international bureau of weights and measures

 

  • Abbreviation: BIPM (from French name); Formation: 20 May 1875; 147 years ago; Type: Intergovernmental; Location: Saint-Cloud, France; Coordinates: 48°49′45.55″N 2°13′12.64″E;
    Region served: Worldwide; Official language: French and English; Director: Martin Milton Structure The BIPM is supervised by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (French: CIPM), a committee of eighteen members that meet normally
    in two sessions per year,[1] which is in turn overseen by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (French: CGPM) that meets in Paris usually once every four years, consisting of delegates of the governments of the Member States[2][3]
    and observers from the Associates of the CGPM.

  • It combines, analyses, and averages the official atomic time standards of member nations around the world to create a single, official Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

  • The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (French: BIPM) is an intergovernmental organisation, through which its 59 member-states act together on measurement standards
    in four areas: chemistry, ionising radiation, physical metrology, and coordinated universal time.

  • History The BIPM was created on 20 May 1875, following the signing of the Metre Convention, a treaty among 17 Member States (as of November 2018 there are now 59 members).

  • Currently, the BIPM’s main work includes:[7][8] • Scientific and technical activities carried out in its four departments: chemistry, ionising radiation, physical metrology,
    and time • Liaison and coordination work, including providing the secretariat for the CIPM Consultative Committees and some of their Working Groups and for the CIPM MRA, and providing institutional liaison with the other bodies supporting
    the international quality infrastructure and other international bodies • Capacity building and knowledge transfer programs to increase the effectiveness within the worldwide metrology community of those Member State and Associates with emerging
    metrology systems • A resource centre providing a database and publications for international metrology The BIPM is one of the twelve member organisations of the International Network on Quality Infrastructure (INetQI), which promotes and
    implements QI activities in metrology, accreditation, standardisation and conformity assessment.

  • This task takes many forms, from direct dissemination of units to coordination through international comparisons of national measurement standards (as in electricity and ionising
    radiation).

  • [5] Function The BIPM has the mandate to provide the basis for a single, coherent system of measurements throughout the world, traceable to the International System of Units
    (SI).

 

Works Cited

[‘”International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM)”. BIPM. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
2. ^ Pellet, Alain (2009). Droit international public. LGDJ. p. 574. ISBN 978-2-275-02390-8.
3. ^ Schermers, Henry G. (2018). International Institutional Law.
Brill. pp. 302–303. ISBN 978-90-04-38165-0.
4. ^ “Brief history of the SI”. BIPM. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b Page, Chester H; Vigoureux, Paul, eds. (20 May 1975). The International Bureau of Weights and Measures 1875–1975: NBS
Special Publication 420. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards. pp. 26–27.
6. ^ “History of the Pavillon de Breteuil”. BIPM. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
7. ^ “BIPM: Our work programme”. BIPM. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved
14 May 2020.
8. ^ Cai, Juan (Ada). “The Case of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM)” (PDF). oecd.org. OECD. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
9. ^ “International Network on Quality
Infrastructure”. INetQI. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
10. ^ “Time Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)”. BIPM. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
11. ^ “Directors of the BIPM since 1875”. Bureau International des Poids et
Mesures. 2018. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
12. ^ “NPL Fellow, Dr Martin Milton , is new Director at foundation of world’s measurement system”. QMT News. Quality Manufacturing Today. August 2012. Retrieved
14 May 2020.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gnuckx/5674167473/’]

 

 

 

dubai

 

  • [50] Oil era[edit] View of Business Bay After years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in territorial waters off
    Dubai in 1966, albeit in far smaller quantities.

  • [46] In 1962 the British Political Agent noted that “Many new houses and blocks of offices and flats are being built… the Ruler is determined, against advice [from the British
    authorities] to press on with the construction of a jet airport… More and more European and Arab firms are opening up and the future looks bright.

  • Later in the 1990s, many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwait, during the Gulf War, and later from Bahrain, during the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai.

  • [59] Modern Dubai[edit] Dubai Palm Jumeirah and Marina in 2011 During the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an
    influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war.

  • “[44] In 1962, with expenditure on infrastructure projects already approaching levels some thought imprudent, Sheikh Rashid approached his brother in law, the Ruler of Qatar,
    for a loan to build the first bridge crossing Dubai’s creek.

  • The nine-state union was never to recover from the October 1969 meeting where British intervention against aggressive activities by two of the Emirates resulted in a walk-out
    by them, Bahrain and Qatar.

  • [14] Critically, one of the first major projects Sheikh Rashid embarked upon when oil revenue started to flow was the construction of Port Rashid, a deep water free port constructed
    by British company Halcrow.

  • Harris imagined a Dubai that would rise from the historic centre on Dubai Creek, with an extensive road system, organised zones, and a town centre, all of which could feasibly
    be built with the limited financial resources at the time.

  • The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town.

  • The port was not initially a success, so Sheikh Mohammed established the JAFZA (Jebel Ali Free Zone) around the port in 1985 to provide foreign companies unrestricted import
    of labour and export capital.

  • Pre-oil Dubai[edit] Dubai’s geographical proximity to Iran made it an important trade location.

  • Dubai also – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate’s security in
    1892.

  • However, due to World War II, oil would not be struck until 1966.

  • [105] As per Gulf News, Dubai Police stated that the crime in Dubai was reduced by fifteen percent during 2017.

  • However, by the time the asphalt runway of Dubai Airport was constructed in 1965, opening Dubai to both regional and long haul traffic, a number of foreign airlines were competing
    for landing rights.

  • [47] The construction of Dubai’s first airport was started on the Northern edge of the town in 1959 and the terminal building opened for business in September 1960.

  • [56] The two agreed to work towards bringing the other emirates, including Qatar and Bahrain, into the union.

  • Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism.

  • An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899
    to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai.

  • The Gulf War in early 1991 had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently, the city recovered
    in a changing political climate and thrived.

  • [23] History The history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, and points to extensive trading links between the civilisations
    of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but also as far afield as the Levant.

  • [96] Freedom of speech in Dubai is limited, with both residents and citizens facing severe sanctions from the government for speaking out against the royal family or local
    laws and culture.

  • Dubai is the second most expensive city in the region and 20th most expensive city in the world.

  • This gold was, in the vast majority, re-exported – mainly to customers who took delivery in international waters off India.

  • [26] The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city’s present coastline.

  • [46] On 7 April 1961, the Dubai-based MV Dara, a five thousand ton British flagged vessel that plied the route between Basra (Iraq), Kuwait and Bombay (India), was caught
    in unusually high winds off Dubai.

  • [20] Country: United Arab Emirates; Emirate: Dubai; Founded by: Obeid bin Said & Maktoum bin Butti Al Maktoum; Subdivisions: Towns & villages; Government: Type: Absolute monarchy,
    Director General of Dubai Municipality: Dawoud Al Hajri; Area: Total: 1,610 km2 (620 sq mi); Population (2023)[5]: Total: 3,564,931; Density: 2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi); Demonym: Dubaian; Time zone: UTC+04:00 (UAE Standard Time); Nominal GDP:
    2021 estimate: Total: US$ 177.01 billion[6] Etymology Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word “Dubai”.

  • These losses came at a time when the tribes of the interior were also experiencing poverty.

  • A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter.

  • A centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai’s economy relies on revenues from trade, tourism, aviation, real estate, and financial services.

  • However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai’s landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns,
    while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country.

  • Estimates at the time put the volume of gold imports from Dubai to India at around 75% of the total market.

  • The import of gold to India had been banned and so the trade was characterised as smuggling, although Dubai’s merchants were quick to point out that they were making legal
    deliveries of gold and that it was up to the customer where they took it.

  • [30] Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 with the British government along with other Trucial States, following the British campaign in 1819 against the Ras Al
    Khaimah.

  • [43] In 1970 a new airport terminal building was constructed which included Dubai’s first duty-free shops.

  • [62] Dubai airport and the aviation industry also continued to grow.

  • [75] It has since then evolved into an autonomous subnational authority, collectively known as the Government of Dubai which is responsible for both the city of Dubai and
    the greater emirate.

  • [38] The “great storm” of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates towards the end of the pearling season that year, resulting in the loss of a dozen
    boats and over 100 men.

  • The decision was to pitch the coastal emirates, together with Qatar and Bahrain, into fevered negotiations to fill the political vacuum that the British withdrawal would leave
    behind.

  • [7][8][9] Established in the 18th century as a small fishing village, the city grew rapidly in the early 21st century with a focus on tourism and luxury,[10] having the second
    most five-star hotels in the world,[11] and the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa, which is 828 metres (2,717 ft) tall.

  • [84] Human rights[edit] Main article: Human rights in Dubai Latifa, daughter of Dubai’s ruler, escaped Dubai in February 2018 but was captured in the Indian Ocean.

  • [119] As of 2013, only about 15% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals,[120] with the rest comprising expatriates, many of whom either have been in
    the country for generations or were born in the UAE.

  • This led to an acceleration of Sheikh Rashid’s infrastructure development plans and a construction boom that brought a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Asians and
    Middle easterners.

  • [99] On 3 September 2020, The Guardian reported that hundreds of thousands of migrant workers lost their jobs and were left stranded in Dubai, due to oil price crash and COVID-19.

  • [33] In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti – palm fronds.

  • Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh “bids fair to become complete and permanent”,[35] and also that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the
    Trucial States.

  • With the collapse of the pearling industry, Dubai fell into a deep depression and many residents lived in poverty or migrated to other parts of the Persian Gulf.

  • [38] By the 1920s many Iranians settled in Dubai permanently, moving across the Persian Gulf.

  • [107] Demographics Ethnicity and languages[edit] See also: Emirati people and Expatriates in the United Arab Emirates As of September 2019, the population is 3,331,420 – an
    annual increase of 177,020 people which represents a growth rate of 5.64%.

  • “[22] According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE’s history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba (Arabic:) (a past tense derivative of yadub (Arabic:),
    which means “to creep”), referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland.

  • [54] Reaching the UAE’s Act of Union[edit] Adi Bitar in a meeting with Sheiks Rashid Al Maktoum, Mohammad Al Maktoum and Maktoum Al Maktoum in Dubai, 1968 Dubai and the other
    “Trucial States” had long been a British protectorate where the British government took care of foreign policy and defence, as well as arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf, the result of a treaty signed in 1892 named the “Exclusive
    Agreement”.

  • [29] Establishment of modern Dubai[edit] Al Fahidi fort in the 1950s Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century[30] and was,
    by 1822, a town of some 700–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.

  • [14] Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, which was already a major mercantile hub.

  • [34] A watchtower in Bur Dubai, c. 19th century In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and also gave
    merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance.

  • The port was inaugurated on 5 October 1972, although its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built.

  • [83] As in other parts of the world, drinking and driving is illegal, with 21 being the legal drinking age in the Emirate of Dubai.

  • [14] Port Rashid was the first of a swath of projects designed to create a modern trading infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools and hospitals.

  • [64] Geography Dubai is situated on the Persian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates and is roughly at sea level (16 m or 52 ft above).

  • [45] 1959 saw the establishment of Dubai’s first telephone company, 51% owned by IAL (International Aeradio Ltd) and 49% by Sheikh Rashid and local businessmen and in 1961
    both the electricity company and telephone company had rolled out operational networks.

  • [citation needed] Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert.

  • [31] In 1822, a British naval surveyor noted that Dubai was at that time populated with a thousand people living in an oval-shaped town surrounded by a mud wall, scattered
    with goats and camels.

  • [86][87][88] Some of the 250,000 foreign labourers in the city have been alleged to live in conditions described by Human Rights Watch as “less than humane”.

  • [32]: 36–37  In the early days since its inception, Dubai was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi.

  • Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass
    through.

  • These policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh,[35] but also those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah (which had historical links with
    Lingeh through the Al Qawasim tribe) to Dubai.

  • [43] BOAC was originally reluctant to start regular flights between Bombay and Dubai, fearing a lack of demand for seats.

  • [97] Some of the labourers lured by the higher pay available in Dubai are victims of human trafficking or forced labour while some women are even forced into the growing sex
    trade in Dubai, a centre of human trafficking and prostitution.

  • [89][90][91][92] The mistreatment of foreign workers was a subject of the difficult-to-make documentary, Slaves in Dubai (2009).

  • The filmmaker explained in interviews how it was necessary to go undercover to avoid discovery by the authorities, who impose high fines on reporters attempting to document
    human rights abuses, including the conditions of construction workers.

  • [12] In the eastern Arabian Peninsula on the coast of the Persian Gulf,[13] it is also a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo.

  • Towards the end of March 2006, the government had announced steps to allow construction unions.

  • [37] The frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai’s role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.

  • Oil revenue, flowing from 1969 onwards supported a period of growth with Sheikh Rashid embarking on a policy of building infrastructure and a diversified trading economy before
    the emirate’s limited reserves were depleted.

  • Although no legislative assembly exists, the traditional open majlis (council) where citizens and representatives of the Ruler meet are often used for feedback on certain
    domestic issues.

 

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epic of gilgamesh

 

  • [49] Alternatively, it has been suggested that “its purpose, though crudely handled, is to explain to Gilgamesh (and the reader) the various fates of the dead in the Afterlife”
    and in “an awkward attempt to bring closure”,[50] it both connects the Gilgamesh of the epic with the Gilgamesh who is the King of the Netherworld,[51] and is “a dramatic capstone whereby the twelve-tablet epic ends on one and the same theme,
    that of “seeing” (= understanding, discovery, etc.

  • The older version begins with the words “Surpassing all other kings”, while the Standard Babylonian version has “He who saw the deep”, “deep” referring to the mysteries of
    the information brought back by Gilgamesh from his meeting with Uta-Napishti (Utnapishtim) about Ea, the fountain of wisdom.

  • It is possible, however, as has been pointed out, that the Chaldean inscription, if genuine, may be regarded as a confirmation of the statement that there are various traditions
    of the deluge apart from the Biblical one, which is perhaps legendary like the rest The New York Times, front page, 1872[15] Enkidu, Gilgamesh’s friend.

