCIL ON SCIENCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (A-12):
Labeling of Bioengineered Foods” (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
67. ^ “Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States. Public and Scholarly
Opinion”. Library of Congress. June 30, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Several scientific organizations in the US have issued studies or statements regarding the safety of GMOs indicating that there is no evidence that GMOs present unique safety
risks compared to conventionally bred products. These include the National Research Council, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Medical Association. Groups in the US opposed to GMOs include some environmental
organizations, organic farming organizations, and consumer organizations. A substantial number of legal academics have criticized the US’s approach to regulating GMOs.
68. ^ National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering; Division on Earth Life Studies;
Board on Agriculture Natural Resources; Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience Future Prospects (2016). Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (US).
p. 149. doi:10.17226/23395. ISBN 978-0-309-43738-7. PMID 28230933. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Overall finding on purported adverse effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis of detailed examination of comparisons of currently
commercialized GE with non-GE foods in compositional analysis, acute and chronic animal toxicity tests, long-term data on health of livestock fed GE foods, and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences that implicate a higher
risk to human health from GE foods than from their non-GE counterparts.
69. ^ “Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods”. World Health Organization. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Different GM organisms include different genes inserted
in different ways. This means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general statements on the safety of all GM foods.

GM foods currently available on the international
market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they
have been approved. Continuous application of safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods.
70. ^ Haslberger, Alexander
G. (2003). “Codex guidelines for GM foods include the analysis of unintended effects”. Nature Biotechnology. 21 (7): 739–741. doi:10.1038/nbt0703-739. PMID 12833088. S2CID 2533628. These principles dictate a case-by-case premarket assessment that
includes an evaluation of both direct and unintended effects.
71. ^ Some medical organizations, including the British Medical Association, advocate further caution based upon the precautionary principle:

“Genetically modified foods and health:
a second interim statement” (PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2019. In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health effects is very small and many
of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available.

When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits
and risks, it is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks to human health and the environment.
As with all novel foods, safety assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case basis.

Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the relevant
subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM foods currently available should be halted and the moratorium on commercial growth of GM crops should be continued. These conclusions were based on the precautionary principle and lack
of evidence of any benefit. The Jury expressed concern over the impact of GM crops on farming, the environment, food safety and other potential health effects.

The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated
with the use of specific viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, and while calling for caution in the introduction of potential allergens into food crops, stressed the absence of evidence that commercially available GM foods cause clinical
allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that there is no robust evidence to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the call for further research and surveillance to provide convincing evidence of safety and benefit.
72. ^ Funk, Cary;
Rainie, Lee (January 29, 2015). “Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society”. Pew Research Center. Retrieved August 30, 2019. The largest differences between the public and the AAAS scientists are found in beliefs about the safety of eating
genetically modified (GM) foods. Nearly nine-in-ten (88%) scientists say it is generally safe to eat GM foods compared with 37% of the general public, a difference of 51 percentage points.
73. ^ Marris, Claire (2001). “Public views on GMOs: deconstructing
the myths”. EMBO Reports. 2 (7): 545–548. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve142. PMC 1083956. PMID 11463731.
74. ^ Final Report of the PABE research project (December 2001). “Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe”. Commission of
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Photo credit:







knights templar


  • The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon’s Temple, the
    Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order, one of the most wealthy and popular of the Western Christian military orders.

  • Following the suppression of the Order, a number of Knights Templar joined the newly established Order of Christ, which effectively reabsorbed the Knights Templar and its
    properties in AD 1319, especially in Portugal.

  • [97] Apart from the Order of Christ,[95][96] there is no clear historical connection between the Knights Templar and any other modern organization, the earliest of which emerged
    publicly in the 18th century.

  • The situation was complex, however, since during the two hundred years of their existence, the Templars had become a part of daily life throughout Christendom.

  • [85] There was a cardinal rule that the warriors of the order should never surrender unless the Templar flag had fallen, and even then they were first to try to regroup with
    another of the Christian orders, such as that of the Hospitallers.

  • With this formal blessing, the Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, receiving money, land, businesses, and noble-born sons from families who were eager
    to help with the fight in the Holy Land.

  • [102] Temperance movement[edit] Main articles: IOGT and Tempel Riddare Orden Many temperance organizations named themselves after the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of
    the Temple of Solomon, citing the belief that the original Knights Templar “drank sour milk, and also because they were fighting ‘a great crusade’ against ‘this terrible vice’ of alcohol”.

  • According to some historians, King Philip, who was already deeply in debt to the Templars from his war against England, decided to seize upon the rumours for his own purposes.

  • Portugal was the first country in Europe where they had settled, occurring only two or three years after the order’s foundation in Jerusalem and even having presence during
    Portugal’s conception.

  • The Grand Master exercised his authority via the visitors-general of the order, who were knights specially appointed by the Grand Master and convent of Jerusalem to visit
    the different provinces, correct malpractices, introduce new regulations, and resolve important disputes.

  • [10] The abrupt disappearance of a major part of the European infrastructure gave rise to speculation and legends, which have kept the “Templar” name alive into the present

  • [8] Rumours about the Templars’ secret initiation ceremony created distrust, and King Philip IV of France, while being deeply in debt to the order, used this distrust to take
    advantage of the situation.

  • The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II reclaimed the city for Christians in the Sixth Crusade of 1229, without Templar aid, but only held it for a little more than a decade.

  • [73] Grand Masters[edit] Main article: Grand Masters of the Knights Templar Templar building at Saint Martin des Champs, France Starting with founder Hugues de Payens in 1118–1119,
    the order’s highest office was that of Grand Master, a position which was held for life, though considering the martial nature of the order, this could mean a very short tenure.

  • [107] Bernard-Raymond Fabré-Palaprat produced the Larmenius Charter in 1804 with a claim of succession to the original Catholic Christian military order.

  • [103] The largest of these, the International Order of Good Templars (IOGT), grew throughout the world after being started in the 19th century and continues to advocate for
    the abstinence from alcohol and other drugs; other Orders in this tradition include those of the Templars of Honor and Temperance (Tempel Riddare Orden), which has a large presence in Scandinavia.

  • One theory on the origin of Freemasonry claims direct descent from the historical Knights Templar through its final fourteenth-century members who were thought to have taken
    refuge in Scotland and aided Robert the Bruce in his victory at Bannockburn.

  • After the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312,[57][58] the Order of Christ was founded in 1319[53][54] under the protection of the Portuguese king Denis, who refused
    to persecute the former knights as in most other states under the influence of the Catholic Church.

  • [46][47][48] The remaining Templars around Europe were either arrested and tried under the Papal investigation (with virtually none convicted), absorbed into other Catholic
    military orders, or pensioned off and allowed to live out their days peacefully.

  • [7] The Templars were closely tied to the Crusades; no longer able to secure their holdings in the Holy Land, support for the order faded.

  • Under his protection, Templar organizations simply changed their name, from “Knights Templar” to the reconstituted Order of Christ and also a parallel Supreme Order of Christ
    of the Holy See; both are considered successors to the Knights Templar.

  • The order was still not subject to local government, making it everywhere a “state within a state” – its standing army, although it no longer had a well-defined mission, could
    pass freely through all borders.

  • Although not prescribed by the Templar Rule, it later became customary for members of the order to wear long and prominent beards.

  • All of them were subject to the Grand Master, appointed for life, who oversaw both the order’s military efforts in the East and their financial holdings in the West.

  • Many sites also maintain the name “Temple” because of centuries-old association with the Templars.

  • [63] The current position of the Roman Catholic Church is that the medieval persecution of the Knights Templar was unjust, that nothing was inherently wrong with the order
    or its rule, and that Pope Clement was pressed into his actions by the magnitude of the public scandal and by the dominating influence of King Philip IV, who was Clement’s relative.

  • [98][99][100][101] Order of Christ[edit] Further information: Order of Christ (Portugal) and History of the Order of Christ Following the dissolution of the Knights Templar,
    the Order of Christ was erected in 1319 and absorbed many of the Knights Templar into its ranks, along with Knights Templar properties in Portugal.

  • [79][80] The white mantle was assigned to the Templars at the Council of Troyes in 1129, and the cross was most probably added to their robes at the launch of the Second Crusade
    in 1147, when Pope Eugenius III, King Louis VII of France, and many other notables attended a meeting of the French Templars at their headquarters near Paris.

  • They were prominent in Christian finance; non-combatant members of the order, who made up as much as 90% of their members,[2][3] managed a large economic infrastructure throughout

  • Squires were generally not members of the order but were instead outsiders who were hired for a set period of time.

  • The Grand Master oversaw all of the operations of the order, including both the military operations in the Holy Land and Eastern Europe and the Templars’ financial and business
    dealings in Western Europe.

  • [91] Legacy With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around Europe and the Holy Land.

  • The Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations.

  • [64] Organization The Templars were organized as a monastic order similar to Bernard’s Cistercian Order, which was considered the first effective international organization
    in Europe.

  • [113] There have been speculative popular publications surrounding the order’s early occupation of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem as well as speculation about what relics the
    Templars may have found there.

  • [90] Most brothers joined for life, although some were allowed to join for a set period.

  • The Templars were accused of idolatry and were suspected of worshiping either a figure known as Baphomet or a mummified severed head they recovered, amongst other artifacts,
    at their original headquarters on the Temple Mount that many scholars theorize might have been that of John the Baptist, among other things.

  • When the rest of the Crusader army did not follow, the Templars, including their Grand Master, were surrounded and beheaded.

  • Two of the four Inns of Court which may call members to act as barristers are the Inner Temple and Middle Temple – the entire area known as Temple, London.

  • [49] The Portuguese king, Denis I, refused to pursue and persecute the former knights, as had occurred in all other sovereign states under the influence of the Catholic Church.

  • In 1119, the French knight Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and proposed creating a Catholic monastic religious
    order for the protection of these pilgrims.

  • [95][96] The story of the persecution and sudden dissolution of the secretive yet powerful medieval Templars has drawn many other groups to use alleged connections with them
    as a way of enhancing their own image and mystery.

  • [31] At dawn on Friday, 13 October 1307—a date sometimes incorrectly cited as the origin of the popular stories about Friday the 13th[32][33]—King Philip IV ordered de Molay
    and scores of other French Templars to be simultaneously arrested.

  • [93] Distinctive architectural elements of Templar buildings include the use of the image of “two knights on a single horse”, representing the Knights’ poverty, and round
    buildings designed to resemble the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

  • Some had sufficient legal experience to defend themselves in the trials, but in 1310, having appointed the archbishop of Sens, Philippe de Marigny, to lead the investigation,
    Philip blocked this attempt, using the previously forced confessions to have dozens of Templars burned at the stake in Paris.

  • A nobleman who was interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away.

  • In about 1240, Alberic of Trois-Fontaines described the Templars as an “order of bearded brethren”; while during the interrogations by the papal commissioners in Paris in
    1310–1311, out of nearly 230 knights and brothers questioned, 76 are described as wearing a beard, in some cases specified as being “in the style of the Templars”, and 133 are said to have shaved off their beards, either in renunciation of
    the order or because they had hoped to escape detection.

  • [3] The Templars still managed many businesses, and many Europeans had daily contact with the Templar network, such as by working at a Templar farm or vineyard, or using the
    order as a bank in which to store personal valuables.

  • [17] Another major benefit came in 1139, when Innocent II’s papal bull Omne Datum Optimum exempted the order from obedience to local laws.

  • Bernard put his weight behind them and wrote persuasively on their behalf in the letter “In Praise of the New Knighthood”,[15][16] and in 1129, at the Council of Troyes, he
    led a group of leading churchmen to officially approve and endorse the order on behalf of the church.