  • The text on the Old Babylonian Meissner fragment (the larger surviving fragment of the Sippar tablet) has been used to reconstruct possible earlier forms of the Epic of Gilgamesh,
    and it has been suggested that a “prior form of the story – earlier even than that preserved on the Old Babylonian fragment – may well have ended with Siduri sending Gilgamesh back to Uruk…” and “Utnapistim was not originally part of the
    tale.

  • Tablet two[edit] Fragment of Tablet II of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Sulaymaniyah Museum, Iraq Shamhat brings Enkidu to the shepherds’ camp, where he is introduced to a human
    diet and becomes the night watchman.

  • [5][6] Nevertheless, because of his great building projects, his account of Siduri’s advice, and what the immortal man Utnapishtim told him about the Great Flood, Gilgamesh’s
    fame survived well after his death, with expanding interest in his story.

  • Tell Harmal tablets[edit] Fragments from two different versions/tablets tell how Enkidu interprets one of Gilgamesh’s dreams on the way to the Forest of Cedar, and their conversation
    when entering the forest.

  • [11][30] Gilgamesh was given knowledge of how to worship the gods, why death was ordained for human beings, what makes a good king, and how to live a good life.

  • Gilgamesh, two-thirds god and one-third man, is oppressing his people, who cry out to the gods for help.

  • In those days, in those far-off days, otherwise known as Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld, is the source for the Akkadian translation included as tablet XII in the Standard
    Babylonian version, telling of Enkidu’s journey to the Netherworld.

  • “[36] One difference between the Greek epic poems and Gilgamesh would be the fact that the Greek heroes acted in the context of war, while Gilgamesh acted in isolation (with
    the exception of Enkidu’s brief existence) – and could equal Heracles.

  • For when the gods created man, they let death be his share, and life withheld in their own hands”.

  • The first half of the story discusses Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and Enkidu, a wild man created by the gods to stop Gilgamesh from oppressing the people of Uruk.

  • The envoys of Akka has no corresponding episode in the epic, but the themes of whether to show mercy to captives, and counsel from the city elders, also occur in the Standard
    Babylonian version of the Humbaba story.

  • He tells him his story, but when he asks for his help, Urshanabi informs him that he has just destroyed the objects that can help them cross the Waters of Death, which are
    deadly to the touch.

  • [39] It is also made explicit that Gilgamesh rose to the rank of an “ancient wise man” (antedeluvian).

  • British Museum George Smith transliterated and read the “Babylonian Flood Story” of Tablet XI Gilgamesh observes that Utnapishtim seems no different from himself, and asks
    him how he obtained his immortality.

  • In the second half of the epic, distress over Enkidu’s death causes Gilgamesh to undertake a long and perilous journey to discover the secret of eternal life.

  • “[38] Lins Brandão 2019 recognizes that the prologue of “He who Saw the Abyss” recalls the inspiration of the Greek Muses, even though there is no god’s assistance here.

  • [48] The contents of this last tablet are inconsistent with previous ones: Enkidu is still alive, despite having died earlier in the epic.

  • Tablet seven[edit] In Enkidu’s dream, the gods decide that one of the heroes must die because they killed Humbaba and Gugalanna.

  • [33] It bears little relation to the well-crafted 11-tablet epic; the lines at the beginning of the first tablet are quoted at the end of the 11th tablet, giving it circularity
    and finality.

  • [40] Lins Brandão continues, noting how the poem would have been “put on a stele” (“narû”), that at first “narû” could be seen as the genre of the poem,[40] taking into consideration
    that the reader (or scribe) would have to pass the text on,[41] without omitting or adding anything.

  • [14][27] One impact that Sin-liqe-unninni brought to the work was to bring the issue of mortality to the foreground, thus making it possible for the character to move from
    being an “adventurer to a wise man.

  • [20] The fragment read “He who saw all, who was the foundation of the land, who knew (everything), was wise in all matters: Gilgamesh.

  • “[52] Gilgamesh complains to Enkidu that various of his possessions (the tablet is unclear exactly what – different translations include a drum and a ball) have fallen into
    the underworld.

  • Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh that at the bottom of the sea there lives a boxthorn-like plant that will make him young again.

  • Gilgamesh, meanwhile, has been having dreams about the imminent arrival of a beloved new companion and asks his mother, Ninsun, to help interpret these dreams.

  • In a second dream, however, he sees himself being taken captive to the Netherworld by a terrifying Angel of Death.

  • [16] The central character of Gilgamesh was initially reintroduced to the world as “Izdubar”, before the cuneiform logographs in his name could be pronounced accurately.

  • There, trapped by Huwawa, Gilgamesh tricks him (with Enkidu’s assistance in one of the versions) into giving up his auras, thus losing his power.

  • Genre[edit] Main article: Epic poetry When it was discovered in the 19th century, the story of Gilgamesh was classified as a Greek epic, a genre known in Europe, even though
    it predates the Greek culture that spawned epics,[34] specifically, when Herodotus referred to the works of Homer in this way.

  • After a short discussion, Sur-sunabu asks him to carve 300 oars so that they may cross the waters of death without needing the “stone ones”.

  • Finally, after a lament that he could not meet a heroic death in battle, he dies.

  • Tablet eight[edit] Gilgamesh delivers a lament for Enkidu, in which he calls upon mountains, forests, fields, rivers, wild animals, and all of Uruk to mourn for his friend.

  • After six days and seven nights (or two weeks, according to more recent scholarship[44]) of lovemaking and teaching Enkidu about the ways of civilization, she takes Enkidu
    to a shepherd’s camp to learn how to be civilized.

  • Together, they make a six-day journey to the legendary Cedar Forest, where they plan to slay the Guardian, Humbaba the Terrible, and cut down the sacred Cedar.

  • His mother explains that they mean that a new companion will soon arrive at Uruk.

  • [11] Analysis of the Old Babylonian text has been used to reconstruct possible earlier forms of the epic.

  • [46][32] The main point seems to be that when Enlil granted eternal life it was a unique gift.

  • He comes across a tunnel, which no man has ever entered, guarded by two scorpion monsters, who appear to be a married couple.

  • Anu states that if he gives her the Bull of Heaven, Uruk will face 7 years of famine.

  • Tablet three[edit] The elders give Gilgamesh advice for his journey.

  • Some of the names of the main characters in these poems differ slightly from later Akkadian names; for example, “Bilgamesh” is written instead of “Gilgamesh”, and there are
    some differences in the underlying stories such as the fact that Enkidu is Gilgamesh’s servant in the Sumerian version: 1.

  • For the young men (the tablet is damaged at this point) it is conjectured that Gilgamesh exhausts them through games, tests of strength, or perhaps forced labour on building
    projects.

  • Tablet 12 is a near copy of an earlier Sumerian tale, a prequel, in which Gilgamesh sends Enkidu to retrieve some objects of his from the Underworld, and he returns in the
    form of a spirit to relate the nature of the Underworld to Gilgamesh.

  • [1] These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic in Akkadian.

  • When Gilgamesh attempts to visit the wedding chamber, Enkidu blocks his way, and they fight.

  • [25][26] Versions From the diverse sources found, two main versions of the epic have been partially reconstructed: the Standard Babylonian version, or He who saw the deep,
    and the Old Babylonian version, or Surpassing all other kings.

  • “[21] The discovery of artifacts (c. 2600 BC) associated with Enmebaragesi of Kish, mentioned in the legends as the father of one of Gilgamesh’s adversaries, has lent credibility
    to the historical existence of Gilgamesh.

  • Utnapishtim explains that the gods decided to send a great flood.

  • [37] Considering how the text would be viewed from the standpoint of its time is tricky, as George Smith acknowledges that there is no “Sumerian or Akkadian word for myth
    or heroic narrative, just as there is no ancient recognition of poetic narrative as a genre.

  • It is also the main source of information for the Sumerian creation myth and the story of “Inanna and the Huluppu Tree”.

  • Tablet four[edit] The second dream of Gilgamesh on the journey to the Forest of Cedar.

  • The great wild bull is lying down, a poem about Gilgamesh’s death, burial and consecration as a semigod, reigning and giving judgement over the dead.

  • Because of this, its lack of integration with the other tablets, and the fact that it is almost a copy of an earlier version, it has been referred to as an ‘inorganic appendage’
    to the epic.

  • Despite similarities between his dream figures and earlier descriptions of Humbaba, Enkidu interprets these dreams as good omens, and denies that the frightening images represent
    the forest guardian.

  • After dreaming of how the gods decide his fate after death, Gilgamesh takes counsel, prepares his funeral and offers gifts to the gods.

  • The story of Utnapishtim, the hero of the flood myth, can also be found in the Babylonian epic of Atra-Hasis.

  • Gilgamesh, who is seeking to overcome death, cannot even conquer sleep.

  • There is, however, extensive use of parallelism across sets of two or three adjacent lines, much like in the Hebrew Psalms.

  • The earliest Sumerian poems are now generally considered to be distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic.

  • [42] The prologue also implies that Gilgamesh narrated his story to a copyist, thus being a kind of “autobiography in third person”.

  • [63] Later influence Relationship to the Bible[edit] Various themes, plot elements, and characters in the Hebrew Bible correlate with the Epic of Gilgamesh – notably, the
    accounts of the Garden of Eden, the advice from Ecclesiastes, and the Genesis flood narrative.

  • Gilgamesh tells his mother Ninsun about two dreams he had.

  • The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the “Old Babylonian” version, dates back to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, “Surpassing All
    Other Kings”.

  • [44] The two heroes cut down many cedars, including a gigantic tree that Enkidu plans to fashion into a gate for the temple of Enlil.

  • When they reach the island where Utnapishtim lives, Gilgamesh recounts his story, asking him for his help.

  • Gilgamesh proposes a journey to the Cedar Forest to slay the monstrous demi-god Humbaba in order to gain fame and renown.

  • The trapper tells the sun-god Shamash about the man, and it is arranged for Enkidu to be seduced by Shamhat, a temple prostitute, his first step towards being tamed.

  • He offers to make Gilgamesh king of the forest, to cut the trees for him, and to be his slave.

  • Among the few survivors of the Great Flood, Utnapishtim and his wife are the only humans to have been granted immortality by the gods.

  • Old Babylonian versions[edit] This version of the epic, called in some fragments Surpassing all other kings, is composed of tablets and fragments from diverse origins and
    states of conservation.

 

Works Cited

[‘1. In 2008, manuscripts from the median Babylonian version found in Ugarit, written before the Standard version, already started with Sha naqba īmuru.[1][3]
2. Brandão 2020, p. 23.
3. ^ “Gilgamesh” Archived 13 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
4. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 21.
5. ^ Krstovic, Jelena O., ed. (2005). Epic of Gilgamesh Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism. Vol. 74. Detroit, MI: Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-8021-3. OCLC 644697404.
6. ^
Jump up to:a b Thrower, James (1980). The Alternative Tradition: A Study of Unbelief in the Ancient World. The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton Publishers.
7. ^ Frankfort, Henri (1974) [1949]. “Chapter VII: Mesopotamia: The Good Life”. Before Philosophy:
The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, an essay on speculative thought in the ancient near East. Penguin. p. 226. OCLC 225040700.
8. ^ Temple, Robert (1991). He who saw everything: a verse translation of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Random Century
Group Ltd. pp. viii–ix.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b Dalley 2000, p. 45.
10. ^ Dalley 2000, pp. 41–42.
11. ^ Mitchell, T.C. (1988). The Bible in the British Museum. The British Museum Press. p. 70.
12. ^ Jump up to:a b c George 2003.
13. ^ Abusch,
T. (1993). “Gilgamesh’s Request and Siduri’s Denial. Part I: The Meaning of the Dialogue and Its Implications for the History of the Epic”. The Tablet and the Scroll; Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William W. Hallo. CDL Press. pp. 1–14.
14. ^
George, Andrew R. (2008). “Shattered tablets and tangled threads: Editing Gilgamesh, then and now”. Aramazd. Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 3: 11. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
15. ^ Jump up to:a b George 2003, p. ii.
16. ^ “The New
York Times”. The New York Times. front page. 22 December 1872.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b c George, Andrew R. (2008). “Shattered tablets and tangled threads: Editing Gilgamesh, then and now”. Aramazd. Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 3: 7–30.
Retrieved 12 September 2018.
18. ^ Smith, George (3 December 1872). “The Chaldean Account of the Deluge”. Sacred Texts. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b George 2003, p. xi.
20. ^ Jump up to:a b Lins Brandão 2019, p. 11.
21. ^
“First lines of oldest epic poem found”. The Independent. 16 November 1998. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
22. ^ Evans, Barry. “It Was a Dark and Stormy Night”. North Coast Journal. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
23. ^ Dalley 2000, pp. 40–41.
24. ^
Jump up to:a b Bevan Hurley (27 July 2021). “US seizes Epic of Gilgamesh tablet, considered one of world’s oldest works of literature, from Hobby Lobby”. Independent UK.
25. ^ Clark, Dartunorro; Williams, Pete (27 July 2021). “Justice Department
seizes rare, ancient tablet illegally auctioned to Hobby Lobby”. NBC News. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
26. ^ “Gilgamesh tablet: US authorities take ownership of artefact”. BBC News. 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
27. ^ Helsel, Phil
(23 September 2021). “Ancient Gilgamesh tablet taken from Iraq and bought by Hobby Lobby is returned”. NBC News. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b c Brandão 2015, p. 105.
29. ^ Brandão 2015, p. 120.
30. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p.
15.
31. ^ Brandão 2015, p. 105, 106.
32. ^ Tigay 1982, pp. 23, 218, 224, 238.
33. ^ Jump up to:a b Brandão 2015, p. 106.
34. ^ George 2003, pp. xxvii–viii.
35. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 10.
36. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 12.
37. ^ Lins Brandão
2019, p. 13.
38. ^ Jump up to:a b Lins Brandão 2019, p. 22.
39. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 14.
40. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 17.
41. ^ Jump up to:a b Lins Brandão 2019, p. 18.
42. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 19.
43. ^ Lins Brandão 2019, p. 24.
44. ^
Lins Brandão 2019, p. 20.
45. ^ Jump up to:a b Al-Rawi, F. N. H.; George, A. R. (2014). “Back to the Cedar Forest: The Beginning and End of Tablet V of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgameš” (PDF). Journal of Cuneiform Studies. 66: 69–90. doi:10.5615/jcunestud.66.2014.0069.
JSTOR 10.5615/jcunestud.66.2014.0069. S2CID 161833317.
46. ^ Foster 2003.
47. ^ George 2003, p. xxx.
48. ^ George 2003, p. 98. “‘There is a plant that looks like a box-thorn, it has prickles like a dogrose, and will prick one who plucks it.
But if you can possess this plant, you’ll be again as you were in your youth.’ … Said Gilgamesh to him: ‘This plant, Ur-shanabi, is the “Plant of Heartbeat”, with it a man can regain his vigour. To Uruk-the-Sheepfold I will take it, to an ancient
I will feed some and put the plant to the test!'”
49. ^ Dalley 2000, p. 42.
50. ^ Maier, John R. (1997). Gilgamesh: A reader. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-86516-339-3.
51. ^ Patton, Laurie L.; Doniger, Wendy (1996). Myth
and Method. University of Virginia Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-8139-1657-6.
52. ^ Kovacs, Maureen (1989). The Epic of Gilgamesh. University of Stanford Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-8047-1711-3.
53. ^ van Driel, G.; Krispijn, Th. J. H.; Stol, M.; Veenhof,
K. R., eds. (1982). Zikir Šumim: Assyriological Studies Presented to F.R. Kraus on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday. p. 131. ISBN 978-90-6258-126-9.
54. ^ George 2003, pp. 101–126.
55. ^ Brandão 2015, p. 119.
56. ^ Abusch, T. Gilgamesh’s
Request and Siduri’s Denial. Part I: The Meaning of the Dialogue and Its Implications for the History of the Epic. |11.05 MB The Tablet and the Scroll; Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William W. Hallo, 1–14. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
57. ^ George
2003, pp. 141–208.
58. ^ Katz, Dina (1993). Gilgamesh and Akka. Brill. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-72371-67-6.
59. ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah (1961). Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C.: Revised Edition.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 30–41. ISBN 978-0-8122-1047-7.
60. ^ Helle, Sophus (2021). Gilgamesh: A New Translation of the Ancient Epic. Yale University Press. p. 144. Taha Baqir published the first Arabic translation
of Gilgamesh in 1962
61. ^ Mawr, Bryn (21 April 2004). “Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.04.21”. Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
62. ^ Jarman, Mark (1 January 2005). “When the Light Came on: The Epic Gilgamesh”. The Hudson
Review. 58 (2): 329–34. JSTOR 30044781.
63. ^ Mitchell, Stephen (2010) [2004]. Gilgamesh: A New English Version. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6169-2. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
64. ^ “Gilgamesh”. Yale University Press. Retrieved 19 October
2022.
65. ^ Gmirkin, Russell (2006). Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus. Continuum. p. 103.
66. ^ Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2004). Treasures old and new. Eerdmans. pp. 93–95.
67. ^ Van Der Torn, Karel (2000). “Did Ecclesiastes copy Gilgamesh?”.
Bible Review. Vol. 16. pp. 22ff. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
68. ^ George 2003, pp. 70ff.
69. ^ Rendsburg, Gary (2007). “The Biblical flood story in the light of the Gilgamesh flood account,” in Gilgamesh and the world of Assyria, eds Azize, J
& Weeks, N. Peters, p. 117.
70. ^ Wexler, Robert (2001). Ancient Near Eastern Mythology.
71. ^ Leiden, Brill (1999). The Madness of King Nebuchadnezzar…
72. ^ Meagher, Robert Emmet (1995). The meaning of Helen: in search of an ancient icon.
United States: Bolchazy-Carducci Pubs (IL). ISBN 978-0-86516-510-6.
73. ^ Hamori, Esther J. (Winter 2011). “Echoes of Gilgamesh in the Jacob Story”. Journal of Biblical Literature. 130 (4): 625–42. doi:10.2307/23488271. JSTOR 23488271. S2CID 161293144.
74. ^
“Old Testament Pseudepigrapha – Just another WordPress @ St Andrews site”.
75. ^ West, Martin Litchfield (2003) [1997]. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 334–402. ISBN 978-0-19-815221-7.
OCLC 441880596.
76. ^ Abusch, Tzvi (December 2001). “The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay”. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (4): 614–22. doi:10.2307/606502. JSTOR 606502.
77. ^ Ziolkowski, Theodore
(2011). Gilgamesh Among Us: Modern Encounters With the Ancient Epic. Cornell Univ Pr. ISBN 978-0-8014-5035-8.
78. ^ Jump up to:a b Ziolkowski, Theodore (1 November 2011). “Gilgamesh: An Epic Obsession”. Berfrois. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
2. The
Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian. Translated by Andrew R. George (reprinted ed.). London, England: Penguin Books. 2003 [1999]. ISBN 0-14-044919-1. OCLC 901129328.
3. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Translated
by Benjamin R. Foster. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. 2001. ISBN 978-0-393-97516-1.
4. Dalley, Stephanie, ed. (2000). Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953836-2.
5. Tigay,
Jeffrey H. (1982). The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-7805-7.
6. Sin-léqi-unnínni, ed. (2020) [2017]. Ele que o abismo viu (in Brazilian Portuguese). Translated by Jacyntho Lins Brandão (1 ed.).
Autêntica. p. 320. ISBN 978-85-513-0283-5.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/53807034@N05/5578760521/’]

 

White and yellow rose, and a golden heart, the colors of love, reflected on a shiny black surface

 

 

cedrus libani

 

  • This distinct morphology is a habit that is assumed to cope with the competitive environment, since the tree occurs in dense stands mixed with the tall-growing Abies cilicica,
    or in pure stands of young cedar trees.

  • The first-order branches are ascending in young trees; they grow to a massive size and take on a horizontal, wide-spreading disposition.

  • [25][26] When the first cedar of Lebanon was planted in Britain is unknown, but it dates at least to 1664, when it is mentioned in Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and
    the Propagation of Timber.

  • [16][3] C. brevifolia, a closely related species or perhaps a subspecies of C. libani, grows in similar conditions on medium to high mountains in Cyprus from altitudes ranging
    from 900 to 1,525 m (2,953 to 5,003 ft).

  • [8] The specific epithet refers the Lebanon mountain range where the species was first described by French botanist Achille Richard; the tree is commonly known as the Lebanon
    cedar or cedar of Lebanon.

  • [29] Propagation[edit] An eight-month-old seedling In order to germinate Cedrus libani seeds, potting soil is preferred, since it is less likely to contain fungal species
    which may kill the seedling in its early stages.

  • The crown is conical when young, becoming broadly tabular with age with fairly level branches; trees growing in dense forests maintain more pyramidal shapes.

  • Deforestation has been particularly severe in Lebanon and on Cyprus; on Cyprus, only small trees up to 25 m (82 ft) tall survive, though Pliny the Elder recorded cedars 40
    m (130 ft) tall there.

  • [19] The Hebrew prophet Isaiah used the Lebanon cedar (together with “oaks of Bashan”, “all the high mountains” and “every high tower”) as examples of loftiness as a metaphor
    for the pride of the world[20] and in Psalm 92:12 it says “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon”.

  • The leaves are needle-like, arranged in spirals and concentrated at the proximal end of the long shoots, and in clusters of 15–35 on the short shoots; they are 5 to 35 mm
    (0.20 to 1.38 in) long and 1 to 1.5 mm (0.039 to 0.059 in) wide, rhombic in cross-section, and vary from light green to glaucous green with stomatal bands on all four sides.

  • Second-order branches are dense and grow in a horizontal plane.

  • While early versions of the story place the forest in Iran, later Babylonian accounts of the story place the Cedar Forest in the Lebanon.

  • Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic fungus known to cause considerable damage to food crops, attacks the cedar needles, causing them to turn yellow and drop.

  • [37][38][39] Because during the seedling stage, differentiating C. libani from C. atlantica or C. deodara is difficult,[40] the American University of Beirut has developed
    a DNA-based method of identification to ensure that reforestation efforts in Lebanon are of the cedars of Lebanon and not other types.

  • The Lebanon cedar recognized by the state is located inside Hot Springs National Park and is estimated to be over 100 years old.

  • The female seed cones also grow at the terminal ends of short shoots.

  • [22][23] Arkansas, among other US states, has a Champion Tree program that records exceptional tree specimens.

  • [35][36] Lebanese cedar populations are also expanding through an active program combining replanting and protection of natural regeneration from browsing goats, hunting,
    forest fires, and woodworms.

  • Mature cones open from top to bottom, they disintegrate and lose their seed scales, releasing the seeds until only the cone rachis remains attached to the branches.

  • Before sowing it is important to soak the seed at room temperature for a period of 24 hours followed by cold stratification (~ 3–5 °C) for two to four weeks.

  • Armillaria mellea (commonly known as honey fungus) is a basidiomycete that fruits in dense clusters at the base of trunks or stumps and attacks the roots of cedars growing
    in wet soils.

  • Finally, Lebanon is sometimes metonymically referred to as the Land of the Cedars.

  • [33] Attempts have been made at various times throughout history to conserve the Lebanon cedars.

  • The tree grows in well-drained calcareous lithosols on rocky, north- and west-facing slopes and ridges and thrives in rich loam or a sandy clay in full sun.

  • [11][12] Genetic relationship studies, however, did not recognize C. brevifolia as a separate species, the markers being undistinguishable from those of C.

  • In Turkey, it can occur as low as 500 m (1,600 ft).

  • It is the national emblem of Lebanon and is widely used as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens.

 

Works Cited

[‘1. Gardner, M. (2013). “Cedrus libani”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T46191675A46192926. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T46191675A46192926.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
2. ^ Knight Syn. Conif. 42 1850
3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d
e f g h Farjon 2010, p. 258
4. ^ Jump up to:a b Masri 1995
5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hemery & Simblet 2014, p. 53
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c CABI 2013, p. 116
7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Farjon 2010, p. 259
8. ^ Farjon 2010, p. 254
9. ^ Bory 1823,
p. 299
10. ^ Debazac 1964
11. ^ Jump up to:a b Ladjal 2001
12. ^ Fabre et al. 2001, pp. 88–89
13. ^ Fady et al. 2000
14. ^ Kharrat 2006, p. 282
15. ^ “Cedrus libani Cedar of Lebanon PFAF Plant Database”. pfaf.org. Plants for a Future.
Retrieved 6 January 2017.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b Gardner, M. (2013). “Cedrus libani var. libani”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42305A2970821. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42305A2970821.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
17. ^ Sherratt,
Susan; Bennet, John (2017). Archaeology and Homeric epic. Oxford: Oxbow Books. p. 127. ISBN 9781785702969. OCLC 959610992.
18. ^ Leviticus 14:1–4
19. ^ “Welcome to Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Church’s Homepage”. Archived from the original on
2 June 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
20. ^ Isaiah 2:13
21. ^ Psalm 92:12 – “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon”
22. ^ Erman 1927, p. 261
23. ^ Cromer 2004, p. 58
24. ^ “Cedar Lebanon (Cedrus
libani)”. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b Hemery & Simblet 2014, p. 55
26. ^ Howard 1955, p. 168
27. ^ Hemery & Simblet 2014, p. 54
28. ^ “Cedrus libani”. www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural
Society. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
29. ^ “AGM Plants – Ornamental” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
30. ^ Tree Seed Online LTD
31. ^ Jump up to:a b CABI 2013, p. 117
32. ^ Coxe 1808, p. CED
33. ^
Willan, R. G. N. (1990). The Cyprus Cedar. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Yearbk. 1990: 115–118.
34. ^ Shackley, pp. 420–421
35. ^ Anon. History of Turkish Forestry. Turkish Ministry of Forestry.
36. ^ Jump up to:a b Khuri, S. & Talhouk, S. N. (1999). Cedar
of Lebanon. pp. 108–111. in: Farjon, A. & Page, C. N. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Conifers. IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group. ISBN 2-8317-0465-0.
37. ^ Talhouk & Zurayk 2004, pp. 411–414
38. ^ Semaan, M. & Haber, R. (2003). In
situ conservation on Cedrus libani in Lebanon. Acta Hort. 615: 415–417.
39. ^ Cedars of Lebanon Nature Reserve Archived 19 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
40. ^ Barnard, Anne. “Climate Change Is Killing the Cedars of Lebanon”. Retrieved 19 July
2018.
41. ^ Farjon, Aljos. Conifers: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 1999, p. 110
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/3510294699/’]

 

 

 

scone

 

  • That is, the classic Scottish scone, the Dutch schoonbrood or “spoonbread” (very similar to the drop scone), and possibly other similarly named quick breads may have made
    their way onto the British tea table, where their similar names merged into one.

  • In some countries one may also encounter savoury varieties of scone which may contain or be topped with combinations of cheese, onion, bacon, etc.

  • [12] When baking powder became available to the masses, scones began to be the oven-baked, well-leavened items we know today.

  • Regional variations Australia[edit] Pumpkin scones, made by adding mashed cooked pumpkin to the dough mixture, had increased exposure during the period when Florence Bjelke-Petersen
    was in the public eye.

  • Thus, scone may derive from the Middle Dutch schoonbrood (fine white bread), from schoon (pure, clean) and brood (bread),[9][10] or it may derive from the Scots Gaelic term
    sgonn meaning a shapeless mass or large mouthful.

  • They tend to be made using family recipes rather than recipe books, since it is often a family member who holds the “best” and most-treasured recipe.

  • United States[edit] American scones Scones often appear in US coffee houses.

  • Today, many would call the large round cake a bannock.

  • Strawberries are also sometimes used.

  • Another old style of cooking scones, generally in the colder months, is to deep-fry or deep pan-fry them in dripping or oil, when they are called “puftaloons”.

  • [16] Varieties British scones are often lightly sweetened, but may also be savoury.

  • [11] History It is believed that historically scones were round and flat, usually as large as a medium-sized plate.

  • [17][18] Date scones, which contain chopped dried dates, can also be found in Australia.