  • De Molay reportedly remained defiant to the end, asking to be tied in such a way that he could face the Notre Dame Cathedral and hold his hands together in prayer.

  • He began pressuring the church to take action against the order, as a way of freeing himself from his debts.

  • Templars were often the advance shock troops in key battles of the Crusades, as the heavily armoured knights on their warhorses would set out to charge at the enemy, ahead
    of the main army bodies, in an attempt to break opposition lines.

  • [95] The Military Order of Christ consider themselves the successors of the former Knights Templar.

  • This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques; it improved the safety of pilgrims by making
    them less attractive targets for thieves, and also contributed to the Templar coffers.

  • [86] This uncompromising principle, along with their reputation for courage, excellent training, and heavy armament, made the Templars one of the most feared combat forces
    in medieval times.

  • Some Grand Masters also served as battlefield commanders, though this was not always wise: several blunders in de Ridefort’s combat leadership contributed to the devastating
    defeat at the Battle of Hattin.

  • The visitors-general had the power to remove knights from office and to suspend the Master of the province concerned.

  • In 1307, he pressured Pope Clement to have many of the order’s members in France arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, and then burned at the stake.

  • [45] According to legend, he called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God.

  • History Rise[edit] After the Franks in the First Crusade captured Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate in 1099 A.D., many Christians made pilgrimages to various sacred sites
    in the Holy Land.

  • [27] With the order’s military mission now less important, support for the organization began to dwindle.

  • For example, during the Siege of Ascalon in 1153, Grand Master Bernard de Tremelay led a group of 40 Templars through a breach in the city walls.

  • [4] They developed innovative financial techniques that were an early form of banking,[5][6] building a network of nearly 1,000 commanderies and fortifications across Europe
    and the Holy Land, and arguably forming the world’s first multinational corporation.

  • Officially endorsed by the Roman Catholic Church by such decrees as the papal bull Omne datum optimum of Pope Innocent II, the Templars became a favored charity throughout
    Christendom and grew rapidly in membership and power.

  • [107][108] Freemasonry[edit] Main article: Knights Templar (Freemasonry) Freemasonry has incorporated the symbols and rituals of several medieval military orders in a number
    of Masonic bodies since at least the 18th century.

  • Although the city of Jerusalem was relatively secure under Christian control, the rest of Outremer was not.

  • [76] As the order grew, more guidelines were added, and the original list of 72 clauses was expanded to several hundred in its final form.

  • [41][42][43] With Philip threatening military action unless the pope complied with his wishes, Pope Clement finally agreed to disband the order, citing the public scandal
    that had been generated by the confessions.

  • At the Council of Vienne in 1312, he issued a series of papal bulls, including Vox in excelso, which officially dissolved the order, and Ad providam, which turned over most
    Templar assets to the Hospitallers.

  • [92] For example, some of the Templars’ lands in London were later rented to lawyers, which led to the names of the Temple Bar gateway and the Temple Underground station.


Works Cited

[‘The Latin estimates of Saladin’s army are no doubt greatly exaggerated (26,000 in Tyre xxi. 23; 12,000 Turks and 9,000 Arabs in Anon.Rhen. v. 517).[19]
2. Archer, Thomas Andrew; Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge (1894). The Crusades: The Story of the
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. T. Fisher Unwin. p. 176.; Burgtorf, Jochen (2008). The central convent of Hospitallers and Templars : history, organization, and personnel (1099/1120–1310). Leiden: Brill. pp. 545–46. ISBN 978-90-04-16660-8.
3. ^ Jump
up to:a b c Burman 1990, p. 45.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Barber 1992, pp. 314–26
By Molay’s time the Grand Master was presiding over at least 970 houses, including commanderies and castles in the east and west, serviced by a membership which is
unlikely to have been less than 7,000, excluding employees and dependents, who must have been seven or eight times that number.
5. ^ Selwood, Dominic (2002). Knights of the Cloister. Templars and Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania 1100–1300.
Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-828-0.
6. ^ Martin 2005, p. 47.
7. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 4.
8. ^ Barber 1994.
9. ^ Miller, Duane (2017). ‘Knights Templar’ in War and Religion, Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. pp.
462–64. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
10. ^ Barber 1993.
11. ^ Barber, Malcolm (1995). The new knighthood : a history of the Order of the Temple (Canto ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. xxi–xxii. ISBN 978-0-521-55872-3.
12. ^ Burman
1990, pp. 13, 19.
13. ^ Selwood, Dominic (20 April 2013). “Birth of the Order”. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
14. ^ Barber 1994, p. 7.
15. ^ Read 2001, p. 91.
16. ^ Selwood, Dominic (28 May 2013). “The Knights Templar 4: St Bernard of Clairvaux”.
Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
17. ^ Selwood, Dominic (1996). “‘Quidam autem dubitaverunt’: the Saint, the Sinner and a Possible Chronology”. Autour de la Première Croisade. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.
pp. 221–230. ISBN 978-2-85944-308-5.
18. ^ Barber 1994, p. 56.
19. ^ Burman 1990, p. 40.
20. ^ Stevenson 1907, p. 218.
21. ^ Stephen A. Dafoe. “In Praise of the New Knighthood”. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017.
Retrieved 20 March 2007.
22. ^ Martin 2005.
23. ^ Ralls, Karen (2007). Knights Templar Encyclopedia. Career Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8.
24. ^ Benson, Michael (2005). Inside Secret Societies. Kensington. p. 90.
25. ^ Martin 2005,
p. 99.
26. ^ Martin 2005, p. 113.
27. ^ Demurger, p. 139. “During four years, Jacques de Molay and his order were totally committed, with other Christian forces of Cyprus and Armenia, to an enterprise of reconquest of the Holy Land, in liaison
with the offensives of Ghazan, the Mongol Khan of Persia.”
28. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 201
The Templars retained a base on Arwad island (also known as Ruad island, formerly Arados) off Tortosa (Tartus) until October 1302 or 1303, when the island was
recaptured by the Mamluks.
29. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 5.
30. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 237.
31. ^ Barber 2006.
32. ^ “Convent of Christ in Tomar”. World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
33. ^
“Friday the 13th”. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
34. ^ David Emery. “Why Friday the 13th is unlucky”. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
35. ^ Jump up to:a b “Les derniers jours des Templiers”. Science et Avenir: 52–61. July
36. ^ Riley-Smith, Johnathan (1995). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford Press. p. 213.
37. ^ Rice, Joshua (1 June 2022). “Burn in Hell”. History Today. 72 (6): 16–18.
38. ^ Dodd, Gwilym; Musson, Anthony (2006).
The Reign of Edward II: New Perspectives. Boydell & Brewer. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-903153-19-2.
39. ^ Barber 1993, p. 178.
40. ^ Edgeller, Johnathan (2010). Taking the Templar Habit: Rule, Initiation Ritual, and the Accusations against the Order (PDF).
Texas Tech University. pp. 62–66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011.
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48. ^ Malcolm Barber has researched this legend and concluded that it originates from La Chronique métrique attribuée à Geffroi de Paris, ed. A. Divèrres, Strasbourg, 1956, pp. 5711–5742. Geoffrey
of Paris was “apparently an eye-witness, who describes de Molay as showing no sign of fear and, significantly, as telling those present that God would avenge their deaths”. Barber 2006, p. 357, footnote 110
49. ^ In The New Knighthood, Barber referred
to a variant of this legend, about how an unspecified Templar had appeared before and denounced Clement V and, when he was about to be executed sometime later, warned that both Pope and King would “within a year and a day be obliged to explain their
crimes in the presence of God”, found in the work by Ferreto of Vicenza, Historia rerum in Italia gestarum ab anno 1250 ad annum usque 1318 (Barber 1994, pp. 314–15).
50. ^ Templários no condado portucalense antes do reconhecimento formal da ordem:
O caso de Braga no início do séc. XII – Revista da Faculdade de Letras [Templars in the County of Portucale before the formal recognition of the order: The case of Braga in early 12th century], Ciências e Técnicas do Património, Porto 2013, Volume
XII, pp. 231–243. Author: Paula Pinto Costa, FLUP/CEPESE (University of Porto)
51. ^ “The Order of Christ and the Papacy”. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008.
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Ferguson (26 August 2011). The Knights Templar and Scotland. History Press Limited. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7524-6977-5.
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Roux, Imprimeurs-Libraires, associés, 1778).
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“The Chinon chart – Papal absolution to the last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay”. Journal of Medieval History. 30 (2): 109–34. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004. S2CID 153985534.
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75. ^ Read 2001, p. 137.
76. ^ Hourihane, Colum (2012). “Flags and standards”. The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. OUP USA. p. 514. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5. the Knights Templar […] carried white shields with
red crosses but [their] sacred banner, Beauséant, was white with a black chief
77. ^ Burman 1990, p. 43.
78. ^ Burman 1990, p. 30–33.
79. ^ Martin 2005, p. 32.
80. ^ Barber 1994, p. 191.
81. ^ Jump up to:a b Burman 1990, p. 44.
82. ^ Barber
1994, p. 66
According to William of Tyre it was under Eugenius III that the Templars received the right to wear the characteristic red cross upon their tunics, symbolising their willingness to suffer martyrdom in the defence of the Holy Land.
12.7, p. 554. James of Vitry, ‘Historia Hierosolimatana’, ed. J. ars, Gesta Dei per Francos, vol I(ii), Hanover, 1611, p. 1083, interprets this as a sign of martyrdom.)
83. ^ Martin 2005, p. 43
The Pope conferred on the Templars the right to
wear a red cross on their white mantles, which symbolised their willingness to suffer martyrdom in defending the Holy Land against the infidel.
84. ^ Read 2001, p. 121
Pope Eugenius gave them the right to wear a scarlet cross over their hearts,
so that the sign would serve triumphantly as a shield and they would never turn away in the face of the infidels’: the red blood of the martyr was superimposed on the white of the chaste.” (Melville, La Vie des Templiers, p. 92.)
85. ^ Burman 1990,
p. 46.
86. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 141.
87. ^ Barber 1994, p. 193.
88. ^ Harris, Oliver D. (2013). “Beards: true and false”. Church Monuments. 28: 124–32 (124–25).
89. ^ Nicholson 2001, pp. 48, 124–27.
90. ^ Martin 2005, p. 52.
91. ^ Newman,
Sharan (2007). The Real History Behind the Templars. Berkeley Publishing. pp. 304–12.
92. ^ Barber 1993, p. 4.
93. ^ Martin 2005, p. 58.
94. ^ Ruggeri, Amanda. “The hidden world of the Knights Templar”. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
95. ^ Barber
1994, pp. 194–95.
96. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Ralls, Karen (2007). Knights Templar Encyclopedia: The Essential Guide to the People, Places, Events, and Symbols of the Order of the Temple. Red Wheel Weiser Conari. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8. Founded
in Portugal and approved by papal bull in 1319, after the suppression of their Order in 1312, a number of Templars joined the newly established Order of Christ. The knights of this Order became known as the Knights of Christ. The wore a white mantle
with a red cross that had a white twist in the middle, which also has been translated as a double cross of red and silver in some medieval documents. Initially, the Order of Christ was located at Castro Marim; later, its headquarters was relocated
to Tomar, the location of the castle of the Knights Templar.
97. ^ Jump up to:a b c Gourdin, Theodore S. (1855). Historical Sketch of the Order of Knights Templar. Walker & Evans. p. 22. Upon the suppression of the Order of Templars in Portugal,
their estates were given to this equestrian militia. The name of the Order was changed to that of the Order of Christ. The Templars in Portugal suffered comparatively little persecution, and the Order of Christ, since its foundation in 1317, has always
been protected by the sovereigns of that country, and also by the Popes of Rome.
98. ^ Finlo Rohrer (19 October 2007). “What are the Knights Templar up to now?”. BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
99. ^ The Mythology Of The Secret Societies
(London: Secker and Warburg, 1972). ISBN 0-436-42030-9
100. ^ Peter Partner, The Murdered Magicians: The Templars And Their Myth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982). ISBN 0-19-215847-3
101. ^ John Walliss, Apocalyptic Trajectories: Millenarianism
and Violence In The Contemporary World, p. 130 (Bern: Peter Lang AG, European Academic Publishers, 2004). ISBN 3-03910-290-7
102. ^ Michael Haag, Templars: History and Myth: From Solomon’s Temple To The Freemasons (Profile Books Ltd, 2009). ISBN
103. ^ F. A. Dutra, “Dinis, King of Portugal”, in Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2003), p. 285.
104. ^ Jump up to:a b Nicholson, Helen (2014). A Brief History of the Knights Templar. Little, Brown. p. 151. ISBN
105. ^ Ammerman, Robert T.; Ott, Peggy J.; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999). Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-67215-7.
106. ^ Clausen, Daniel (2021). Templar Succession: Establishing
Continuity 1307-Present. USA: Codex Spiritualis Press. pp. 95–111. ISBN 979-8465277525.
107. ^ Malet, David (2013). Foreign Fighters: Transnational Identity in Civic Conflicts. Oxford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-19-993945-9.
108. ^ Jump
up to:a b Napier, Gordon (2011). A to Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. History Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-7524-7362-8.
109. ^ Clausen, Daniel (2021). Templar Succession: Establishing Continuity 1307-Present. Codex Spiritualis
Press. pp. 21–61. ISBN 979-8465277525.
110. ^ Knights Templar FAQ, accessed 10 January 2007.
111. ^ “Freemasonry Today periodical (Issue January 2002)”. Grand Lodge Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 28 May
112. ^ Miller, Duane (2017). ‘Knights Templar’ in War and Religion, Vol 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. p. 464. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
113. ^ The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code, 7 November 2005, video documentary
written by Marcy Marzuni.
114. ^ Magy Seif El-Nasr; Maha Al-Saati; Simon Niedenthal; David Milam. “Assassin’s Creed: A Multi-Cultural Read”. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. we interviewed
Jade Raymond … Jade says … Templar Treasure was ripe for exploring. What did the Templars find
115. ^ Martin 2005, p. 133. Helmut Brackert, Stephan Fuchs (eds.), Titurel, Walter de Gruyter, 2002, p. 189 Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
There is no evidence of any actual connection of the historical Templars with the Grail, nor any claim on the part of any Templar to have discovered such a relic. See Karen Ralls, Knights Templar Encyclopedia: The Essential Guide to the People, Places,
Events and Symbols of the Order of the Temple, p. 156 (The Career Press, Inc., 2007). ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8
116. ^ Louis Charpentier, Les Mystères de la Cathédrale de Chartres (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1966), translated The Mysteries of Chartres
Cathedral (London: Research Into Lost Knowledge Organization, 1972).
117. ^ Sanello, Frank (2003). The Knights Templars: God’s Warriors, the Devil’s Bankers. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 207–08. ISBN 978-0-87833-302-8.
b. Isle of Avalon, Lundy.
“The Rule of the Knights Templar A Powerful Champion” The Knights Templar. Mystic Realms, 2010. Web
c. Barber, Malcolm (1994). The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42041-9.
d. Barber,
Malcolm (1993). The Trial of the Templars (1st ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45727-9.
e. Barber, Malcolm (2006). The Trial of the Templars (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67236-8.
f. Barber,
Malcolm (1992). “Supplying the Crusader States: The Role of the Templars”. In Benjamin Z. Kedar (ed.). The Horns of Hattin. Jerusalem and London. pp. 314–26.
g. Barrett, Jim (1996). “Science and the Shroud: Microbiology meets archaeology in a renewed
quest for answers”. The Mission (Spring). Retrieved 25 December 2008.
h. Burman, Edward (1990). The Templars: Knights of God. Rochester: Destiny Books. ISBN 978-0-89281-221-9.
i. Mario Dal Bello (2013). Gli Ultimi Giorni dei Templari, Città Nuova,
ISBN 978-88-311-6451-1
j. Frale, Barbara (2004). “The Chinon chart – Papal absolution to the last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay”. Journal of Medieval History. 30 (2): 109. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004. S2CID 153985534.
k. Hietala, Heikki
(1996). “The Knights Templar: Serving God with the Sword”. Renaissance Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
l. Marcy Marzuni (2005). Decoding the Past: The Templar Code (Video documentary). The History
m. Stuart Elliott (2006). Lost Worlds: Knights Templar (Video documentary). The History Channel.
n. Martin, Sean (2005). The Knights Templar: The History & Myths of the Legendary Military Order. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press. ISBN
o. Moeller, Charles (1912). “Knights Templars” . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
p. Newman, Sharan (2007). The Real History behind the Templars. New York: Berkley
Trade. ISBN 978-0-425-21533-3.
q. Nicholson, Helen (2001). The Knights Templar: A New History. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-2517-4.
r. Partner, Peter (1982). The Murdered Magicians: The Templars and their Myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-215847-3.
s. Read, Piers (2001). The Templars. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81071-8 – via
t. Selwood, Dominic (2002). Knights of the Cloister. Templars and Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania 1100–1300.
Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-828-0.
u. Selwood, Dominic (1996). “‘Quidam autem dubitaverunt: the Saint, the Sinner. and a Possible Chronology'”. Autour de la Première Croisade. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. ISBN 978-2-85944-308-5.
v. Selwood,
Dominic (2013). ” The Knights Templar 1: The Knights”
w. Selwood, Dominic (2013). ”The Knights Templar 2: Sergeants, Women, Chaplains, Affiliates”
x. Selwood, Dominic (2013). ”The Knights Templar 3: Birth of the Order”
y. Selwood, Dominic (2013).
”The Knights Templar 4: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux”
z. Stevenson, W. B. (1907). The Crusaders in the East: a brief history of the wars of Islam with the Latins in Syria during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Cambridge University Press. The
Latin estimates of Saladin’s army are no doubt greatly exaggerated (26,000 in Tyre xxi. 23, 12,000 Turks and 9,000 Arabs in Anon.Rhen. v. 517
aa. Sobecki, Sebastian (2006). “Marigny, Philippe de”. Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (26th
ed.). Bautz: Nordhausen. pp. 963–64.
bb. Théry, Julien (2013), “”Philip the Fair, the Trial of the ‘Perfidious Templars’ and the Pontificalization of the French Monarchy””, Journal of Medieval Religious Culture, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 117–48
Photo credit:’]