  • In Idaho and Utah, the bread products locally called “scones” are similar to Native American frybread or New Orleans beignets and are made from a sweet yeast dough, with buttermilk
    and baking powder or soda added, and they are fried rather than baked.

  • This usage is also common in New Zealand where scones of all varieties form an important part of traditional colonial New Zealand cuisine.

  • The Middle Low German term schöne meaning fine bread may also have played a role in the origination of this word.

  • The American version is sweet, heavy, dry and crumbly, similar to British rock cakes.

  • When prepared at home, they may take various shapes including triangles, rounds and squares.

  • [14] Scones sold commercially are usually round, although some brands are hexagonal as this shape may be tessellated for space efficiency.

  • [24] Zimbabwe[edit] In Zimbabwe scones are popular and often eaten for breakfast with English tea, jam and clotted cream.

  • New Zealand[edit] Scones make up a part of kiwiana, and are among the most popular recipes in the Edmonds Cookery Book, New Zealand’s best-selling cook book.

 

Works Cited

[‘Hollywood, Paul. “Paul Hollywood’s scones”. BBC. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Wells, J. C. “Pronunciation Preferences in British English: a new survey”. University College London, 1998
3. ^ Boult, Adam (2 November 2016). “Survey
reveals ‘correct’ way to pronounce scone”. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
4. ^ editor, Robin McKie Observer Science (22 April 2017). “Do you pronounce ‘scone’ to rhyme with ‘cone’ or
‘gone’? It depends where you’re from” – via www.theguardian.com. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
5. ^ “Cambridge app maps decline in regional diversity of English dialects”. University of Cambridge. 26 May 2016.
6. ^ Jacobs, F.
“[1]” 2016
7. ^ “Cracked Quatrains”. Punch. Punch Publications Ltd. 144: 253. 1913. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
8. ^ Drifte, Collette; Jubb, Mike (2002). A Poetry Teacher’s Toolkit: Rhymes, Rhythms, and Rattles. London: David Fulton Publishers.
p. 106. ISBN 1-85346-819-3.
9. ^ Douglas, Sheila. “The Scots Language and Its European Roots” (PDF).
10. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). “Scone”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Dictionary.com. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
11. ^ Weiner and Albright. Simply
Scones. St. Martin’s Press, 1988, p. 3.
12. ^ Ingram, Christine; Shapter, Jennie (2003). Bread: the breads of the world and how to bake them at home. (Originally published as The World Encyclopedia of Bread and Bread Making.) London: Hermes House.
p. 54. ISBN 0-681-87922-X.
13. ^ Smith, Delia (27 March 2007). Delia’s Complete Cookery Course. London: BBC Books. ISBN 978-0-563-36249-4.
14. ^ “Back-bite free scone mix launched in UK”. bakeryandsnacks.com. 28 June 2005. Retrieved 22 September
2015.
15. ^ “The History of Scones”. Food History. The Kitchen Project. 1 March 2001. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
16. ^ Goldman, Marcy (2007). A Passion for Baking. Birmingham, Alabama: Oxmoor House, Inc. pp. 85. ISBN 978-0-8487-3179-3.
17. ^
“Australian Biography: Flo Bjelke – Petersen”. National Film and Sound Archive.
18. ^ McInerney, Sarah (5 May 2011). “How to bake the perfect scone”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 7
January 2017.
19. ^ “The Edmonds Cookery Book: How NZ’s much-loved book has drastically evolved”. Stuff. 1 August 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
20. ^ “Best Scones Ever – Edmonds”. edmondscooking.co.nz. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
21. ^ Lyons,
Sue (2002). Edmonds for young cooks : beyond the basics. Deborah Hinde. Auckland, N.Z.: Hodder Moa Beckett. ISBN 1-86958-908-4. OCLC 156024173.
22. ^ “On the hunt for the best scones in town”. Stuff. 30 April 2013.
23. ^ “Qué comian”.
24. ^
Sokolov, Raymond (June 1985). “Everyman’s muffins; Includes recipes”. Natural History. 94: 82. as found here
25. ^ “WATCH | Across Zimbabwe, British scones are the taste of home”. News24. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
26. ^ Curb Your Enthusiasm: Artificial
Fruit (HBO television broadcast Feb. 2, 2020) (Season 10, Episode 1).
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/22746515@N02/2425164088/’]

 

 

contract bridge

 

  • Well-known conventions include Stayman (to ask the opening 1NT bidder to show any four-card major suit), Jacoby transfers (a request by (usually) the weak hand for the partner
    to bid a particular suit first, and therefore to become the declarer), and the Blackwood convention (to ask for information on the number of aces and kings held, used in slam bidding situations).

  • A combination of two such hands (i.e., 25 or 26 points shared between partners) is often sufficient for a partnership to bid, and generally to make, game in a major suit or
    notrump (more are usually needed for a minor suit game, as the level is higher).

  • For example, a hand of KQJ9872  7  42  763 would be a candidate for an opening bid of 3, designed to make it difficult for the opposing team to bid and find their optimum
    contract even if they have the bulk of the points, as it is nearly valueless unless spades are trumps, it contains good enough spades that the penalty for being set should not be higher than the value of an opponent game, and the high card
    weakness makes it more likely that the opponents have enough strength to make game themselves.

  • Although it is not a formal rule, many clubs adopt a protocol that the bidding cards stay revealed until the first playing card is tabled, after which point the bidding cards
    are put away.

  • This is a difficult problem: the two players in a partnership must try to communicate enough information about their hands to arrive at a makeable contract, but the information
    they can exchange is restricted – information may be passed only by the calls made and later by the cards played, not by other means; in addition, the agreed-upon meaning of each call and play must be available to the opponents.

  • [19] To illustrate this, the simpler partnership trick-taking game of spades has a similar mechanism: the usual trick-taking rules apply with the trump suit being spades,
    but in the beginning of the game, players bid or estimate how many tricks they can win, and the number of tricks bid by both players in a partnership are added.

  • [25] At any time, a player may claim, stating that their side will win a specific number of the remaining tricks.

  • Game strategy Bidding[edit] Main articles: Bidding system and Bridge convention Much of the complexity in bridge arises from the difficulty of arriving at a good final contract
    in the auction (or deciding to let the opponents declare the contract).

  • [8] Biritch had many significant bridge-like developments: dealer chose the trump suit, or nominated his partner to do so; there was a call of “no trumps” (biritch); dealer’s
    partner’s hand became dummy; points were scored above and below the line; game was 3NT, 4 and 5 (although 8 club odd tricks and 15 spade odd tricks were needed); the score could be doubled and redoubled; and there were slam bonuses.

  • Standard American, for instance, is a collection of conventions designed to bolster the accuracy and power of these basic ideas, while Precision Club is a system that uses
    the 1 opening bid for all or almost all strong hands (but sets the threshold for “strong” rather lower than most other systems – usually 16 high card points) and may include other artificial calls to handle other situations (but it may contain
    natural calls as well).

  • A better than average hand, containing 12 or 13 points, is usually considered sufficient to open the bidding, i.e., to make the first bid in the auction.

  • Players take turns to call in a clockwise order: each player in turn either passes, doubles – which increases the penalties for not making the contract specified by the opposing
    partnership’s last bid, but also increases the reward for making it[20] – or redoubles, or states a contract that their partnership will adopt, which must be higher than the previous highest bid (if any).

  • Several systems include the use of opening bids or other early bids with weak hands including long (usually six to eight card) suits at the 2, 3 or even 4 or 5 levels as preempts.

  • The cards are dealt to the players; then the players call (or bid) in an auction seeking to take the contract, specifying how many tricks the partnership receiving the contract
    (the declaring side) needs to take to receive points for the deal.

  • Basic natural systems[edit] As a rule, a natural suit bid indicates a holding of at least four (or more, depending on the situation and the system) cards in that suit as an
    opening bid, or a lesser number when supporting partner; a natural NT bid indicates a balanced hand.

  • In natural systems, a 1NT opening bid usually reflects a hand that has a relatively balanced shape (usually between two and four (or less often five) cards in each suit) and
    a sharply limited number of high card points, usually somewhere between 12 and 18 – the most common ranges use a span of exactly three points (for example, 12–14, 15–17 or 16–18), but some systems use a four-point range, usually 15–18.

  • [6] Rubber bridge is the most popular variation for casual play, but most club and tournament play involves some variant of duplicate bridge, where the cards are not re-dealt
    on each occasion, but the same deal is played by two or more sets of players (or “tables”) to enable comparative scoring.

  • Players must play a card of the same suit as the original card led, unless they have none (said to be “void”), in which case they may play any card.

  • [23][24] In practice, establishing a contract without enough information on the other partner’s hand is difficult, so there exist many bidding systems assigning meanings to
    bids, with common ones including Standard American, Acol, and 2/1 game forcing.

  • [c] When it is their turn to call, a player may pass – but can enter into the bidding later – or bid a contract, specifying the level of their contract and either the trump
    suit or no trump (the denomination), provided that it is higher than the last bid by any player, including their partner.

  • Many experts today use a system called 2/1 game forcing (enunciated as two over one game forcing), which amongst other features adds some complexity to the treatment of the
    one notrump response as used in Standard American.

  • Preemptive bids serve a double purpose – they allow players to indicate they are bidding on the basis of a long suit in an otherwise weak hand, which is important information
    to share, and they also consume substantial bidding space which prevents a possibly strong opposing pair from exchanging information on their cards.

  • Thus in response to 4NT, a ‘natural’ bid of 5 would state a preference towards a diamond suit or a desire to play the contract in 5 diamonds, whereas if the partners have
    agreed to use the common Blackwood convention, a bid of 5 in the same situation would say nothing about the diamond suit, but tell the partner that the hand in question contains exactly one ace.

  • [43] If the declaring side makes their contract, they receive points for odd tricks, or tricks bid and made in excess of six.

  • [18] Instead, the goal is to successfully estimate how many tricks one’s partnership can take.

  • This means that an opening bid of 1 or 1 will sometimes be made with only 3 cards in that suit.

  • The most significant change was that only the tricks contracted for were scored below the line toward game or a slam bonus, a change that resulted in bidding becoming much
    more challenging and interesting.

  • [36] The auction ends when, after a player bids, doubles, or redoubles, every other player has passed, in which case the action proceeds to the play; or every player has passed
    and no bid has been made, in which case the round is considered to be “passed out” and not played.

  • Opening bids of three or higher are preemptive bids, i.e., bids made with weak hands that especially favor a particular suit, opened at a high level in order to define the
    hand’s value quickly and to frustrate the opposition.

  • Opening bids at the one level are made with hands containing 12–13 points or more and which are not suitable for one of the preceding bids.

  • Once all the cards have been played, the hand is scored: if the declaring side makes their contract, they receive points based on the level of the contract, with some trump
    suits being worth more points than others and no trump being the highest, as well as bonus points for overtricks.

  • The line between a well-known convention and a part of a system is not always clear-cut: some bidding systems include specified conventions by default.

  • [24][45] Bonuses vary between the two bridge variations both in score and in type (for example, rubber bridge awards a bonus for holding a certain combination of high cards),[24]
    although some are common between the two.

  • [22] Note that six tricks are added to contract values, so the six-level contract would actually be a contract of twelve tricks.

  • If the last bid was by the opposing partnership, one may also double the opponents’ bid, increasing the penalties for undertricks, but also increasing the reward for making
    the contract.

  • The deal is scored based on the number of tricks taken, the contract, and various other factors which depend to some extent on the variation of the game being played.

  • If taking all 13 tricks, there is no difference in score between a 1 and a 7 final bid, as the bonus for rubber, small slam or grand slam depends on the number of tricks taken
    rather than the number of tricks bid.

  • At the end of a session, the scores for each deal are compared, and the most points are awarded to the players doing the best with each particular deal.

  • A natural call carries a meaning that reflects the call; a natural bid intuitively showing hand or suit strength based on the level or suit of the bid, and a natural double
    expressing that the player believes that the opposing partnership will not make their contract.

  • [41] Scoring[edit] Main article: Bridge scoring At the end of the hand, points are awarded to the declaring side if they make the contract, or else to the defenders.

  • After a deal has been played, players return their cards to the appropriate slot in the board, ready to be played by the next table.

  • If the claim is disputed, play continues with the claiming player’s cards face up in rubber games,[40] or in duplicate games, play ceases and the tournament director is called
    to adjudicate the hand.

  • In duplicate bridge the cards are pre-dealt, either by hand or by a computerized dealing machine, in order to allow for competitive scoring.

  • In rubber bridge, if a side has won 100 contract points, they have won a game and are vulnerable for the remaining rounds,[42] but in duplicate bridge, vulnerability is predetermined
    based on the number of each board.

  • [27][28] All that is needed in basic games are the cards and a method of keeping score, but there is often other equipment on the table, such as a board containing the cards
    to be played (in duplicate bridge), bidding boxes, or screens.

  • A natural, or penalty double, is one used to try to gain extra points when the defenders are confident of setting (defeating) the contract.

  • The most common example of a conventional double is the takeout double of a low-level suit bid, implying support for the unbid suits or the unbid major suits and asking partner
    to choose one of them.

  • If a partnership takes at least that many tricks, they receive points for the round; otherwise, they lose penalty points.

  • The majority of rules mirror those of duplicate bridge in the bidding and play and differ primarily in procedures for dealing and scoring.

  • Here the 2 opening is used for either hands with a good 6-card suit or longer (max one losing card) and a total of 18 HCP up to 23 total points – or “2+1⁄2NT”, like 2NT but
    with 22–23 HCP.

  • These are placed diagonally across the table, preventing partners from seeing each other during the game; often the screen is removed after the auction is complete.

  • However, if the declarer fails to fulfill the contract, the defenders receive points depending on the declaring side’s undertricks (the number of tricks short of the contract)
    and whether the contract was doubled by the defenders.

  • [e] In rubber bridge, a partnership wins one game once it has accumulated 100 contract points; excess contract points do not carry over to the next game.

  • [29][30][31] Duplicate Boards with cards In rubber bridge each player draws a card at the start of the game; the player who draws the highest card deals first.

  • This measures relative skill (but still with an element of luck) because each pair or team is being judged only on the ability to bid with, and play, the same cards as other
    players.

  • The claiming player lays his cards down on the table and explains the order in which he intends to play the remaining cards.

  • Bridge extends the concept of bidding into an auction, where partnerships compete to take a contract, specifying how many tricks they will need to take in order to receive
    points, and also specifying the trump suit (or no trump, meaning that there will be no trump suit).

  • In addition, the distribution of the cards in a hand into suits may also contribute to the strength of a hand and be counted as distribution points.

  • The term preempt refers to a high-level tactical bid by a weak hand, relying upon a very long suit rather than high cards for tricks.

  • [35] Players may not see their partner’s hand during the auction, only their own.

  • In the UK, Acol is the most common system; its main features are a weak one notrump opening with 12–14 high card points and several variations for 2-level openings.

  • Partnerships who agree to play 5-card majors open a minor suit with 4-card majors and then bid their major suit at the next opportunity.

  • In 1925 when contract bridge first evolved, bridge tournaments were becoming popular, but the rules were somewhat in flux, and several different organizing bodies were involved
    in tournament sponsorship: the American Bridge League (formerly the American Auction Bridge League, which changed its name in 1929), the American Whist League, and the United States Bridge Association.

  • A larger bonus is awarded if the declaring side makes a small slam or grand slam, a contract of 12 or 13 tricks respectively.

  • [a] Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments, online and with friends at home, making it one of the world’s most popular card games, particularly among
    seniors.

  • In its basic format, it is played by four players in two competing partnerships,[1] with partners sitting opposite each other around a table.

  • Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck.

  • Unusually strong bids communicate an especially high number of points (normally 20 or more) or a high trick-taking potential (normally 8 or more).

  • In addition to the basic rules of play, there are many additional rules covering playing conditions and the rectification of irregularities, which are primarily for use by
    tournament directors who act as referees and have overall control of procedures during competitions.

  • [14] Gameplay Overview[edit] Bridge is a four-player partnership trick-taking game with thirteen tricks per deal.

  • A partnership’s bidding system is usually made up of a core system, modified and complemented by specific conventions (optional customizations incorporated into the main system
    for handling specific bidding situations) which are pre-chosen between the partners prior to play.

  • [17] In this trick, North led 10 so all players must play a spade unless they have none.

  • Conventions are valuable in bridge because of the need to pass information beyond a simple like or dislike of a particular suit, and because the limited bidding space can
    be used more efficiently by adopting a conventional (artificial) meaning for a given call where a natural meaning would have less utility, because the information it would convey is not valuable or because the desire to convey that information
    would arise only rarely.

  • Whilst the 2 opening bid takes care of all hands with 24 points (HCP or with distribution points included) with the only exception of “Gambling 3NT”.

  • Using Standard American with 5-card majors, opening hearts or spades usually promises a 5-card suit.

  • [17] Unlike its predecessor, whist, the goal of bridge is not simply to take the most tricks in a deal.

 

Works Cited

[‘In face-to-face games, a convenient table size is 32 to 40 inches (80 to 100 cm) square[2][3] or a similarly-sized round table allowing each player to reach to the center of the table during the play of the cards. In online computer play, players from
anywhere in the world sit at a virtual table.
o ^ The terms deal, hand and board may be used interchangeably in bridge literature. More accurately, a hand is one player’s holding of 13 cards, a deal is the four hands in one allocation of 52 cards;
a board is a term more applicable to duplicate bridge and refers to a deal.
o ^ e.g., if North is the dealer, they make a call, then the auction continues with East, South, West, and so on.
o ^ For example, if player A bids 2 and player B, their
partner, raises to 4 and that becomes the final contract, then player A becomes declarer.
o ^ If the declaring side makes a contract of 3NT and takes exactly nine tricks, fulfilling the contract (6 + 3), they receive 40 points for the first odd
trick, and 60 (30 × 2) points for the remaining odd tricks, adding up to 100 contract points. If the contract was doubled or redoubled, the declaring side receives 200 and 400 points respectively. Additional bonus points may apply depending on the
variation played; for example, in duplicate bridge, the declaring side is awarded a game bonus for having won 100 or more contract points, which is 500 if vulnerable, for a total of 600 points (500 + 100), or 300 if not vulnerable, for a total of
400 points (300 + 100).
o Reese, Terence (1980). Bridge. Teach Yourself Books. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 1. ISBN 0-340-32438-4.
o ^ “Bridge Tables”. Kardwell International. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
o ^ “Furniture”. Baron Barclay Bridge Supply.
Retrieved 31 August 2019.
o ^ Martha T. Moore (19 December 2005). “Billionaires bank on bridge to trump poker”. USA Today. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
o ^ “At the Bridge Table, Clues to a Lucid Old Age”. The New York Times. 22 May 2009. Retrieved
29 March 2016.
o ^ Kantar, Eddie (2006). Bridge for Dummies (2nd ed.). Wiley Publishing, Inc. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-471-92426-5.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d Depaulis, Thierry; Fuchs, Jac (September–October 2003). “First Steps of Bridge in the West: Collinson’s
‘Biritch'” (PDF). The Playing-Card. Vol. 32, no. 2. The International Playing-Card Society. pp. 67–76. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
o ^ Alan Truscott (2 February 1992). “Bridge”. The New York Times.
o ^ John Collinson
(9 July 1886). “Biritch, or Russian Whist”. Retrieved 29 July 2018 – via Pagat.com [2007].
o ^ Elwell 1905[full citation needed] and Benedict 1900.[full citation needed]
o ^ Melrose 1901.[full citation needed]
o ^ Foster 1889.[full citation
needed]
o ^ “Auction bridge”. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
o ^ David Owen (17 September 2007). “Turning Tricks – The rise and fall of contract bridge”. The New Yorker.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 1, p. 3.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Laws of Rubber Bridge,
Law 3, pp. 3–4.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 44, pp. 20–21.
o ^ Gibson 1974, pp. 632–636.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 72(a), pp. 34–35.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 19, p. 10.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 18, p.
10.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 22, p. 11.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Gibson 1974, p. 135.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 81, pp. 37–39.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 41, p. 19.
o ^ Gibson
1974, p. 134.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 8, pp. 5–6.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge, Law 6, pp. 9–10.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge, Law 7, p. 11.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge, p. 136: “The ACBL Board of Directors authorizes
tournament organizers in ACBL sanctioned events to use bidding boxes.”
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge, Law 80, pp. 99–100.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 4, p. 4.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge, Law 6B & 6E, pp. 9–10.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge,
Law 7B & 7C, p. 11.
o ^ Gibson 1974, pp. 135–136.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 40, pp. 18–19.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Part I (“Definitions”): Declarer.
o ^ Gibson 1974, pp. 136–137.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 43, p. 20.
o ^ Laws
of Rubber Bridge, Law 68–71, pp. 32–34.
o ^ Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 68–71, pp. 82–86.
o ^ Gibson 1974, p. 138.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge, Law 2, p. 6.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Laws of Rubber Bridge, Law 72–74, pp. 34–35.
o ^ Jump up to:a
b c d Laws of Duplicate Bridge, Law 77, p. 95.
o ^ Reese, Terence (17 June 2013). Bridge for Bright Beginners. Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-31746-5.
o ^ “The Laws of Duplicate Bridge 2017” (PDF). World Bridge Federation. Archived (PDF)
from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
o ^ Laws of Duplicate Bridge
o ^ “Basic Laws and Regulations”. ACBL website. A cross-referenced listing with additional documentation is also available at “Bridge Laws Index”. BridgeHands.
o ^
Laws of Rubber Bridge
o ^ “The WBF Code of Laws for Electronic Bridge 2001” (PDF). World Bridge Federation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
o ^ Franco Carraro (Olympic Programme Commission Chairman) (August 2002). “Review of
the Olympic programme and the recommendations on the programme of the games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008” (PDF). IOC Executive Board. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
o ^ “High Court rules bridge is not a sport”. BBC
News. 15 October 2015.
o ^ Francis, Truscott & Francis 2001, p. 576. See World Bridge Federation (WBF).
o ^ Grant, Audrey; Rodwell, Eric (1987). Bridge Maxims: Secrets of Better Play. Prentice-Hall Canada. ISBN 978-0-13-081936-9.
o ^ Andrew
Robson. Stayman & Transfer. Bridge Lessons. (Deal 1).
o ^ Andrew Robson. Stayman & Transfer. Bridge Lessons. (Deal 14).
o ^ Truscott, Alan (13 December 1981). “Bridge – One for the Books”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 September
2021.
o ^ Jump up to:a b “Bridge-Bot World Championship History”. World Computer-Bridge Championship. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
o ^ “RoboBridge”. RoboBridge. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c
Manley et al. 2011, p. 597
o ^ “Play bridge online for free with Funbridge”. www.funbridge.com.
o ^ “Bridge Online Play Bridge Game On Line – OKbridge”. okbridge.com. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
o ^ “Real Bridge with Real People”. RealBridge. Retrieved
27 May 2021.
o ^ “RealBridge Review”. English Bridge: 54–59. February 2021.
o ^ “2021 World Championship and USBCs”. USBF (United States Bridge Federation). Retrieved 27 May 2021.
o ^ “Qualifier for the 2021 World National Team Championships”.
European Bridge League. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
o ^ “Home”. Shark Bridge. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
o ^ “Online Bridge”. swangames.com. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
o ^ “Home – BridgeClubLive”. www.bridgeclublive.com. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
o ^
“Bridge Player LIVE! – /BPLIVE”. 20 December 1996. Archived from the original on 20 December 1996. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/2976723295/’]

 

 

 

color theory

 

  • The split-primary palette, also called color-bias theory, is a color-wheel model that attempts to explain, and to compensate for, the unsatisfactory results sometimes produced
    when mixing the traditional primary colors, red, yellow, and blue.

  • [3] Another issue has been the tendency to describe color effects holistically or categorically, for example as a contrast between “yellow” and “blue” conceived as generic
    colors, when most color effects are due to contrasts on three relative attributes which define all colors: 1.

  • In order to obtain vivid mixed colors, according to split-primary theory, it is necessary to employ the primary colors whose biases both fall in the direction, on the color
    wheel, of the color to be mixed, combining, for example, green-biased blue with green-biased yellow to make bright green.

  • One reason the artist’s primary colors work at all is due to the imperfect pigments being used have sloped absorption curves and change color with concentration.

  • Color combination guidelines (or formulas) suggest that colors next to each other on the color wheel model (analogous colors) tend to produce a single-hued or monochromatic
    color experience and some theorists also refer to these as “simple harmonies”.

  • Any three real “primary” colors of light, paint or ink can mix only a limited range of colors, called a gamut, which is always smaller (contains fewer colors) than the full
    range of colors humans can perceive.

  • [citation needed] Many historical “color theorists” have assumed that three “pure” primary colors can mix into all possible colors, and any failure of specific paints or inks
    to match this ideal performance is due to the impurity or imperfection of the colorants.

  • [4] Historical background Color theory was originally formulated in terms of three “primary” or “primitive” colors—red, yellow and blue (RYB)—because these colors were believed
    capable of mixing all other colors.

  • Page from 1826 A New Practical Treatise on the Three Primitive Colours Assumed as a Perfect System of Rudimentary Information by Charles Hayter Subsequently, German and English
    scientists established in the late 19th century that color perception is best described in terms of a different set of primary colors—red, green and blue-violet (RGB)—modeled through the additive mixture of three monochromatic lights.

  • Traditional color theory Complementary colors[edit] Chevreul’s 1855 “chromatic diagram” based on the RYB color model, showing complementary colors and other relationships
    Main article: Complementary colors For the mixing of colored light, Isaac Newton’s color wheel is often used to describe complementary colors, which are colors that cancel each other’s hue to produce an achromatic (white, gray or black) light
    mixture.

  • [12] In addition, split complementary color schemes usually depict a modified complementary pair, with instead of the “true” second color being chosen, a range of analogous
    hues around it are chosen, i.e.

  • The organization of colors in a particular color model depends on the purpose of that model: some models show relationships based on human color perception, whereas others
    are based on the color mixing properties of a particular medium such as a computer display or set of paints.

  • However, when complementary colors are chosen based on the definition by light mixture, they are not the same as the artists’ primary colors.

  • From their incorrect premises, proponents of split-primary theory conclude that extra colors are needed in order to mix a wide gamut of high-chroma colors, an idea belied
    by the longtime success of three-color photographic printing.

  • On this basis the quantitative description of the color mixture or colorimetry developed in the early 20th century, along with a series of increasingly sophisticated models
    of color space and color perception, such as the opponent process theory.

  • These contrasts form the basis of Chevreul’s law of color contrast: colors that appear together will be altered as if mixed with the complementary color of the other color.

  • Subtractive and additive Color abstractions The foundations of pre-20th-century color theory were built around “pure” or ideal colors, characterized by different sensory experiences
    rather than attributes of the physical world.

  • In color theory, neutral colors are easily modified by adjacent more saturated colors, and they appear to take on the hue complementary to the saturated color; e.g., next
    to a bright red couch, a gray wall will appear distinctly greenish, this is a property of human vision.

  • Current status Color theory has not developed an explicit explanation of how specific media affect color appearance: colors have always been defined in the abstract, and whether
    the colors were inks or paints, oils or watercolors, transparencies or reflecting prints, computer displays or movie theaters, was not considered especially relevant.

  • Although no set of three primaries can be mixed to obtain the complete color gamut perceived by humans, red, yellow, and blue are a poor choice if high chroma mixtures are
    desired.

  • This system is still popular among contemporary painters,[citation needed] as it is basically a simplified version of Newton’s geometrical rule that colors closer together
    on the hue circle will produce more vibrant mixtures.

  • These theories were enhanced by 18th-century investigations of a variety of purely psychological color effects, in particular the contrast between “complementary” or opposing
    hues that are produced by color afterimages and in the contrasting shadows in colored light.

  • Hence, our responses to color and the notion of color harmony is open to the influence of a range of different factors.

  • Black and white have long been known to combine “well” with almost any other colors; black decreases the apparent saturation or brightness of colors paired with it and white
    shows off all hues to equal effect.