betting on horse racing


  • Types of bets In North American racing, the three most common ways to bet money are to win, to place, and to show.

  • [citation needed] The Epsom Derby betting post, c. 1835 In Europe, Australia, and Asia, betting to place is different since the number of “payout places” varies depending
    on the size of the field that takes part in the race.

  • The full odds are paid if the horse wins, (plus the place portion), with a quarter or a fifth of the odds (depending on the race-type and the number of runners) if only the
    place section of the bet is successful.

  • For instance, if a $2 across-the-board bet (total outlay of $6) were staked on a horse which finished second, paying $4.20 to place and $3.00 to show, the bettor would receive
    $7.20 on what is essentially a $6 wager.

  • Since it is much easier to select a horse to finish first, second, or third than it is to select a horse just for first, the show payoffs will be much lower on average than
    win payoffs.

  • For example, in a race with seven or less runners in the UK, only the first two finishers would be considered winning bets with most bookmakers.

  • In the UK some bookmakers will pay for the first five (some independent firms have even paid the first six) for a place on the Grand National.

  • [2] Gamblers can stake money on the final placement of the horses taking part in a race.

  • The rough equivalent of the each-way in North America is the across the board (win/place/show) or win/place bet, where equal bets on a horse are made to win, place, and show
    (or just win and place).

  • If there are a small number of horses in the race, show or place bets may not be offered (or if bets have already been made, they are cancelled and the wagered amounts refunded).

  • Due to new legislation horse race betting in the US could change significantly in the near future.

  • An each-way bet sees the total bet being split in two, with half being placed on the win, and half on the place.

  • This allows the gambler to ‘lock in’ odds on a horse at a particular time (known as ‘taking the price’ in the UK).

  • In a bet to place, you are betting on your horse to finish either first or second.

  • The legal market handle on horse racing in the United States in 2018 was $11.26 billion while experts predict the illegal sports betting market could be anywhere from $100
    billion to $150 billion annually.

  • A quinella, which boxes an exacta (allowing the first two finishers to come in any order and still win), is the basic box, but boxing can be applied to the trifecta and superfecta
    as well.

  • A bet to win, sometimes called a “straight” bet, means staking money on the horse, and if it comes in first place, the bet is a winner.

  • Bettors receive a payout if the horse either wins, and/or is placed based on the place criteria as stated above.

  • Occasionally other handicap races with large fields (numbers of runners) receive the same treatment from various bookmakers, especially if they are sponsoring the race.

  • [14] United Kingdom[edit] Horse race betting is wide and varied in the UK.

  • Between April 2017 and March 2018, off-course horse racing betting turnover in Great Britain amounted to £4.3 billion.

  • By the late 19th century over 300 tracks were in operation in the country but those opposed to gambling caused the banning of bookmakers and horse racing at the beginning
    of the next century.


Works Cited

[‘Paul M. Anderson; Ian S. Blackshaw; Robert C.R. Siekmann; Janwillem Soek (28 October 2011). Sports Betting: Law and Policy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 186–. ISBN 978-90-6704-799-9.
2. ^ “A History of Horse Gambling”. 31 July 2019. Archived
from the original on 2020-08-28.
3. ^ NTRA Wagering Technology Working Group in conjunction with Giuliani Partners LLC (August 2003). “Improving Security in the United States Pari-Mutuel Wagering System: Status Report and Recommendations” (PDF).
National Thoroughbred Racing Association Web Site. National Thoroughbred Racing Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
4. ^ McKay, Brett & Kate (2012-05-03). “How to Bet on Horse Races for Beginners”.
The Art of Manliness. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
5. ^ Levith, Will (2013-04-03). “Read This. Win So Much Money at the Racetrack”. Thrillist. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
6. ^ David-Lee Priest (October 2008). Against the Odds: A Comprehensive Guide to Betting
on Horseracing. Raceform Limited. ISBN 978-1-905153-94-7.
7. ^ Tony Warren (2009). Betting on Horse Racing: No Experience Necessary. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4490-2800-8.
8. ^ “TIF Reports: Horse Racing and’Legal’sports Betting”.
2019-02-01. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
9. ^ “Record Kentucky derby numbers show why US sports betting needs to be online”. 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
10. ^ “Hong Kong’s hardcore gamblers”. CNNMoney. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
11. ^
Balfour, Fredrick (2016-02-22). “Hong Kong Horse Racing Is Serious Business”. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
12. ^ Mok, Danny (2017-09-01). “Hong Kong Jockey Club has record-breaking year”. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
13. ^
“Racing betting in Australia”. Australian Institute of Family Studies.Australian Gambling Research Centre 2001-10-31. 2019. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
14. ^ “Proof Australia is a nation of punters, with a record $26 billion spent on race and sports betting
this year”. 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
15. ^ “Annual turnover of off course horse race betting in Great Britain from April 2008 to March 2018 (in million GBP)”. 2018. Retrieved 2019-03-06.
Photo credit:’]




dalai lama


  • [113] The name “Dalai Lama”, by which the lineage later became known throughout the non-Tibetan world, was thus established and it was applied to the first two incarnations

  • He studied at Drepung and became its abbot but being a non-Tibetan he met with opposition from some Tibetans, especially the Karma Kagyu who felt their position was threatened
    by these emerging events; there were several attempts to remove him from power.