  • Rather than adopting a more satisfactory set of primary colors, proponents of split-primary theory explain this lack of chroma by the purported presence of chemical impurities,
    small amounts of other colors, in the paints, or biases away from the ideal primary toward one or the other of the adjacent colors.

  • Color wheel models have often been used as a basis for color combination principles or guidelines and for defining relationships between colors.

  • Since only one hue is used, the color and its variations are guaranteed to work.

  • [16] It is important to note that while color symbolism and color associations exist, their existence does not provide evidential support for color psychology or claims that
    color has therapeutic properties.

  • Another practice when darkening a color is to use its opposite, or complementary, color (e.g.

  • [5] Goethe’s color wheel from his 1810 Theory of Colours The RYB primary colors became the foundation of 18th-century theories of color vision,[citation needed] as the fundamental
    sensory qualities that are blended in the perception of all physical colors, and conversely, in the physical mixture of pigments or dyes.

  • [15] However, connotative color associations and color symbolism tends to be culture-bound and may also vary across different contexts and circumstances.

  • It is important to add that the CMYK, or process, color printing is meant as an economical way of producing a wide range of colors for printing, but is deficient in reproducing
    certain colors, notably orange and slightly deficient in reproducing purples.

  • When lightening a color this hue shift can be corrected with the addition of a small amount of an adjacent color to bring the hue of the mixture back in line with the parent
    color (e.g.

  • As a result, three-color printing became aesthetically and economically feasible in mass printed media, and the artists’ color theory was adapted to primary colors most effective
    in inks or photographic dyes: cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY).

  • In reality, only imaginary “primary colors” used in colorimetry can “mix” or quantify all visible (perceptually possible) colors; but to do this, these imaginary primaries
    are defined as lying outside the range of visible colors; i.e., they cannot be seen.

  • Split primary system[edit] In painting and other visual arts, two-dimensional color wheels or three-dimensional color solids are used as tools to teach beginners the essential
    relationships between colors.

  • A wider range of colors can be obtained with the addition of other colors to the printing process, such as in Pantone’s Hexachrome printing ink system (six colors), among
    others.

  • Some theorists and artists believe juxtapositions of complementary color will produce strong contrast, a sense of visual tension as well as “color harmony”; while others believe
    juxtapositions of analogous colors will elicit a positive aesthetic response.

  • Another reason the correct primary colors were not used by early artists is they were not available as durable pigments.

  • It is common among some painters to darken a paint color by adding black paint—producing colors called shades—or lighten a color by adding white—producing colors called tints.

  • [9] In addition, given that humans can perceive over 2.8 million different colors,[10] it has been suggested that the number of possible color combinations is virtually infinite
    thereby implying that predictive color harmony formulae are fundamentally unsound.

  • However, it is not always the best way for representational painting, as an unfortunate result is for colors to also shift in hue.

  • In practice, however, many of the mixtures produced from these colors lack chromatic intensity.

  • Munsell’s 1905 color system represents colors using three color-making attributes, value (lightness), chroma, and hue.

  • It is even possible to mix very low concentrations of the blue mentioned and the chromium red to get a greenish color.

  • Primary, secondary, and tertiary colors of the RYB color model According to traditional color theory based on subtractive primary colors and the RYB color model, yellow mixed
    with purple, orange mixed with blue, or red mixed with green produces an equivalent gray and are the painter’s complementary colors.

  • In the visual arts, color theory is the body of practical guidance for color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.

  • These biases are thought to result in mixtures that contain sets of complementary colors, darkening the resulting color.

  • [11] Despite this, many color theorists have devised formulae, principles or guidelines for color combination with the aim being to predict or specify positive aesthetic response
    or “color harmony”.

  • They also arise from the attempt to describe the highly contextual and flexible behavior of color perception in terms of abstract color sensations that can be generated equivalently
    by any visual media.

  • In addition, context always has an influence on responses about color and the notion of color harmony, and this concept is also influenced by temporal factors (such as changing
    trends) and perceptual factors (such as simultaneous contrast) which may impinge on human response to color.

  • This discrepancy becomes important when color theory is applied across media.

  • For example, they may add a scarlet, purple and/or green paint to expand the mixable gamut; and they include one or more dark colors (especially “earth” colors such as yellow
    ochre or burnt sienna) simply because they are convenient to have premixed.

 

Works Cited

[‘1. Smithson, H.E.; Dinkova-Bruun, G.; Gasper, G.E.M.; Huxtable, M.; McLeish, T.C.B.; Panti, C.P. (2012). “A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century”. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 29 (2): A346–A352. Bibcode:2012JOSAA..29A.346S. doi:10.1364/josaa.29.00A346.
PMC 3287286. PMID 22330399.
2. ^ Kirchner, E. (2013). “Color theory and color order in medieval Islam: A review”. Color Research & Application. 40 (1): 5-16. doi:10.1002/col.21861.
3. ^ “handprint : colormaking attributes”. www.handprint.com.
Retrieved 2021-07-31.
4. ^ “Traditional and Modern Colour Theory Part 1: Modern Colour Theory”. Retrieved 2021-10-15.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b “The History of Color Theory: Must-Know Facts for Creatives – Pigment Pool”. 30 July 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-31.
6. ^
“color temperature”. handprint. 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
7. ^ Singh, Satyendra (2006-01-01). “Impact of color on marketing”. Management Decision. 44 (6): 783–789. doi:10.1108/00251740610673332. ISSN 0025-1747.
8. ^ Burchett, K. E. (2002).
“Color Harmony”. Color Research and Application, 27 (1), pp. 28–31.
9. ^ O’Connor, Z. (2010). “Color harmony revisited”. Color Research and Application, 35 (4), pp. 267–273.
10. ^ Pointer, M. R. & Attridge, G.G. (1998). “The number of discernible
colors”. Color Research and Application, 23 (1), pp. 52–54.
11. ^ Hard, A. & Sivik, L. (2001). “A theory of colors in combination – A descriptive model related to the NCS color-order system”. Color Research and Application, 26 (1), pp. 4–28.
12. ^
Garau, Augusto (1993). Color Harmonies. University of Chicago press. p. 7. ISBN 0226281965.
13. ^ Feisner, E. A. (2000). Colour: How to use colour in art and design. London: Laurence King.
14. ^ Mahnke, F. (1996). Color, environment and human
response. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
15. ^ Benson, J. L. (2000). Greek Color Theory and the Four Elements. Greek Color Theory and the Four Elements. Full text, not including figures.
16. ^ Bellantoni, Patti (2005). If it’s Purple, Someone’s
Gonna Die. Elsevier, Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-80688-3.
17. ^ O’Connor, Z. (2010). “Colour psychology and color therapy: Caveat emptor”. Color Research and Application
18. ^ “Pigments through the Ages – Renaissance and Baroque (1400-1600)”. www.webexhibits.org.
19. ^
Albers, Josef (2006). Interaction of Color. Revised and Expanded Edition. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11595-4.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/brillianthues/8711277462/’]

 

 

 

cruelty to animals

 

  • Even though some practices, like animal fighting, are widely acknowledged as cruel, not all people and nations have the same definition of what constitutes animal cruelty.

  • They say that most animal use itself is unnecessary and a cause of suffering, so the only way to ensure protection for animals is to end their status as property and to ensure
    that they are never viewed as a substance or as non-living things.

  • The industrial nature of these facilities means that many routine procedures or animal husbandry practices impinge on the welfare of the animals and could be considered cruelty,
    with Henry Stephen Salt claiming in 1899 that “it is impossible to transport and slaughter vast numbers of large and highly-sensitive animals humanely”.

  • [58] Worldwide laws on animal use in circuses[59] 1certain animals are excluded or the laws vary internally Some other animal welfare organizations worldwide, such as the
    Animal Anti-Cruelty League in South Africa, have also monitored the use of animals in the film.

  • This film played a large part in renewed scrutiny of animal cruelty in films and led to renewed official on-set jurisdiction to monitor the treatment of animals by the AHA
    in 1980.

  • [77] Unnecessary scientific experiments or demonstrations[edit] Worldwide laws regarding testing cosmetics on animals 1some methods of testing are excluded from the ban or
    the laws vary within the country Main articles: Testing cosmetics on animals and Countries banning non-human ape experimentation Under all three of the conceptual approaches to animal cruelty discussed above, performing unnecessary experiments
    or demonstrations upon animals that cause them substantial pain or distress may be viewed as cruelty.

  • However, close analysis shows that many human features such as complex sign usage, tool use, and self-consciousness can be found in some animals.

  • [60][61] Animal trainers have argued that some criticism is not based on fact, including beliefs that shouting makes the animals believe the trainer is going to hurt them,
    that caging is cruel and common, and that the use of whips, chains or training harms animals.

  • [16] Many undercover investigators have exposed the animal cruelty taking place inside the factory farming industry and there is evidence to show that consumers provided with
    accurate information about the process of meat production and the abuse that accompanies it has led to changes in their attitudes.

  • No pet policies are a leading cause of animal abandonment, which is considered a crime in many jurisdictions.

  • [21] Welfare concerns of farm animals[edit] See also: Animal slaughter and Overview of discretionary invasive procedures on animals The following are lists of invasive procedures
    that cause pain, routinely performed on farm animals, and housing conditions that routinely cause animal welfare concerns.

  • Definition and viewpoints Throughout history, some individuals, like Leonardo da Vinci for example, who once purchased caged birds in order to set them free,[2][3] were concerned
    about cruelty to animals.

  • Colombia[edit] Main article: Animal rights in Colombia In Colombia, there is little control over cruel behaviors against animals, and the government has proposed that bullfighting
    be declared a “Cultural Heritage”; other activities like cockfighting are given the same legal treatment.

  • [1] It may be said that there is nothing inherently wrong with using animals for human purposes, such as food, clothing, entertainment, and research, but that it should be
    done in a way that minimizes unnecessary pain and suffering, sometimes referred to as “humane” treatment.

  • This section also prohibits transporting animals in a way that causes unnecessary suffering (c), administering poison (d), performing operations without due care (e), and
    actions related to animal fighting (f).

  • Others would respond that it is a routine technique for meat production to prevent harm later in the pig’s life.

  • These arguments have prompted some to suggest that animals’ well-being should enter a social welfare function directly, not just indirectly via its effect only on human well-being.

  • Court decisions have addressed films that harm animals such as videos that in part depict dog fighting.

  • [10] Many countries have now formally recognized animal sentience and animal suffering, and have passed anti-cruelty legislation in response.

  • According to the studies used to form this model, cruelty to animals is a common (but not universal) behavior in children and adolescents who grow up to become serial killers
    and other violent criminals.

  • [46] In two separate studies cited by the Humane Society of the United States, roughly one-third of families suffering from domestic abuse indicated that at least one child
    had hurt or killed a pet.

  • Entertainment[edit] Television and filmmaking[edit] Demonstrations against animal cruelty in Iran Animal cruelty has long been an issue in filmmaking industry, with even some
    big-budget Hollywood films receiving criticism for allegedly harmful—and sometimes lethal—treatment of animals during production.

  • [104] Mexico[edit] The current policy of Mexico, in civil law, condemns physical harm to animals as property damage to the owners of the abused animal, considering the animals
    as owned property.

  • Only recently has the involvement of animals in war been questioned, and practices such as using animals for fighting, as living bombs or for military testing purposes (such
    as during the Bikini atomic experiments) may now be criticized for being cruel.

  • Due to changes in ethical standards, this type of cruelty tends to be less common today than it used to be in the past.

  • For example, some laws govern methods of killing animals for food, clothing, or other products, and other laws concern the keeping of animals for entertainment, education,
    research, or pets.

  • His notebooks also record his anger with the fact that humans used their dominance to raise animals for slaughter.

  • Despite being cruel to animals, hunting is practiced in thousands of private properties around the world and is considered a profitable business.

  • [68] Rattlesnake round-ups became a concern by animal welfare groups and conservationists due to claims of animal cruelty.

  • Circuses[edit] The use of animals in the circus has been controversial since animal welfare groups have documented instances of animal cruelty during the training of performing
    animals.

  • [85] Laws by country Many jurisdictions around the world have enacted statutes which forbid cruelty to some animals but these vary by country and in some cases by the use
    or practice.

  • The animal rights group PACMA has described the fiesta as “a clear example of animal mistreatment”.

  • [38] A large national survey by the Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies found a “substantial overlap between companion animal abuse and child abuse”
    and that cruelty to animals “most frequently co-occurred with psychological abuse and less severe forms of physical child abuse.

  • “[40] “A survey of psychiatric patients who had repeatedly tortured dogs and cats found all of them had high levels of aggression toward people as well, including one patient
    who had murdered a young boy.

  • [citation needed] In contrast, some have argued that the definition of ‘unnecessary’ stated above varies widely and could include virtually all current use of animals.

  • [citation needed] More recently, the video-sharing site YouTube has been criticized for hosting thousands of videos of real-life animal cruelty, especially the feeding of
    one animal to another for entertainment and spectacle.

  • It includes prison sentences of three months to one year for harming or killing a domesticated animal or for conducting animal fights.

  • [12] It has been suggested the number of animals hunted, kept as companions, used in laboratories, reared for the fur industry, raced, and used in zoos and circuses, is insignificant
    compared to farm animals, and therefore the “animal welfare issue” is numerically reducible to the “farm animal welfare issue”.

  • Canada[edit] Main article: Animal welfare and rights in Canada In Canada, it is an offence under the Criminal Code to intentionally cause unnecessary pain, suffering, or injury
    to an animal.

  • [97] However, it is not explicitly illegal in Canadian law to kill a dog or cat for consumption.

  • Some utilitarians argue for a weaker approach which is closer to the animal welfare position, whereas others argue for a position that is similar to animal rights.

  • [42][43] According to the American Humane Association, 13% of intentional animal abuse cases involve domestic violence.

  • It has also been found that children who are cruel to animals have often witnessed or been victims of abuse themselves.

  • [45] Cruelty to animals is one of the three components of the Macdonald triad, behavior considered to be one of the signs of violent antisocial behavior in children and adolescents.

  • [99] Chile[edit] Law 20380 established sanctions including fines, from 2 to 30 Mensual Tributary Units, and prison, from 541 days to 3 years, for those involved in acts of
    animal cruelty.

  • Forms Animal cruelty can be broken down into two main categories: active and passive.

  • Provisions in the code discouraged “apparent cruelty to children and animals”, and because the Hays Office had the power to enforce this clause, the AHA often had access to
    sets to assess adherence to it.

  • Animal abuse is sometimes used as a form of intimidation in domestic disputes.

  • [47] Cultural rituals[edit] Many times, when Asiatic elephants are captured in Thailand, handlers use a technique known as the training crush, in which “handlers use sleep-deprivation,
    hunger, and thirst to ‘break’ the elephants’ spirit and make them submissive to their owners”; moreover, handlers drive nails into the elephants’ ears and feet.

  • [91] The NSPCA is the largest and oldest animal welfare organisation in South Africa that enforces 90% of all animal cruelty cases in the country by means of enforcing the
    Animals Protection Act.

  • [98] The Animal Legal Defense Fund releases an annual report ranking the animal protection laws of every province and territory based on their relative strength and general
    comprehensiveness.

  • In many cases, abandoned pets have to be euthanized due to the strain they put on animal shelters and rescue groups.

  • [62] Bolivia has enacted what animal rights activists called the world’s first ban on all animals in circuses.

  • The Act contains a detailed list of prohibited acts of cruelty including overloading, causing unnecessary suffering due to confinement, chaining or tethering, abandonment,
    unnecessarily denying food or water, keeping in a dirty or parasitic condition, or failing to provide veterinary assistance.

  • More narrowly, it can be the causing of harm or suffering for specific achievements, such as killing animals for entertainment; cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting
    harm or suffering as an end in itself, referred to as zoosadism.

  • Films monitored by the American Humane Association may bear one of their end-credit messages.

  • [2] Several religious traditions, especially those originating in India, have promoted animal welfare as an important or fundamental concept, even to the point of promoting
    veganism.

  • Since ag-gag laws prohibit video or photographic documentation of farm activities, these practices have been documented by secret photography taken by whistleblowers or undercover
    operatives from such organizations as Mercy for Animals and the Humane Society of the United States posing as employees.

  • [86] The Egyptian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was established over a hundred years ago and was instrumental in promoting a 1997 ban on bullfighting in
    Egypt.

  • [63] Animal fighting[edit] A bull dying in a bullfight Bullfighting is criticized by animal rights or animal welfare activists, referring to it as a cruel or barbaric blood
    sport in which the bull suffers severe stress and slow, torturous death.

  • Many productions, including those made in the United States, do not advise AHA or SAG of animal use in films, so there is no oversight.

  • [84] Hunting[edit] Rhinoceros killed for their horns Hunting is largely a recreational activity causing death and injury to a significant number of animals.

  • [93] Brazil[edit] Main article: Animal welfare and rights in Brazil Brazil is a high-volume animal producer, slaughtering around 30.8 land-based animals per person per year,
    compared to a global average of 10.1.

  • “[39] A history of torturing pets and small animals, a behavior known as zoosadism, is considered one of the signs of certain psychopathologies, including antisocial personality
    disorder, also known as a psychopathic personality disorder.

  • Americas[edit] Argentina[edit] In Argentina, National Law 14346 sanctions from 15 days to one year in prison for those who mistreat or inflict acts of cruelty on animals.

  • Africa[edit] Egypt[edit] Main article: Animal welfare in Egypt Egyptian law states that anyone who inhumanely beats or intentionally kills any domesticated animal may be jailed
    or fined.

  • [13] Similarly, it has been suggested by campaign groups that chickens, cows, pigs, and other farm animals are among the most numerous animals subjected to cruelty.

  • It further warns those attending bullfights to “be prepared to witness various failed attempts at killing the animal before it lies down.

  • Battered women report that they are prevented from leaving their abusers because they fear what will happen to the animals in their absence.

 

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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/foxypar4/1273326361/’]

 

 

 

tax inversion

 

  • [94] Countermeasures United States[edit] See also: Double Irish arrangement § Effect of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) There have been three phases of initiatives that the
    US Government have taken to counter US corporate tax inversions: • 2004 American Jobs Creation Act (ACJA): In 2002, the US Treasury reported to Congress that there had been a “marked increase in the frequency, size, and visibility” of “naked
    inversions”.

  • The second major wave of US tax inversions use mergers to meet the “substantial business activities” of IRS 7874; Ireland and the UK are main destinations and the size of
    these inversions are much larger than the first wave (see graphic), and included: Medtronic, Liberty Global, Eaton Corporation, Johnson Controls, and Perrigo.

  • US Congress passes the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (AJCA) with IRS Section 7874 that requires existing shareholders to own less than 80% of the new entity, and introduces
    a “substantial business activities” test in the new foreign location; AJCA ends “naked inversions” to Caribbean-type tax havens.

  • In response, Congress passed the AJCA, which added Section 7876 to the US tax-code that effectively ended “naked inversions” to Caribbean-type tax havens where the US corporation
    had no previous business presence in the location.

  • [1] The majority of the less than 100 material tax inversions recorded since 1993 have been of US corporations (85 inversions), seeking to pay less to the US corporate tax
    system.

  • [29] Evidence of tax savings[edit] In September 2017, the US Congressional Budget Office analyzed the post-tax outcomes of US corporate tax inversions from 1994 to 2014, and
    found the following:[52] • After year one, the aggregate effective rate of worldwide taxation of the inverted company fell from a 29% rate to an 18% rate;[53] and • By year three, the aggregate worldwide tax expense was 34% lower, while the
    US tax expense was 64% lower.

  • Irish International Financial Services Centre tax-law firms sometimes list Pentair in their brochures as a Swiss tax inversion to Ireland; however Pentair was really a 2012
    US tax inversion to Switzerland, who then used Ireland as a base for two years, before moving to the UK in 2016.

  • The existing US shareholders still own a majority merged group this thus maintain “effective control”, however, it is now a foreign company under the US tax code.

  • [41] Inversions are undertaken to reduce taxes — Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2017)[5] One such strategy is a corporate inversion, which is executed to result in a significant
    reduction in worldwide tax payments for a company.

  • However, long-term domestic shareholders did not benefit from inversions, since the US tax code requires taxable shareholders to recognize their capital gains at the time
    of the inversion.

  • [11][16] • Where the existing US shareholders owned between 60% but less than 80% of the EAG, the inversion would be recognized as a foreign company but with restricted tax
    benefits.

  • As of June 2019, there have been no material US inversions post-2017, and notably, two large Irish-based tax inversion targets were acquired in non-tax inversion transactions,
    where the acquirer remained in their higher-tax jurisdiction: Shire plc by Japanese pharma Takeda for US$63 billion (announced in 2018, closed in 2019), and Allergan plc by U.S. pharma AbbVie for US$64 billion (announced in 2019, expected
    to close in 2020); in addition, Broadcom Inc. redomesticated to the United States.

  • Concept While the legal steps taken to execute a tax inversion can be complex as the corporations need to avoid both regulatory and Internal Revenue Service (IRS) hurdles
    in re-locating their tax residence to a lower-tax jurisdiction, simplified examples are available; such as provided in August 2014, by Bloomberg journalist Matt Levine when reporting on the Burger King tax inversion to Canada.

  • [5][47] The US was one of only eight jurisdictions using a “worldwide tax system”.

  • [1] In 1994, US tax academic James R. Hines Jr. published the important Hines–Rice paper, which showed that many US corporations had chosen to shift profits to tax havens,
    instead of outright moving to the tax haven by executing a tax inversion.

  • They also used debt-based earnings stripping tools to shift US profits to the new destination.

  • By changing its headquarters to another country with a territorial tax regime, the corporation typically pays taxes on its earnings in each of those countries at the specific
    rates of each country.

  • [49] US tax academics noted this was the reason why non-US corporations made limited use of tax havens;[49] in contrast, US corporations have been shown to be the largest
    global users of tax havens.

  • [55] Shareholder impact[edit] A number of studies have shown that the after-tax returns to original company shareholders post-inversion are more mixed, and often poor: • A
    2014 report by Reuters on 52 completed US tax inversions since 1983 showed that 19 outperformed the S&P500, another 19 underperformed the S&P500, another 10 were bought by rivals, another 3 went bankrupt and the final one returned to the US.

  • [10] Hines, and later again with US tax academic Dhammika Dharmapala, would show that base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), was an even greater loss of corporate tax revenue
    to the US exchequer, than full tax inversions.

  • However, Apple’s 2015 BEPS transaction to Ireland was the first time a US corporation moved a substantial amount of IP to a full OECD jurisdiction where it already had a “substantive
    business operations”.

  • [69][70][71] While Apple’s tax residence remained in the US,[72][73] Apple moved the legal tax residence of a large part of its business to Ireland in a US$300 billion quasi-tax
    inversion of its intellectual property (IP).

  • The Treasury cited three concerns: the erosion of the US tax base, a cost advantage for foreign-controlled firms, and a reduction in perceived fairness of the tax system.

  • Before the 2017 TCJA, the US corporate tax rate was one of the highest rates in the developed world at 35%.

  • [25] Costs There have been several estimates of the aggregate cost of US tax inversions to the US exchequer (also called the erosion of the US tax base).

  • [65] Since the 2004 ACJA, and the 2012–16 Treasury rules, only US corporations with an existing “substantial business presence” in the foreign location that constitutes more
    than 25% of the post-inversion corporation (called the “expanded affiliate group” (EAG) in the legalisation) can execute a “self-inversion”.

  • [88] However, just three years later, the scale of US tax inversions had increased dramatically, leading the CBO to re-forecast in 2017 that by 2027, annual US taxes would
    be circa 2.5% (or US$12 billion) lower due to tax inversions.

  • In 2016, tax academic Kimberly Clausing estimated that the loss to the US exchequer from all classes of inversions, using the broadest types of hybrid inversions (and all
    base erosion and profit shifting earnings stripping activity), by US corporations was between US$77 to US$111 billion in 2012 (having been zero 20 years ago).

  • In July 2015, The Wall Street Journal reported that the circa 4% “effective tax rate” being paid by US pharmaceuticals who inverted to Ireland made them highly acquisitive
    of other US firms (i.e.

  • [43][44] The “first wave” of US inversions from 1996 to 2004 focused on debt-based tools, however, the significantly larger “second wave” of US inversions from 2012 to 2016
    also made use of IP-based BEPS tools.

  • Reuters concluded that: “But the analysis makes one thing clear: inversions, on their own, despite largely providing the tax savings that companies seek, are no guarantee
    of superior returns for investors”.

  • In addition, the corporation executing the tax inversion may find additional tax avoidance strategies, called § Earnings Stripping tools, that can shift untaxed profits from
    the higher-tax locations (e.g.

  • A tax inversion or corporate tax inversion is a form of tax avoidance where a corporation restructures so that the current parent is replaced by a foreign parent, and the
    original parent company becomes a subsidiary of the foreign parent, thus moving its tax residence to the foreign country.

  • [26] AbbVie announced that post the 2017 TCJA, its effective tax rate was already lower than that of Irish-based Allergan plc at 9%, and that post the acquisition, it would
    rise to 13%.

  • This pre-TCJA U.S. tax system, was referred to as a “worldwide tax system”, as opposed to the “territorial tax system” used by almost all other developed countries.

  • [22] Medtronic and Allergan, therefore, could only avail of Ireland’s lower effective tax rates if they could shift US-sourced profits to Ireland without incurring full US
    corporate taxes.

  • Existing shareholders of the US company maintain at least 50% of the equity, or “effective control”, of the new post-inversion company; and ii.

  • — Congressional Budget Office (2017)[18] Types of tax saving[edit] US research on US tax inversions breaks down the tax savings into three areas: OECD “worldwide tax” countries.

  • [81] The US Life Sciences industry (Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices) became a significant part of the second wave of US tax inversions from 2012 to 2016.

  • [d] This is where the IP of the newly inverted group is moved to the lower-tax jurisdiction of the parent, who charges it out to the higher-tax jurisdictions in which the
    group operates (including its original US jurisdiction).

  • Given that the U.S. tax rate of 35% was one of the highest in the world, the corporate’s maximum global tax liability should, therefore, have been 35%.

  • [84][44] § Countermeasures created in the 2017 TCJA, directly targeted debt-based tools via the new BEAT tax, and introduce a competing US IP-based BEPS tool called the FDII
    tax.

  • [61] Since 2004 ACJA and 2012–16 Treasury rules, only mergers where the existing US shareholders own less than 80% of the EAG are recognized as foreign by the IRS (and mergers
    where the foreign-headquartered EAG is still over 80% owned by the original US corporate shareholders, is considered by the IRS to be a US corporation for taxation purposes).

  • Hybrid inversions[edit] See also: Leprechaun economics The material fall in the US aggregate “effective” corporate tax rate (1990 to 2016).

  • [5] The development of § Tools that could shift or earnings strip US-sourced profits to other jurisdictions without incurring US taxes, created an incentive for US corporates
    to execute tax inversions to lower tax jurisdictions.

  • The United Kingdom reforms its corporate tax code introducing a lower 19% corporate tax rate and moves to a full “territorial tax system”.

  • [54] A 2014 report by the Financial Times on US pharmaceutical tax inversions during 2012–2014, showed their aggregate worldwide tax rates dropped from 26 to 28% to 16–21%.

  • The main provisions were:[11] • US inversions where the existing US shareholders owned more than 80% of the post-inversion group, or Expanded Affiliate Group (EAG), would
    not be recognized.

  • The driver was shown to be partly agency costs, and a distinction was drawn between the material gains of the CEO from the inversion and the losses of long-term shareholders.

  • It also involved some of the largest and most public executed US tax inversions (e.g.

  • [84][85][42] For example, when Medtronic inverted to Ireland in 2015, over 60% of the merged group’s revenue still came from the US healthcare system.

  • Liberty Global completes the second largest US tax inversion in history in a US$24 billion merger with Virgin Media in the UK.