  • By 1642, a strategy that was planned and carried out by his resourceful chagdzo or manager Sonam Rapten with the military assistance of his devoted disciple Gushri Khan, Chieftain
    of the Khoshut Mongols, enabled the ‘Great 5th’ to found the Dalai Lamas’ religious and political reign over more or less the whole of Tibet that survived for over 300 years.

  • This caused Sonam Rabten who became the 5th Dalai Lama’s changdzo or manager,[125] to seek more active Mongol patronage and military assistance for the Gelugpa while the Fifth
    was still a boy.

  • [28] The 1st Dalai Lama soon became Abbot of the greatest one, Drepung, and developed a large popular power base in Ü.

  • [94] He attracted many students and disciples ‘from Kashmir to China'[93] as well as major patrons and disciples such as Gongma Nangso Donyopa of Droda who built a monastery
    at Zhekar Dzong in his honour and invited him to name it and be its spiritual guide.

  • [90] It was called the Ganden Phodrang, a name later adopted by the Tibetan Government,[33] and it served as home for Dalai Lamas until the Fifth moved to the Potala Palace
    in 1645.

  • [88] Gendun Gyatso continued to travel widely and teach while based at Tibet’s largest monastery, Drepung and became known as ‘Drepung Lama’,[79] his fame and influence spreading
    all over Central Asia as the best students from hundreds of lesser monasteries in Asia were sent to Drepung for education.

  • [33] Gendun Drup was said to be the greatest scholar-saint ever produced by Narthang Monastery[61] and became ‘the single most important lama in Tibet’.

  • He died on the way, in 1634[128] but his vassal Choghtu Khong Tayiji, continued to advance against the Gelugpas, even having his own son Arslan killed after Arslan changed
    sides, submitted to the Dalai Lama and become a Gelugpa monk.

  • [39] Thus the Dalai Lamas became pre-eminent spiritual leaders in Tibet and 25 Himalayan and Central Asian kingdoms and countries bordering Tibet and their prolific literary
    works have “for centuries acted as major sources of spiritual and philosophical inspiration to more than fifty million people of these lands”.

  • “[26] Avalokiteśvara’s “Dalai Lama master plan”[edit] According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteśvara had promised the Buddha to guide and defend the Tibetan people
    and in the late Middle Ages, his master plan to fulfill this promise was the stage-by-stage establishment of the Dalai Lama theocracy in Tibet.

  • [55] In 1415 Gendun Drup met Tsongkhapa, founder of the Gelugpa school, and became his student; their meeting was of decisive historical and political significance as he was
    later to be known as the 1st Dalai Lama.

  • Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or “Yellow Hat” school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest and most dominant of
    the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

  • [59] A brilliant scholar and teacher,[100] he had the spiritual maturity to be made Abbot of Drepung,[101] taking responsibility for the material and spiritual well-being
    of Tibet’s largest monastery at the age of nine.

  • [62] Through hard work he became a leading lama, known as ‘Perfecter of the Monkhood’, ‘with a host of disciples’.

  • [45] Therefore, although Gendun Drup grew to be a very important Gelugpa lama, after he died in 1474 there was no question of any search being made to identify his incarnation.

  • Although he had served for some years as Tashilhunpo’s abbot, he therefore moved to central Tibet, where he was invited to Drepung and where his reputation as a brilliant
    young teacher quickly grew.

  • Thus most of Mongolia was added to the Dalai Lama’s sphere of influence, founding a spiritual empire which largely survives to the modern age.

  • [94] By 1571, when Altan Khan received a title of Shunyi Wang (King) from the Ming dynasty of China[106] and swore allegiance to Ming,[107] although he remained de facto quite
    independent,[49]: 106  he had fulfilled his political destiny and a nephew advised him to seek spiritual salvation, saying that “in Tibet dwells Avalokiteshvara”, referring to Sonam Gyatso, then 28 years old.

  • [16]: 23  History In Central Asian Buddhist countries, it has been widely believed for the last millennium that Avalokiteśvara, the bodhisattva of compassion, has a special
    relationship with the people of Tibet and intervenes in their fate by incarnating as benevolent rulers and teachers such as the Dalai Lamas.

  • [34][85] By now widely regarded as one of Tibet’s greatest saints and scholars[86] he was invited back to Tashilhunpo.

  • [25] In fact, according to the “Birth to Exile” article on the 14th Dalai Lama’s website, he is “the seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a Brahmin boy who
    lived in the time of Buddha Shakyamuni.

  • [81] He also stayed in Kongpo and Dagpo[82] and became known all over Tibet.

  • Once there, in Kham, he founded two more great Gelugpa monasteries, the first in 1580 at Lithang where he left his representative before going on to Chamdo Monastery where
    he resided and was made Abbot.

  • [102] His influence grew so quickly that soon the monks at Sera Monastery also made him their Abbot[34] and his mediation was being sought to prevent fighting between political
    power factions.

  • [17] In fact, this text is said to have laid the foundation for the Tibetans’ later identification of the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara.

  • [4][5] Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist
    values and traditions.

  • [34] The stage was set for the great Mongol King Altan Khan, hearing of his reputation, to invite the 3rd to Mongolia where he converted the King and his followers to Buddhism,
    as well as other Mongol princes and their followers covering a vast tract of central Asia.

  • [126] As a young man, being 22 years his junior, the Dalai Lama addressed him reverentially as “Zhalngo”, meaning “the Presence”.

  • During these years and for the rest of his life (he died in 1658), “there was little doubt that politically Sonam Chophel [Rabten] was more powerful than the Dalai Lama”.

  • [7] The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the fourteenth Dalai

  • [90] The next New Year, the Gongma was so impressed by Gendun Gyatso’s performance leading the Festival that he sponsored construction of a large new residence for him at
    Drepung, ‘a monastery within a monastery’.

  • [41] Establishment of the Dalai Lama lineage[edit] Gendun Drup (1391–1474), a disciple of the founder Je Tsongkapa,[42] was the ordination name of the monk who came to be
    known as the ‘First Dalai Lama’, but only from 104 years after he died.

  • It was the first time a Dalai Lama had exercised such political authority.

  • [95] Gongma Gyaltsen Palzangpo of Khyomorlung at Tolung and his Queen Sangyey Paldzomma also became his favourite devoted lay patrons and disciples in the 1530s and he visited
    their area to carry out rituals as ‘he chose it for his next place of rebirth’.

  • [31] Having reactivated the 1st’s large popular followings in Tsang and Ü,[32] the 2nd then moved on to southern Tibet and gathered more followers there who helped him construct
    a new monastery, Chokorgyel.

  • [123] However, in 1618 Sonam Rabten, the former attendant of the 4th Dalai Lama who had become the Ganden Phodrang treasurer, secretly identified the child,[124] who had been
    born to the noble Zahor family at Tagtse castle, south of Lhasa.

  • [57] Taking advantage of good relations with the nobility and a lack of determined opposition from rival orders, on the very edge of Karma Kagyu-dominated territory he founded
    Tashilhunpo Monastery at Shigatse.

  • [27] First, Tsongkhapa established three great monasteries around Lhasa in the province of Ü before he died in 1419.

  • [28][60] Tashilhunpo was destined to become ‘Southern Tibet’s greatest monastic university'[61] with a complement of 3,000 monks.

  • [97] It was said that, by the time he died, through his disciples and their students, his personal influence covered the whole of Buddhist Central Asia where ‘there was nobody
    of any consequence who did not know of him’.

  • [129] By the mid-1630s, thanks again to the efforts of Sonam Rabten,[123] the 5th Dalai Lama had found a powerful new patron in Güshi Khan of the Khoshut Mongols, a subgroup
    of the Dzungars, who had recently migrated to the Kokonor area from Dzungaria.

  • [123] Apparently by general consensus, by virtue of his position as the Dalai Lama’s changdzo (chief attendant, minister), after the Dalai Lama became absolute ruler of Tibet
    in 1642 Sonam Rabten became the “Desi” or “Viceroy”, in fact, the de facto regent or day-to-day ruler of Tibet’s governmental affairs.

  • [43] Returning eventually to Tibet by a roundabout route and invited to stay and teach all along the way, in 1580 Sonam Gyatso was in Hohhot [or Ningxia], not far from Beijing,
    when the Chinese Emperor invited him to his court.

  • [6] The Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, which was politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond
    sectarian boundaries.

  • [122] 5th Dalai Lama[edit] Main article: 5th Dalai Lama Güshi Khan Map showing the extent of the Khoshut Khanate, 1642–1717, after the Unification of Tibet under the 5th Dalai
    Lama with Sonam Chöphel and Güshi Khan ‘Greater Tibet’ as claimed by exiled groups The death of the Fourth Dalai Lama in 1617 led to open conflict breaking out between various parties.

  • [37] The 4th was then born in Mongolia as the great-grandson of Altan Khan, thus cementing strong ties between Central Asia, the Dalai Lamas, the Gelugpa and Tibet.

  • [100] As proposed by Sonam Gyatso, Altan Khan sponsored the building of Thegchen Chonkhor Monastery at the site of Sonam Gyatso’s open-air teachings given to the whole Mongol

  • [96] Claiming he was Gendun Gyatso and readily recalling events from his previous life, he was recognised as the incarnation, named ‘Sonam Gyatso’ and installed at Drepung,
    where ‘he quickly excelled his teachers in knowledge and wisdom and developed extraordinary powers’.

  • [52] Narthang ran the largest printing press in Tibet[53] and its celebrated library attracted scholars and adepts from far and wide, so Pema Dorje received an education beyond
    the norm at the time as well as exposure to diverse spiritual schools and ideas.

  • [33] He also established the method by which later Dalai Lama incarnations would be discovered through visions at the “oracle lake”, Lhamo Lhatso.

  • [103] His popularity and renown became such that in 1564 when the Nedong King died, it was Sonam Gyatso at the age of 21 who was requested to lead his funeral rites, rather
    than his own Kagyu lamas.

  • [10][11] The Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government afterwards despite that, until 1951.

  • [123] Also in 1618, the Tsangpa King, Karma Puntsok Namgyal, whose Mongol patron was Choghtu Khong Tayiji of the Khalkha Mongols, attacked the Gelugpa in Lhasa to avenge an
    earlier snub and established two military bases there to control the monasteries and the city.

  • [67] Although he was born in a cattle pen to be a simple goatherd, Gendun Drup rose to become one of the most celebrated and respected teachers in Tibet and Central Asia.

  • [89] In 1498 the Ringpung army captured Lhasa and banned the Gelugpa annual New Year Monlam Prayer Festival[89] started by Tsongkhapa for world peace and prosperity.

  • [84] Throughout Gendun Gyatso’s life, the Gelugpa were opposed and suppressed by older rivals, particularly the Karma Kagyu and their Ringpung clan patrons from Tsang, who
    felt threatened by their loss of influence.

  • [43] There had been resistance, since first he was ordained a monk in the Kadampa tradition[33] and for various reasons, for hundreds of years the Kadampa school had eschewed
    the adoption of the tulku system to which the older schools adhered.

  • When his father died in 1398 his mother was unable to support the young goatherd so she entrusted him to his uncle, a monk at Narthang, a major Kadampa monastery near Shigatse,
    for education as a Buddhist monk.

  • In brief, these include a mythology of 36 Indian personalities plus 10 early Tibetan kings and emperors, all said to be previous incarnations of Dromtönpa, and fourteen further
    Nepalese and Tibetan yogis and sages in between him and the 1st Dalai Lama.

  • [20] Origins in myth and legend[edit] Thus, according to such sources, an informal line of succession of the present Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara stretches
    back much further than Gendun Drub.

  • [108] China was also happy to help Altan Khan by providing necessary translations of holy scripture, and also lamas.

  • [38] Finally, in fulfilment of Avalokiteśvara’s master plan, the 5th in the succession used the vast popular power base of devoted followers built up by his four predecessors.

  • This is according to The Book of Kadam, the main text of the Kadampa school, to which the 1st Dalai Lama, Gendun Drup, first belonged.

  • [68] At last, at the age of 84, older than any of his 13 successors, in 1474 he went on foot to visit Narthang Monastery on a final teaching tour.

  • [120] Firstly, the Tsangpa dynasty, rulers of Central Tibet from Shigatse, supporters of the Karmapa school and rivals to the Gelugpa, forbade the search for his incarnation.

  • [105] From there he visited Narthang, the first monastery of Gendun Drup and gave numerous discourses and offerings to the monks in gratitude.

  • [93] Based at Drepung in winter and Chokorgyel in summer, he spent his remaining years in composing commentaries, regional teaching tours, visiting Tashilhunpo from time to
    time and acting as abbot of these four great monasteries.

  • From this time Buddhism spread rapidly across Mongolia[111] and soon the Gelugpa had won the spiritual allegiance of most of the Mongolian tribes.

  • [31] This strong connection caused the Mongols to zealously support the Gelugpa sect in Tibet, strengthening their status and position but also arousing intensified opposition
    from the Gelugpa’s rivals, particularly the Tsang Karma Kagyu in Shigatse and their Mongolian patrons and the Bönpo in Kham and their allies.

  • Through Altan Khan, the 3rd Dalai Lama requested to pay tribute to the Emperor of China in order to raise his State Tutor ranking, the Ming imperial court of China agreed
    with the request.

  • [117] Arriving in Mongolia in 1585, he stayed 2 years with Dhüring Khan, teaching Buddhism to his people[115] and converting more Mongol princes and their tribes.


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2. ^ According to their biographies, the Eighth, Jamphel Gyatso lived to 46 years old, the Ninth, Lungtok Gyatso to 9 years, the Tenth, Tsultrim Gyatso to 21, the Eleventh, Khedrup Gyatso to 17 and the
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111. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 141–142.
112. ^ John
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114. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1996, p. 106.
115. ^
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116. ^ 《明实录》又载:”万历十五年(1587)十月丁卯……番僧答赖(即达赖)准升’朵儿只唱名号,仍给敕命、图书……”
117. ^ Smith 1996, p. 104.
118. ^ Jump up to:a b c Shakabpa 1986, p. 96.
119. ^ Jiawei Wang; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). The Historical Status of China’s Tibet.
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121. ^ Laird 2006, p. 147.
122. ^ John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368–1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 16–. ISBN
123. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Smith 1997, p. 107.
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128. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 198.
129. ^
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130. ^ Karmay 2014, p. 4.
131. ^ Michael Weiers, Geschichte der Mongolen, Stuttgart 2004, p. 182f
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133. ^ Shakabpa 1984, pp. 105–106.
134. ^ Shakabpa 1967, p. 105–111.
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136. ^ Karmay 2014, p. 403.
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138. ^ Shakabpa 2010, p. 1133.
139. ^ René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, New Brunswick 1970, p. 522.
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141. ^
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142. ^ Buswell & Lopez 2014, p. 210.
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144. ^ Karmay, Samten C. (2005). “The Great Fifth” (PDF). The Newsletter. Research. Leiden, the Netherlands: International Institute
for Asian Studies. Winter 2005 (39): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015. Over time the region’s Mongols were completely Tibetanized but continued to enjoy prestige among the Tibetans as Gushri Khan’s descendants
and played a significant role in the Gelug Order’s expansion in Amdo.
145. ^ Hang, Henry Choi Sze (2016). “China, imperial: 8. Qing or Manchu dynasty period, 1636-1911”. The Encyclopedia of Empire. pp. 1–13. doi:10.1002/9781118455074.wbeoe287.
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148. ^ Jump up to:a b c Karmay 2014, p. 309.
149. ^ Jump up to:a b c 王家伟; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). 中国西藏的历史地位.
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150. ^ Karmay 2014, p. 402.
151. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1997, pp. 116–117.
152. ^ Snellgrove & Richardson 1968, p. 197.
153. ^ Stein 1972, p. 84–5.
154. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 1983, p. 244.
155. ^
Laird 2006, pp. 181–182.
156. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 245–256.
157. ^ Karenina Kollmar-Paulenz, Kleine Geschichte Tibets, München 2006, pp. 109–122.
158. ^ Smith 1997, p. 121.
159. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 260–271.
160. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1997,
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161. ^ McKay 2003, p. 569.
162. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 274.
163. ^ Richardson 1984, p. 48.
164. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, p. 276–281.
165. ^ Western Shugden Society. A Great Deception: The Ruling Lamas’ Policies. Tharpa Publications
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169. ^ Smith 1997, pp. 123–5.
170. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 285.
171. ^ Smith 1997, pp. 122–3.
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175. ^ Jump up to:a b Stein 1972, p. 85.
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177. ^ Smith 1997, pp. 124–5.
178. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 289.
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181. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1997, p. 127.
182. ^ Smith 1997, pp. 125–6.
183. ^ Smith 1997, pp. 129–30.
184. ^ Shakabpa 1967, pp. 147–8.
185. ^ Smith 1997, p. 130–132.
186. ^ Van Schaik 2011, p. 144;
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189. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 302, p. 308.
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191. ^ Suhasini Haidar (1 September 2014). “At Lhasa, Tibetans still pray for Dalai Lama’s return”.
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192. ^ “Introduction to The Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka, Tibet”. World Heritage. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015. Norbulingka was built in the 1700s by the seventh
Dalai Lama and served as the regular dwelling of future Dalai Lamas. It is also referred to as the Summer Palace.
193. ^ Smith 1997, pp. 133, 137.
194. ^ 陈庆英 (2005). 达赖喇嘛转世及历史定制英. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0745-3.
195. ^ Jiawei Wang;
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196. ^ 陈庆英 (2005). 达赖喇嘛转世及历史定制英. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0745-3.
197. ^ Jump up to:a b c Jiawei Wang; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). The Historical Status
of China’s Tibet. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-7-80113-304-5.
198. ^ Gaozong. Records of the Qing Emperor Gaozong, Vol. 1186. p. 9.
199. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 323–7.
200. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 328–332.
201. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 333–4.
202. ^ Mullin
2001 pp. 338–9.
203. ^ Richardson 1984, pp. 59–60.
204. ^ Norbu & Turnbull 1968, pp. 311–312.
205. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 343–6.
206. ^ Dhondup 1986, p. iv.
207. ^ Dhondup 1986, p. 3.
208. ^ Laird 2006, p. 197.
209. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 346–8.
210. ^
Shakabpa 1984, p. 172.
211. ^ Wang, Jiawei; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). The Historical Status of China’s Tibet. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-7-80113-304-5.
212. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 348.
213. ^ Shakabpa 1984, p. 173.
214. ^ Richardson 1984, p. 71.
215. ^ “Manning,
Thomas (MNN790T)”. A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
216. ^ Mullin 2001, 349–351.
217. ^ Shakabpa 1984, p. 174.
218. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 352.
219. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1996, p. 138.
220. ^ 陈庆英 (Chen Qingying) (2005).
达赖喇嘛转世及历史定制英. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0745-3.
221. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 353–360.
222. ^ Shakabpa 1984, pp. 174–6.
223. ^ Mullin 2001, 360.
224. ^ Shakabpa 1984, pp. 175–6.
225. ^ “The Second Tsemonling, Ngawang Jampel Tsultrim Gyatso”.
The Treasury of Lives.
226. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, pp. 361–7.
227. ^ Jump up to:a b Shakabpa 1984, pp. 176–181.
228. ^ 陈庆英 (Chen Qingying) (2005). 达赖喇嘛转世及历史定制英. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0745-3.
229. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Mullin
2001, pp. 367–373.
230. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Shakabpa 1984, pp. 188–9.
231. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1997, p. 140.
232. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 373–375.
233. ^ Shakabpa 1984, p. 191.
234. ^ 光绪三年(一八七七年),由八世班禅丹白旺秀和摄政王公德林呼图克图、三大寺和扎什伦布寺的全体僧俗官员,联名要求驻藏大臣转奏朝廷,以只选定了一名灵童,且经各方公认,请免予金瓶制签。当年三月,光绪帝谕旨:”贡噶仁钦之子罗布藏塔布开甲木措,即作为达赖喇嘛之呼毕勒罕,毋庸制签,钦此。”
[In the third year of Guangxu (1877), the eighth Panchen Lama Danbai Wangxiu and the regent Delin Hutuktu, all monks and lay officials from the Three Great Temples and Tashilhunpo Monastery jointly asked the Minister in Tibet to transfer to the court.
Since only one soul boy has been selected, and it has been recognized by all parties, please be exempt from signing the golden bottle. In March of that year, Emperor Guangxu issued a decree: “Lob Zangtab, son of Gongga Rinqin, opened Jiamucuo, that
is, as the call of the Dalai Lama, Bielehan, there is no need to make a lottery.”]
235. ^ Sheel 1989, pp. 24, 29.
236. ^ Darjeeling Unlimited :: Tibetan Declaration of Independence
237. ^ Nepal UN App – Legal Materials on Tibet
238. ^ The
Forgotten History of Tibet’s Role in Nepal’s 1949 UN Application | Bodrigpunda Association
239. ^ Norbu & Turnbull 1968, pp. 317–318.
240. ^ Laird 2006, p. 261.
241. ^ Sturcke, James. “Dalai Lama defies China over successor”. The Guardian.
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242. ^ Nagle, Jeanne (15 July 2014). The Dalai Lama: Spiritual Leader of the Tibetan People. ISBN 9781622754410. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
243. ^ Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee (20
July 2008). Human Rights Annual Report 2007: Ninth Report of Session 2007–08, Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence. The Stationery Office. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-0-215-52193-4.
244. ^ 統一論壇. 統一論壇雜誌社. 2008. |quote=据统计,民主改革前,十四世达赖喇嘛家族在西藏占有
27 座庄园、 30 个牧场,拥有农 牧奴 6000 多人
245. ^ 司仁; 格旺 (1977). 十四世达赖喇嘛. ISBN 9787801132987. |quote=拉萨西北50公里处的堆龙德庆县色村,民主改革前是十四世达赖喇嘛家的庄园。当时庄囩里20户差巴(农奴)。
246. ^ 1940年2月5日,国民政府正式颁发命令:”青海灵童拉木登珠,慧性湛深,灵异特著,查系第十三辈达赖喇嘛转世,应即免予抽签,特准继任为第十四辈达赖喇嘛。此令。” [On February 5,
1940, the National Government formally issued an order: “The Qinghai soul boy, Lamu Dengzhu, has profound wisdom, and a special book. The reincarnation of the 13th generation of the Dalai Lama should be exempted from drawing lots and succeeded to
the 14th generation of Dalai Lama. By order.”]
247. ^ “Executive Yuan’s Report to the National Government Regarding the Request to Approve Lhamo Thondup to Succeed the Fourteenth Dalai lama and to Appropriate Expenditure for His Enthronement”.
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248. ^ Regina A. Corso (29 May 2013). “The Dalai Lama, President Obama and Pope Francis at Highest Levels of Popularity in U.S. and Five Largest
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250. ^ Powers,
John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People’s Republic of China (2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517426-7
251. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein (August 2007). A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm Before the Storm: 1951–1955.
University of California Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-520-24941-7. Your Holiness will understand, of course, that the readiness of the United States to render you the assistance and support outlined above is conditional upon your departure from Tibet,
upon your public disavowal of agreements concluded under duress between the representatives of Tibet and those of the Chinese Communist aggression.
252. ^ Tibet in Exile Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, CTA Official website. Retrieved
15 December 2010.
253. ^ Dalai Lama Intends To Retire As Head of Tibetan State In Exile by Mihai-Silviu Chirila (23 November 2010), Metrolic. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
254. ^ “Dalai Lama Group Says It Got Money From C.I.A.” The New York Times. 2 October
255. ^ Burke, Denis (27 November 2008). “Tibetans stick to the ‘middle way'”. Asia Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
256. ^ Saxena, Shobhan (31 October 2009). “The burden of being Dalai Lama”.
The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. If the middle path fails in the short term, we will be forced to opt for complete independence or self-determination as per the UN charter
257. ^ “Dalai
Lama says Tibet wants to remain part of China”.
258. ^ “We want to stay within China: His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet”. 19 November 2016.
259. ^ “Dalai Lama says ‘Europe belongs to Europeans'”. France 24. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 14
September 2018.
260. ^ “Exclusive: Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death”. Reuters. 19 March 2019.
261. ^ “Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death”. The Times of India. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
262. ^ Xia, Xiaohua.
“The Dalai Lama emphasizes that he does not support Tibetan independence and hopes to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner”. RFA. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
263. ^ Shakabpa 1984, pp. 112–113.
264. ^
Laird 2006, p. 177.
265. ^ “Dispatches from the Tibetan Front: Dharamshala, India,” Litia Perta, The Brooklyn Rail, 4 April 2008
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267. ^ Buckley, Chris
(11 March 2015). “China’s Tensions With Dalai Lama Spill into the Afterlife”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022.
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269. ^ The title “Dalai Lama” was conferred posthumously to the 1st and 2nd Dalai Lamas.
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Dalai Lama. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
271. ^ Chapman, F. Spencer. (1940). Lhasa: The Holy City, p. 127. Readers Union Ltd. London.
272. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 276.
273. ^ Glenn H. Mullin, “Faces of the Dalai Lama: Reflections on the Man and the Tradition,”
Quest, vol. 6, no. 3, Autumn 1993, p. 80.
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276. ^ “Murder in Tibet’s High Places”.
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279. ^
“Reincarnation of living Buddha needs gov’t approval”. China Daily. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
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284. ^ “Dalai’s reincarnation will not be found under Chinese control”. Government of
Tibet in Exile ex Indian Express 6 July 1999. Archived from the original on 12 July 2009.
285. ^ Kaplan, Robert D. (May–June 2010). “The Geography of Chinese Power”. Foreign Affairs.
286. ^ Haas, Michaela (18 March 2013). “Why is there no female
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287. ^ Puri, Bharati (2006) “Engaged Buddhism – The Dalai Lama’s Worldview” New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006
288. ^ Haas, Michaela (2013). “Dakini Power: Twelve Extraordinary Women Shaping the
Transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in the West.” Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1559394072
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3. Buswell, Robert
E.; Lopez, Donald S. Jr., eds. (2014). Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.
4. Cantwell, C.; Kawanami, H. (2016). “Buddhism”. In Woodhead, L.; Partridge, C.; Kawanami, H. (eds.). Religions
in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations. ISBN 9780415858816.
5. David-Neel, A. (1965). Magic & Mystery in Tibet. Corgi Books.London. ISBN 0-552-08745-9.
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Tibetan Works and Archives.
7. Dhondup, K. (1986). The Water-Bird and Other Years. New Delhi: Rangwang Publishers.
8. Dowman, Keith (1988). The power-places of Central Tibet : the pilgrim’s guide. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0.
9. Kapstein,
Matthew (2006). The Tibetans. Malden, MA, USA. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9780631225744.
10. The Illusive Play: The Autobiography of the Fifth Dalai Lama [aka ‘Dukula’]. Translated by Karmay, Samten G. Serindia Publications. Chicago. 2014. ISBN
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Glenn H. (1982). Selected Works of the Dalai Lama VII: Songs of Spiritual Change (2nd ed., 1985). Snow Lion Publications, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-937938-30-0.
14. Mullin, Glenn H. (1983). Selected Works of the Dalai Lama III: Essence of Refined Gold
(2nd ed., 1985). Snow Lion Publications, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-937938-29-7.
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Turnbull, Colin M. (1968). Tibet. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-20559-5.
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Tibet. A History. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
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20. Schwieger, Peter (2014). The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of
China: a political history of the Tibetan institution of reincarnation. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-53860-2. OCLC 905914446.
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(1984), Singapore: Potala Publications. ISBN 0961147415.
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23. Sheel,
R N Rahul (1989). “The Institution of the Dalai Lama”. The Tibet Journal. 14 (3).
24. Smith, Warren W. (1997). Tibetan Nation; A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. New Delhi: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2.
25. Snellgrove,
David; Richardson, Hugh (1986). A Cultural History of Tibet. Boston & London: Shambala Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-87773-354-6.
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27. Diki
Tsering (2001). Dalai Lama, my son : a mother’s story. London: Virgin. ISBN 0-7535-0571-1.
28. Veraegen, Ardy (2002). The Dalai Lamas : the Institution and its history. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. ISBN 978-8124602027.
29. Ya, Hanzhang (1991).
The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas (1st ed.). Beijing: Foreign Language Press. ISBN 978-7119012674.
Photo credit:’]




ias 37


  • [6] The amendments were controversial for setting out rules on how entities would account for legal cases in their financial statements; it would require firms to recognize
    the contingent liability as a weighted average of the possible outcomes of a legal case.

  • [3] Overview Provisions[edit] IAS 37 establishes the definition of a provision as a “liability of uncertain timing or amount”, and requires that all the following conditions
    be fulfilled before a provision can be recognized: 1. the entity currently has a liability as a result of a past event; 2. an outflow of resources is likely to be needed to settle the liability; and 3. the amount of the obligation can be estimated

  • It sets out the accounting and disclosure requirements for provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets, with several exceptions,[1] establishing the important
    principle that a provision is to be recognized only when the entity has a liability.

  • [4] The standard also details measurement methods for provisions, generally requiring that the entity recognises a best estimate of the amounts needed to settle the obligation.

  • [7] In 2018, the IASB issued an exposure draft to provide specific requirements on what constitutes ‘unavoidable costs’ in the definition of onerous contract in IAS 37.


Works Cited

[‘IFRS Foundation, 2012. International Accounting Standard 37: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Retrieved on April 24, 2012.
2. ^ Deloitte Global Services Limited, 2012. IAS 37 — Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent
Assets. Retrieved on April 24, 2012.
3. ^ Williams J, 1999. IAS 37, PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS Archived 2012-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on April 25, 2012.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b IASC Foundation, 2009. IAS
37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets Archived 2011-11-19 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on April 25, 2012.
5. ^ PWC, 2012. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities, and Contingent Assets. Retrieved on April 25, 2012.
6. ^ IFRS
Foundation, 2012. Liabilities – amendments to IAS 37 (Paused). Retrieved on April 24, 2012.
7. ^ Christodoulou M, 2012. IAS 37 rule on legal costs set to cause confusion. Retrieved on April 24, 2012.
8. ^ “Onerous Contracts — Cost of Fulfilling
a Contract (Amendments to IAS 37)”. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
Photo credit:’]




scottish shortbread


  • [2] Shapes Shortbread is commonly formed into one of three shapes: • one large circle, which is divided into segments as soon as it is taken out of the oven (petticoat tails,
    which may have been named from the French petits cotés, a pointed biscuit eaten with wine, or petites gastelles, the old French for little cakes.

  • [16] In British English, shortbread and shortcake were synonyms for several centuries, starting in the 1400s; both referred to the crisp, crumbly cookie-type baked good, rather
    than a softer cake.

  • Shortbread or shortie is a traditional Scottish biscuit usually made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three to four parts plain wheat flour.

  • [19] An early variety of shortbread, using ginger, was reportedly eaten during sittings of the Parliament of Scotland, and therefore the variety was sometimes called “Parliament
    cake” or “Parlies” into the 19th century.

  • [2][need quotation to verify] Modern recipes also often deviate from the original by splitting the sugar into equal parts granulated and icing sugar and many add a portion
    of salt.

  • In Scotland, it was traditional to break a decorated shortbread cake (infar-cake or dreaming bread) over the head of a new bride on the entrance of her new house.

  • The related word “shortening” refers to any fat that may be added to produce a “short” (crumbly) texture.

  • [2] Name Shortbread is so named because of its crumbly texture (from an old meaning of the word “short”, as opposed to “long”, or stretchy).

  • [22][23] In the UK tax code, shortbread is taxed as a flour confection (baked good) rather than as a common biscuit.

  • This term may also reference the shape of a woman’s petticoat[2]); • individual round biscuits (shortbread rounds); or • a thick (¾” or 2 cm) oblong slab cut into fingers.

  • [17] The “short-cake” mentioned in Shakespeare’s play The Merry Wives of Windsor, first published in 1602, was a reference to the cookie-style of shortbread.


Works Cited

[‘”Glycemic index for 60+ foods”. 2018-03-14. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Brown, Catherine (2015-04-01). “Shortbread”. The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-931362-4.
3. ^
“History of Shortbread”. English Tea Store. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
4. ^ Timothy G. Roufs & Kathleen Smyth Roufs, Sweet Treats around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture (Santa Barbara, 2014), p. 290.
5. ^ ‘Petticoat’, Dictionaries
of the Scots Language
6. ^ Emma Kay, A History of British Baking: From Blood Bread to Bake-Off (Pen & Sword, 2020) p. 32.
7. ^ Hyslop, Leah. “Potted histories: shortbread”. The Telegraph. No. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
8. ^
Historic UK – heritage of Britain accommodation guide. “Scottish Shortbread”. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
9. ^ “History of Shortbread & Shortbread Recipes”. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
10. ^ “Dictionary of the Scots Language::
SND :: infare”.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b “Dictionary of the Scots Language:: DOST :: schort adj”.
12. ^ “Dictionary of the Scots Language:: SND :: dreamingbread”.
13. ^ McNeill, F. Marian (1929). The Scots Kitchen (2006 ed.). Blackie & Son Ltd.
pp. 193–4. ISBN 978-1-84183-070-4.
14. ^ “Dictionary of the Scots Language:: DOST :: schort breid”.
15. ^ “Of edible substances: Friable, easily crumbled.” Oxford English Dictionary.
16. ^ “Online Etymology Dictionary”. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
17. ^
Jump up to:a b c d e Mariani, John F. (2014-02-04). Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 1034. ISBN 978-1-62040-161-3.
18. ^ Clarkson, Janet (2015-04-01). “Shortcake”. The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford
University Press. p. 1093. ISBN 978-0-19-931362-4.
19. ^ “Chef John Quigley discusses and bakes Scottish Shortbread”. 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
20. ^ Jamieson, John (1841). An etymological dictionary of the Scottish language
(2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Andrew Shortrede. p. 191. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
21. ^ The Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson. Oxford University Press, 2014 [1]
22. ^ Chambers, Robert (October 27, 1825). “Traditions of Edinburgh”. W. & C. Tait – via
Google Books.
23. ^ “Traditional Scottish Recipes – “Parlies””. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
Photo credit:’]






  • [1] Type: Daily newspaper; Format: Compact; Owner(s): Handelsblatt Media Group; Founded: 16 May 1946; 76 years ago; Political alignment: Economic liberalism; Language: German:
    Headquarters: Düsseldorf; Circulation: 127,546 (Print, 2018) 42,000 (Digital, 2018); ISSN: 0017-7296 History and profile Handelsblatt was established in 1946 by journalist Herbert Gross, but after some months Friedrich Vogel (1902–1976) became

  • [11] Handelsblatt Today[edit] An English-language digital edition was launched in 2014, called Handelsblatt Global Edition, which aimed to reach an international audience
    interested in German business and finance news.

  • The Handelsblatt (literally “commerce paper” in English) is a German-language business newspaper published in Düsseldorf by Handelsblatt Media Group, formerly known as Verlagsgruppe

  • [12] In 2017, under a new editor-in-chief, Andreas Kluth, the publication avoided the direct translation of German-language articles and instead worked through differences
    between German and Anglophone journalistic traditions to add details that English readers were accustomed to.

  • [4] Its publisher, Handelsblatt Media Group, also publishes the weekly business magazine Wirtschaftswoche[5] of which the editor-in-chief is Beat Balzli.

  • [7] Since September 2005 Handelsblatt has been offering an online lexicon called WirtschaftsWiki[8] which features definitions of terms used in economics and politics.


Works Cited

[‘o “Verlagsgruppe Handelsblatt übernimmt Konferenzveranstalter und benennt sich um”.
o ^ Carsten Croonenbroeck; Roman Matkovskyy (July 2013). “Is the Market Held by Institutional Investors? The Disposition Effect Revisited” (Discussion paper. No:
338). European University Viadrina Frankfurt. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
o ^ Robert G. Picard, ed. (2002). Media Firms: Structures, Operations, and Performance. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 61. Archived from the original on 26 December
o ^ “Sebastian Matthes wird neuer Handelsblatt-Chefredakteur”. 25 November 2020.
o ^ “Handelsblatt and WiWo continue to lead the German market”. Advance Media. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
o ^
“Beat Balzli wird Chefredakteur der ‘Wirtschaftswoche'”.
o ^ “German Online Newspapers and Magazines”. Almania Information Center. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
o ^ “Wirtschaftslexikon”. Handelsblatt.
Retrieved 3 February 2015.
o ^ “English summary” Archived 3 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine of the ranking
o ^ “References”. Tolerans. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
o ^ “IVW – Informationsgemeinschaft zur Feststellung der Verbreitung von Werbeträgern
e.V”. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
o ^ “”Handelsblatt” bringt englischsprachige Ausgabe an den Start”. Focus Online. Hubert Burda Media. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
o ^ Kluth, Andreas (27 February 2019).
“Farewell: What I learned about journalism while running Handelsblatt Today”. Handelsblatt Today. Handelsblatt GmbH. Archived from the original on 5 December 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
o ^ Kluth, Andreas (1 November 2018). “Handelsblatt Today:
About us”. Handelsblatt Today. Handelsblatt GmbH. Archived from the original on 5 December 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
o ^ “AstraZeneca says reports of 8% coronavirus vaccine efficacy in seniors are ‘incorrect'”. Global News. Retrieved 26
January 2021.
o ^ Boytchev, Hristio (12 February 2021). “Why did a German newspaper insist the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine was inefficacious for older people—without evidence?”. BMJ. 372: n414. doi:10.1136/bmj.n414. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 33579678.
o ^
“German paper’s excruciating Oxford vaccine muddle | the Spectator”. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
o ^ “Pandemie-Bekämpfung: Rückschlag bei Corona-Impfstoff: Astra-Zeneca-Vakzin wirkt bei Senioren offenbar kaum”.
(in German). Retrieved 26 January 2021.
o ^ Correspondent, Joe Barnes, Brussels (26 January 2021). “German Health Ministry DENIES bombshell vaccine claims – says Berlin paper messed up stats”. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
o ^ Boytchev,
Hristio (2021). “Why did a German newspaper insist the Oxford Astra Zeneca vaccine was inefficacious for older people—without evidence?”. BMJ. 372: n414. doi:10.1136/bmj.n414. PMID 33579678. S2CID 231884653.
Photo credit:’]






  • [24] • Type: Public; Traded as: NYSE: XON (1973-1999)[1], NYSE: XOM (1999-), S&P 100 component, S&P 500 component; ISIN: US30231G1022; Industry: Energy: Oil and gas; Predecessor:
    Standard Oil, Mobil; Founded: August 5, 1882; 140 years ago (as Standard Oil of New Jersey)[2] ; Founder: Split from Standard Oil by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1911; merged with Mobil in 1999 to form present name; Headquarters:
    Irving, Texas, USA (1989-2023), Spring, Texas, USA (2023–) [3] ; Area served: Worldwide; Key people: Darren Woods (chairman & CEO); Products: Crude oil, Oil products, Natural gas, Petrochemicals, Power generation; Brands: Coolanol, Esso, Mobil,
    On the Run, Speedpass; Revenue: US$276.692 billion (2021)[4] ; Operating income: US$24.019 billion (2021)[4] ; Net income: US$23.040 billion (2021)[4] ; Total assets: US$338.923 billion (2021)[4] ; Total equity: US$168.577 billion (2021)[4]
    ; Number of employees: 64,000 (2021)[4] ; Subsidiaries: Aera Energy, Exxon Neftegas, ExxonMobil Australia, ExxonMobil Nigeria, Imperial Oil, SeaRiver Maritime, XTO Energy History ExxonMobil traces its roots to Vacuum Oil Company, founded in
    the 1860s.

  • It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil,[8] and was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil, both of which are used
    as retail brands, alongside Esso, for fueling stations and downstream products today.

  • [26][13] Operations ExxonMobil is the largest non-government-owned company in the energy industry and produces about 3% of the world’s oil and about 2% of the world’s energy.

  • [57][58] Corporate affairs Financial data[edit] According to Fortune Global 500, ExxonMobil was the second largest company, second largest publicly held corporation, and the
    largest oil company in the United States by 2017 revenue.

  • [40][41] Retail[edit] ExxonMobil’s primary retail brands worldwide are Exxon, Esso, Mobil, with the former being used exclusively in the United States and the latter two being
    used in most other countries where ExxonMobil operates.

  • [16] ExxonMobil is the largest investor-owned oil company in the world, the largest oil company headquartered in the Western world, and the largest of the Big Oil companies
    in both production and market value.

  • The entity today known as ExxonMobil grew out of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (or Jersey Standard for short), the corporate entity which effectively controlled all
    of Standard Oil prior to its breakup.

  • Jersey Standard grew alongside and with extensive partnership another Standard Oil descendant and its future merger partner, the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony),
    both of which grew bigger by merging with various third companies like Humble Oil (which merged with Jersey Standard) and Vacuum Oil (merged with Socony).

  • [13] One of the world’s largest companies by revenue, ExxonMobil since its merger varied from the first to tenth largest publicly traded company by revenue, and has one of
    the largest market capitalizations out of any company.

  • [90][needs update] According to the 2021 Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index (AERI), ExxonMobil is ranked as the 6th most environmentally responsible company among 120
    oil, gas, and mining companies involved in resource extraction north of the Arctic Circle.

  • Vacuum Oil later merged with the Standard Oil Company of New York, which later changed its name to Mobil and merged with Exxon (originally the Standard Oil Company of New
    Jersey) in 1999.

  • [51][52][53][54] Low Carbon Solutions[edit] Officially formed with ExxonMobil’s 2022 corporate restructuring, and currently led by former General Motors president Dan Ammann,
    Low Carbon Solutions is the company’s alternative energy division.

  • [55][56] ExxonMobil publicly announced it would be investing $15 billion in what it deemed a “lower carbon future”, and claims to be the world leader in carbon capture and

  • [87][88]As of 2005, ExxonMobil had committed less than 1% of their profits towards researching alternative energy,[89] which, according to the advocacy organization Ceres,
    is less than other leading oil companies.

  • However, the structure of the merger provided that Exxon was the surviving company, rather than a new company being created.

  • The company’s activities, along with other operations and refineries in the area, have been the source of increased cancer infections, lower air quality, and as seen by some,
    potential environmental racism committed by the company.

  • [11][12] ExxonMobil’s earliest corporate ancestor was Vacuum Oil Company, though Standard Oil is its largest ancestor prior to its breakup.

  • ExxonMobil additionally acquired biofuel company Biojet AS in 2022, and its Canadian subsidiary Imperial Oil is moving ahead with plans to produce a renewable diesel biofuel.

  • [38] Outside of the United States, Esso and Mobil are primarily used, with Esso operating in 14 countries and Mobil operating in 29 countries and regions.

  • With the merger, the two companies practically merged, with the new company’s name containing both of the trade names of its immediate predecessors.

  • Exxon is the primary brand in the rest of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas (shared with Mobil),
    and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states.

  • Since 2018, the company additionally has operated a loyalty program, ExxonMobil Rewards+, where customers earn rewards points when filling up at its stations in the US and
    later the UK.

  • [32] In California, it has a joint venture called Aera Energy LLC with Shell Oil.

  • The company is vertically-integrated across the entire oil and gas industry, and within it is also a chemicals division which produces plastic, synthetic rubber, and other
    chemical products.

  • [46] Sponsorships[edit] Main article: Mobil 1 Mobil 1, a brand of synthetic motor oil, is a major sponsor of multiple racing teams and as the official motor oil of NASCAR
    since 2003.

  • It also owns hundreds of smaller subsidiaries such as XTO Energy and SeaRiver Maritime.

  • [28] • Upstream (oil exploration, extraction, shipping, and wholesale operations) • Product Solutions (downstream, chemical) • Low Carbon Solutions [29] Upstream[edit] The
    upstream division makes up the majority of ExxonMobil’s revenue, accounting for approximately 70% of it.

  • ExxonMobil Corporation[a] (commonly shortened to Exxon[5][6][7]) is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.

  • Mobil is ExxonMobil’s primary retail gasoline brand in California, Florida, New York, New England, the Great Lakes, and the Midwest.

  • [36] Product Solutions[edit] ExxonMobil formed its Product Solutions division in 2022, combining its previously-separate Downstream and Chemical divisions into a single company.

  • The company announced Hooley would become the new lead independent director.

  • [20][21] Approximately 55.56% of the company’s shares are held by institutions, the largest of which as of 2019 were The Vanguard Group (8.15%), BlackRock (6.61%), and State
    Street Corporation (4.83%).

  • ExxonMobil also has a majority ownership stake in Imperial Oil.

  • Both companies underwent rebranding in the 1960s and early 1970s, and by the time of the 1999 merger, Jersey Standard had been known as Exxon, and Socony known as Mobil.

  • These divisions are grouped into three categories for reference purposes, though the company also has several standalone divisions, such as Coal & Minerals.

  • [91] The company’s activities gained international notoriety from many incidents, most notably the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1979.

  • ExxonMobil’s largest refinery in the United States is its Baytown Refinery, located in Baytown, Texas, and its largest refinery overall is its Jurong Island facility in Singapore;
    these two refineries combined output over 1.15 million barrels of oil per day.

  • The company’s corporate ancestors are also blamed for the outbreak of the 1954 Jebel Akhdar War, which was sparked by the Iraq Petroleum Company’s activities.

  • Esso is the only one of its brands not used widely in the United States.

  • In 2021, ExxonMobil’s global average refining capacity was 4.6 million barrels per day, with the United States producing a plurality of the company’s refining capacity at
    about 1.77 million barrels per day.


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Photo credit:’]




mordecai richler


  • [32] Published works Novels[edit] • The Acrobats (1954) (also published as Wicked We Love, July 1955) • Son of a Smaller Hero (1955) • A Choice of Enemies (1957) • The Apprenticeship
    of Duddy Kravitz (1959) • The Incomparable Atuk (1963) • Cocksure (1968) • St. Urbain’s Horseman (1971) • Joshua Then and Now (1980) • Solomon Gursky Was Here (1989) • Barney’s Version (1997) Short story collection[edit] • The Street (1969)
    Fiction for children[edit] Jacob Two-Two series[33] • Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang (Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), illustrated by Fritz Wegner • Jacob Two-Two and the Dinosaur (1987) • Jacob Two-Two’s First Spy Case (1995) Travel[edit] • Images
    of Spain (1977) • This Year in Jerusalem (1994) Essays[edit] • Hunting Tigers Under Glass: Essays and Reports (1968) • Shovelling Trouble (1972) • Notes on an Endangered Species and Others (1974) • The Great Comic Book Heroes and Other Essays
    (1978) • Home Sweet Home: My Canadian Album (1984) • Broadsides (1991) • Belling the Cat (1998) • Oh Canada!

  • • 1990 Commonwealth Writers Prize for Solomon Gursky was Here • 1995 Mr. Christie’s Book Award (for the best English book age 8 to 11) for Jacob Two-Two’s First Spy Case.

  • • 2001 Companion of the Order of Canada • 2004 Number 98 on the CBC’s television show about great Canadians, The Greatest Canadian • 2004 Barney’s Version was chosen for inclusion
    in Canada Reads 2004, championed by author Zsuzsi Gartner.

  • Richler moved to Paris at age nineteen, intent on following in the footsteps of a previous generation of literary exiles, the so-called Lost Generation of the 1920s, many
    of whom were from the United States.

  • Biography Early life and education[edit] The son of Lily (née Rosenberg) and Moses Isaac Richler,[1] a scrap metal dealer, Richler was born on January 27, 1931, in Montreal,
    Quebec,[2][3] and raised on St. Urbain Street in that city’s Mile End area.

  • • 1976 Canadian Library Association Book of the Year for Children Award: Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang.

  • [26] One critic controversially claimed that Richler had been paid by Jewish groups to write his critical essay on Quebec.

  • [9][10] Critics took particular exception to Richler’s well-founded allegations of a long history of anti-Semitism in Quebec.

  • He is also well known for the Jacob Two-Two fantasy series for children.

  • Requiem for a Divided Country (1992) • Dispatches from the Sporting Life (2002) Nonfiction[edit] • On Snooker: The Game and the Characters Who Play It (2001) Anthologies[edit]
    • Canadian Writing Today (1970) • The Best of Modern Humour (1986) (U.S. title: The Best of Modern Humor) • Writers on World War II (1991) Film scripts • Insomnia Is Good for You (1957) (co-written with Lewis Griefer ) • Dearth of a Salesman
    (1957, starring Peter Sellers ) (co-written with Lewis Griefer ) • No Love for Johnnie (1962) (co-written with Nicholas Phipps, based on the novel by Wilfred Fienburgh) • Life at the Top (1965) (screenplay from novel by John Braine) • The
    Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (1974) (Screenwriters Guild Award and Oscar screenplay nomination) • The Street (1976)[34] (Oscar nomination) • Fun with Dick and Jane (1977, with David Giler & Jerry Belson, from a story by Gerald Gaiser) •
    The Wordsmith (1979) • Joshua Then and Now (1985) • Barney’s Version (2010, screenplay by Michael Konyves, based on Richler’s novel of the same name; Richler wrote an early draft)

  • He wrote repeatedly about the Anglophone community of Montreal and especially about his former neighbourhood, portraying it in multiple novels.

  • He published seven of his ten novels, as well as considerable journalism, while living in London.

  • Richler frequently said his goal was to be an honest witness to his time and place, and to write at least one book that would be read after his death.

  • In addition to his fiction, Richler wrote numerous essays about the Jewish community in Canada, and about Canadian and Quebec nationalism.

  • • The animator Caroline Leaf created The Street (1976), based on Richler’s 1969 short story of the same name.

  • — The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, Penguin Books, 1964, p. 13 Following the publication of Duddy Kravitz, according to The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, Richler
    became “one of the foremost writers of his generation”.

  • [27] About the same time, Richler announced he had founded the “Impure Wool Society,” to grant the Prix Parizeau to a distinguished non-Francophone writer of Quebec.

  • [24] Richler received death threats;[25] an anti-Semitic Francophone journalist yelled at one of his sons, “[I]f your father was here, I’d make him relive the Holocaust right

  • Journalism constituted an important part of his career, bringing him income between novels and films.

  • • 1998 Stephen Leacock Award for Humour for Barney’s Version • 1998 Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best Book (Canada & Caribbean region) for Barney’s Version • 1998 The QSPELL
    Award for Barney’s Version.

  • • 2006 Cocksure was chosen for inclusion in Canada Reads 2006, championed by actor and author Scott Thompson • 2011 Richler posthumously received a star on Canada’s Walk of
    Fame and was inducted at the Elgin Theatre in Toronto.

  • [31] • 2015 Richler was given his due as a “citizen of honour” in the city of Montreal.

  • (Mordecai Richler’s grandfather and Lily Richler’s father was Rabbi Yehudah Yudel Rosenberg, a celebrated rabbi in both Poland and Canada and a prolific author of many religious
    texts, as well as religious fiction and non-fiction works on science and history geared for religious communities.)

  • • In 2003 Jacob Two-Two was adapted into an animated series of the same name loosely based on the titular character of the book series.

  • [6] Journalism career Throughout his career, Richler wrote journalistic commentary, and contributed to The Atlantic Monthly, Look, The New Yorker, The American Spectator,
    and other magazines.

  • • 1976 Ruth Schwartz Children’s Book Award for Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang.

  • In it, he claimed the PQ had borrowed the Hitler Youth song “Tomorrow Belongs to Me” from Cabaret for their anthem “À partir d’aujourd’hui, demain nous appartient”,[12][13]
    though he later acknowledged his error on the song, blaming himself for having “cribbed” the information from an article by Irwin Cotler and Ruth Wisse published in the American magazine, Commentary.

  • Another favourite Richler target was the government-subsidized Canadian literary movement of the 1970s and 1980s.

  • To a middle-class stranger, it is true, one street would have seemed as squalid as the next.

  • Richler was often critical of Quebec but of Canadian federalism as well.

  • [28] In 2010, Montreal city councillor Marvin Rotrand presented a 4,000-signature petition calling on the city to honour Richler on the 10th anniversary of his death with
    the renaming of a street, park or building in Richler’s old Mile End neighbourhood.

  • [20] She found that some critics had misquoted his work; for instance, in reference to the mantra of the entwined church and state coaxing females to procreate as vastly as
    possible, a section in which he said that Quebec women were treated like “sows” was misinterpreted to suggest that Richler thought they were sows.


Works Cited

[‘”Mordecai Richler Biography”. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Depalma, Anthony (July 4, 2001). “Mordecai Richler, Novelist Who Showed a Street-Smart Montreal, Is Dead at 70”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November
5, 2021.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Foran, Charles (March 4, 2015). “Mordecai Richler”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
o ^ Brownfeld, Allan C. (March 22, 1999). “Growing intolerance threatens humane Jewish tradition”. Washington Report on
Middle East Affairs. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
o ^ McNay, Michael (July 5, 2001). “Mordecai Richler”. The Guardian.
o ^ “Nancy Richler novel meticulous study of Jews in postwar Montreal”. Winnipeg Free Press. April 24, 2012.
o ^ Brown, Ruseell
(1997). “Richler, Mordecai”. In Benson, Eugene; Toye, William (eds.). The Oxford Companion to Literature (2 ed.). Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. p. 1000.
o ^ “Mordecai Richler: an obituary tribute by Robert Fulford”.
July 4, 2001. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
o ^ Steyn, Mark (September 2001). “Mordecai Richler, 1931–2001”. New Criterion. 20 (1): 123–128.
o ^ See the following authored by Richler:
• “Fighting words”. New York Times Book Review. Vol. 146, no.
50810. June 1, 1997. p. 8.
• “Tired of separatism”. The New York Times. Vol. 144, no. 49866. October 31, 1994. p. A19.
• “O Quebec”. The New Yorker. Vol. 70, no. 15. May 30, 1994. p. 50.
• “On Language: Gros Mac attack”. New York Times Magazine.
Vol. 142, no. 49396. July 18, 1993. p. 10.
• “Language Problems”. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. 251, no. 6. June 1983. p. 10-18.
• “OH! CANADA! Lament for a divided country”. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. 240, no. 6. December 1977. p. 34.
o ^ Jump up to:a
b Conlogue, Ray (June 26, 2002). “Oh Canada, Oh Quebec, Oh Richler”. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
o ^ Richler, Mordecai (December 1977). “OH! CANADA! Lament for a divided country”. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. 240, no. 6. p. 34.
o ^ “Video:
Controverse autour du livre Oh Canada Oh Québec!”. Archives. Société Radio-Canada. March 31, 1992. Retrieved September 22, 2006.
o ^ Foglia, Pierre (December 16, 2000). “Faut arrêter de freaker”. La Presse.
o ^ Smith, Donald (1997). D’une nation
à l’autre: des deux solitudes à la cohabitation. Montreal: Éditions Alain Stanké. p. 56.
o ^ Smart, Pat (May 1992). “Daring to Disagree with Mordecai”. Canadian Forum. p. 8.
o ^ Johnson, William (July 7, 2001). “Oh, Mordecai. Oh, Quebec”. The
Globe and Mail.
o ^ “Le Grand Silence”. Le Devoir. March 28, 1992.
o ^ Richler, Trudeau, “Lasagne et les autres”, October 22, 1991. Le Devoir
o ^ Sarah Scott, Geoff Baker, “Richler Doesn’t Know Quebec, Belanger Says; Writer ‘Doesn’t Belong’,
Chairman of Panel on Quebec’s Future Insists”, The Gazette, September 20, 1991.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Khouri, Nadia. Qui a peur de Mordecai Richler. Montréal: Éditions Balzac, 1995. ISBN 9782921425537
o ^ “Hitting below the belt.”, By: Barbara Amiel,
Maclean’s, August 13, 2001, Vol. 114, Issue 33
o ^ Ricou, above
o ^ Khouri, above, Scott et al., above, Delisle cited in Kraft, below
o ^ Noah Richler, “A Just Campaign”, The New York Times, October 7, 2001, p. AR4
o ^ Michel Vastel, “Le
cas Richler”. L’actualité, November 1, 1996, p.66
o ^ Frances Kraft, “Esther Delisle”, The Canadian Jewish News, April 1, 1993, p. 6
o ^ Siemens: “Canadian Literary Awards and Prizes”, The Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada Archived February
5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
o ^ “Mordecai Richler would have enjoyed Montreal memorial controversy”. Toronto Star. March 13, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
o ^ “Press Release: Canada’s Walk of Fame Announces the 2011 Inductees”. Canada’s
Walk of Fame. June 28, 2011. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
o ^ Peritz, Ingrid (June 24, 2011). “Mordecai Richler to be honoured with gazebo on Mount Royal”. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
o ^
“Editorial: At last, a Richler library”. March 12, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
o ^ The Jacob Two-Two books are about 100 pages each. Two of them are Richler’s only works in Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB), which
catalogues them as juvenile fantasy novels and reports multiple cover artists and interior illustrators.
“Mordecai Richler – Summary Bibliography”. ISFDB. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
o ^ “The Street”. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved August
21, 2012.
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