  • [64][22] Major classes[edit] In 2019, in the “anatomy of an inversion” the US Congressional Research Service (CRS) classified US tax inversion into three broad types:[65]
    • Substantial business presence.

  • [81] The US Oil & Gas Well Drilling and Servicing and US Casualty Insurance inversions are mostly associated with the first wave of US tax inversions before 2004;[9] the very
    first US tax inversion, McDermott International in 1983, was from the Oil & Gas Well Drilling and Servicing industry.

  • James R. Hines Jr. publishes the important Hines–Rice paper, which shows that many US corporations had chosen to shift profits to tax havens, instead of using tax inversions.

  • [51] A similar 2014 study by Forbes Magazine using the projected post-inversion tax rates from the inverting corporates also confirmed the same movement in tax rates.

  • The US definition requires that the original shareholders remain a majority control of the post-inverted company.

  • AbbVie announced an agreement to acquire Allergan plc for $US63 billion; however the acquisition would not be structured as a tax inversion, and that the group would be domiciled
    in the U.S. for tax purposes.

  • [21][63] Sometimes, the 2015 US$70 billion merger of Allergan plc and Activis plc, both previous US tax inversions to Ireland, are listed as a tax inversion (and the largest
    executed inversion in history).

  • Without these tools, a tax inversion might not deliver the expected tax savings, as the profits might arrive at the new destination having incurred full taxes in the jurisdictions
    in which they were sourced.

  • These inversions involved mergers with real companies that met the “substantial business activities” test of IRS Section 7874.

  • [21] Similarly, over 80% of Allergan’s revenues comes from the US healthcare system post its Irish inversion.

  • [80] Industries In 2017, the Congressional Budgetary Office reported that of the 60 US tax inversions from 1983 to 2015 which the CBO officially recognize, over 40% came from
    three industries: Pharmaceutical preparations (9), Fire, marine, and casualty insurance (7), and Oil & Gas Well Drilling and Servicing (7).

  • The largest completed corporate tax inversion in history was the US$48 billion merger of Medtronic with Covidien plc in Ireland in 2015 (the vast majority of their merged
    revenues are still from the US).

  • [48][43] All other jurisdictions used a “territorial tax system” where very low rates of taxation are applied to foreign-sourced profits (e.g.

  • Tax academics have shown that the dominance of US corporations in using tax havens was driven by strategies to shield non-US income from US taxation.

  • The US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act reforms US tax code and introduces a lower 21% headline tax rate and moves to a hybrid–”territorial tax system”.

  • [3] These US companies that inverted in these two industries shared the common attributes of having mostly international client bases, and of having assets that were easily
    “portable” outside of the US.

 

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economic benefits of the merger. Any pretense to a motivation other than dodging taxes has now been wiped away.
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on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019. Since its “inversion,” the company has been awarded more than $40 million in federal contracts and its executives still work at its Fridley campus.
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economics literature on income shifting, which dates back to Hines and Rice (1994) and which we refer to as the “Hines-Rice” approach.
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we should be expecting to see much more of as we move towards the end of the decade. Buckle up!
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o ^ Jump up to:a b Hall 2017, pp. 8–9, Clustering of Inversions by Industry
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from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019. Horizon and other inverted companies are using their new, lower tax rates to turbocharge corporate takeovers. Applying those rates, often in the midteens, to profits of companies in the
US, with a federal corporate rate of 35%, can yield extra savings on top of those traditionally wrung from mergers. Moreover, unlike the US, Ireland and most other countries, only tax profits earned in-country, giving companies the freedom and incentive
to shift income to still-lower-tax jurisdictions.
o ^ Max Nisen (6 August 2016). “Big Pharma Murdered Tax Inversions”. Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
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o ^
Jump up to:a b “Inverse logic”. The Economist. Washington, D.C. 20 September 2014. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019. Often, the group can shift debt to the American unit, or have it borrow from the foreign parent.
It can then pay interest to the parent while deducting the sums involved from its American taxes. Several studies have found such “earnings stripping” common when companies invert.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Jim A. Seida; William F. Wempe (December 2004).
“Effective Tax Rate Changes and Earnings Stripping Following Corporate Inversion” (PDF). National Tax Journal. LVII (4). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2019. [..] we infer that inversion–related ETR reductions
are due to U.S. earnings stripping.
o ^ Clausing 2014, pp. 6–7
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2014.
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Marples & Gravelle 2019, pp. 7–8
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November 2012). “The United Kingdom’s Move to Territorial Taxation”. Tax Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019. From 2007 to 2010, a total of 22 companies inverted out of the UK. See Martin A. Sullivan,
Eaton Migrates to Ireland: Will the U.S. Now Go Territorial?, 135 Tax Notes 1303 (June 11, 2012).
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& Gravelle, pp. 7–16
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tax system, it is more appropriately described as a hybrid system.
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May 2018. The new tax code addresses the historical competitive disadvantage of U.S.–based multinationals in terms of tax rates and international access to capital, and helps level the playing field for U.S. companies, Pfizer CEO Ian Read.
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& Gravelle 2019, pp. 16–23
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22 April 2019.
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Research Service.
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Bloomberg News.
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Economist. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
• Lunder, Erika K. (2016). Corporate Inversions: Frequently Asked Legal Questions (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service.
• Talley, Eric (2015). “Corporate Inversions and the Unbundling of
Regulatory Competition” (PDF). Virginia Law Review. 101: 1650–1721.
• Marples, Donald J.; Gravelle, Jane G. (2014). Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service.
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Tax Reform in the UK Reversed the Tide of Corporate Tax Inversions (PDF) (Report). Tax Foundation.
• Clausing, Kimberly (2014). Corporate Inversions (PDF) (Report). Urban Institute and Brookings Institution.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/verzo/4713533500/’]

 

 

 

h.g. wells

 

  • [38] His short period in Woking was perhaps the most creative and productive of his whole writing career,[37] for while there he planned and wrote The War of the Worlds and
    The Time Machine, completed The Island of Doctor Moreau, wrote and published The Wonderful Visit and The Wheels of Chance, and began writing two other early books, When the Sleeper Wakes and Love and Mr Lewisham.

  • [15] • Born: Herbert George Wells, 21 September 1866, Bromley, Kent, England; Died: 13 August 1946 (aged 79), Regent’s Park, London, England; Occupation: Novelist, Teacher,
    historian, journalist; Alma mater: Royal College of Science (Imperial College London); Genre: Science fiction (notably social science fiction), social realism; Subject: World history, Progress; Years active: 1895–1946; Notable works: The Outline
    of History, The Country of the Blind, The Red Room, Novels: The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The First Men in the Moon, The Shape of Things to Come, Ann Veronica, When the Sleeper Wakes;
    Spouse: Isabel Mary Wells, (m. 1891; div.

  • Wells’s best-known statement of the “law” appears in his introduction to a collection of his works published in 1934: As soon as the magic trick has been done the whole business
    of the fantasy writer is to keep everything else human and real.

  • Since “Barbellion” was the real author’s pen name, many reviewers believed Wells to have been the true author of the Journal; Wells always denied this, despite being full
    of praise for the diaries.

  • He reprised his Outline in 1922 with a much shorter popular work, A Short History of the World, a history book praised by Albert Einstein,[74] and two long efforts, The Science
    of Life (1930)—written with his son G. P. Wells and evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley, and The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind (1931).

  • Wells also wrote dozens of short stories and novellas, including, “The Flowering of the Strange Orchid”, which helped bring the full impact of Darwin’s revolutionary botanical
    ideas to a wider public, and was followed by many later successes such as “The Country of the Blind” (1904).

  • He was also among the founders of The Science School Journal, a school magazine that allowed him to express his views on literature and society, as well as trying his hand
    at fiction; a precursor to his novel The Time Machine was published in the journal under the title The Chronic Argonauts.

  • [52] David Lodge’s novel A Man of Parts (2011)—a ‘narrative based on factual sources’ (author’s note)—gives a convincing and generally sympathetic account of Wells’s relations
    with the women mentioned above, and others.

  • Novels of social realism such as Kipps (1905) and The History of Mr Polly (1910), which describe lower-middle-class English life, led to the suggestion that he was a worthy
    successor to Charles Dickens,[9] but Wells described a range of social strata and even attempted, in Tono-Bungay (1909), a diagnosis of English society as a whole.

  • He soon became devoted to the other worlds and lives to which books gave him access; they also stimulated his desire to write.

  • [82] H. G. Wells, one day before his 60th birthday, on the front cover of Time magazine, 20 September 1926 In 1927, a Canadian teacher and writer Florence Deeks unsuccessfully
    sued Wells for infringement of copyright and breach of trust, claiming that much of The Outline of History had been plagiarised from her unpublished manuscript,[83] The Web of the World’s Romance, which had spent nearly nine months in the
    hands of Wells’s Canadian publisher, Macmillan Canada.

  • [89] Plaque by the H. G. Wells Society at Chiltern Court, Baker Street in the City of Westminster, where Wells lived between 1930 and 1936 In 1933, Wells predicted in The
    Shape of Things to Come that the world war he feared would begin in January 1940,[90] a prediction which ultimately came true four months early, in September 1939, with the outbreak of World War II.

  • [21] His experiences at Hyde’s, where he worked a thirteen-hour day and slept in a dormitory with other apprentices,[16] later inspired his novels The Wheels of Chance, The
    History of Mr Polly, and Kipps, which portray the life of a draper’s apprentice as well as providing a critique of society’s distribution of wealth.

  • [6][7] Wells rendered his works convincing by instilling commonplace detail alongside a single extraordinary assumption per work – dubbed “Wells’s law” – leading Joseph Conrad
    to hail him in 1898 with “O Realist of the Fantastic!”.

  • [95] A pacifist prior to the First World War, Wells stated “how much better is this amiable miniature [war] than the real thing”.

  • [50][51] In Experiment in Autobiography (1934), Wells wrote: “I was never a great amorist, though I have loved several people very deeply”.

  • [57] According to James E. Gunn, one of Wells’s major contributions to the science fiction genre was his approach, which he referred to as his “new system of ideas”.

  • At first approaching the subject through Plato’s Republic, he soon turned to contemporary ideas of socialism as expressed by the recently formed Fabian Society and free lectures
    delivered at Kelmscott House, the home of William Morris.

  • [12][13] In his later years, he wrote less fiction and more works expounding his political and social views, sometimes giving his profession as that of journalist.

  • Some of his early novels, called “scientific romances”, invented several themes now classic in science fiction in such works as The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau,
    The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, When the Sleeper Wakes, and The First Men in the Moon.

  • [91] In 1936, before the Royal Institution, Wells called for the compilation of a constantly growing and changing World Encyclopaedia, to be reviewed by outstanding authorities
    and made accessible to every human being.

  • [2] To pass the time he began to read books from the local library, brought to him by his father.

  • [77] H. G. Wells c. 1918 From quite early in Wells’s career, he sought a better way to organise society and wrote a number of Utopian novels.

  • [69] In 1932, the physicist and conceiver of nuclear chain reaction Leó Szilárd read The World Set Free (the same year Sir James Chadwick discovered the neutron), a book which
    he wrote in his memoirs had made “a very great impression on me.

  • [95] During August 1914, immediately after the outbreak of the First World War, Wells published a number of articles in London newspapers that subsequently appeared as a book
    entitled The War That Will End War.

  • [73] However, it was very popular amongst the general population and made Wells a rich man.

  • The couple agreed to separate in 1894, when he had fallen in love with one of his students, Amy Catherine Robbins (1872–1927; later known as Jane), with whom he moved to Woking,
    Surrey, in May 1895.

  • His stay in The Potteries also resulted in the macabre short story “The Cone” (1895, contemporaneous with his famous The Time Machine), set in the north of the city.

  • “[33] His success with these shorter pieces encouraged him to write book-length work, and he published his first novel, The Time Machine, in 1895.

  • This ought to have been a comfortable sum of money (at the time many working class families had “round about a pound a week” as their entire household income),[26] yet in
    his Experiment in Autobiography Wells speaks of constantly being hungry, and indeed photographs of him at the time show a youth who is very thin and malnourished.

  • [53] Director Simon Wells (born 1961), the author’s great-grandson, was a consultant on the future scenes in Back to the Future Part II (1989).

  • When his mother returned to work as a lady’s maid (at Uppark, a country house in Sussex), one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living
    space for her husband and children.

  • [99] Wells used the shorter form of the phrase, “the war to end war”, in In the Fourth Year (1918), in which he noted that the phrase “got into circulation” in the second
    half of 1914.

  • [8] His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine (1895), which was his first novel, The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897), The War
    of the Worlds (1898), the military science fiction The War in the Air (1907), and the dystopian When the Sleeper Wakes (1910).

  • The others usually begin with the world rushing to catastrophe, until people realise a better way of living: whether by mysterious gases from a comet causing people to behave
    rationally and abandoning a European war (In the Days of the Comet (1906)), or a world council of scientists taking over, as in The Shape of Things to Come (1933, which he later adapted for the 1936 Alexander Korda film, Things to Come).

  • [23] He explained that while writing The Time Machine, he realized that “the more impossible the story I had to tell, the more ordinary must be the setting, and the circumstances
    in which I now set the Time Traveller were all that I could imagine of solid upper-class comforts.

  • [75][76] The “Outlines” became sufficiently common for James Thurber to parody the trend in his humorous essay, “An Outline of Scientists”—indeed, Wells’s Outline of History
    remains in print with a new 2005 edition, while A Short History of the World has been re-edited (2006).

  • [17][21] The years he spent in Southsea had been the most miserable of his life to that point, but his good fortune in securing a position at Midhurst Grammar School meant
    that Wells could continue his self-education in earnest.

  • [93] By 1933, he had attracted the attention of German officials because of his criticism of the political situation in Germany, and on 10 May 1933, Wells’s books were burned
    by the Nazi youth in Berlin’s Opernplatz, and his works were banned from libraries and book stores.

  • [71][72] His bestselling two-volume work, The Outline of History (1920), began a new era of popularised world history.

  • [94] Wartime works[edit] Title page of Wells’s The War That Will End War (1914) Seeking a more structured way to play war games, Wells wrote Floor Games (1911) followed by
    Little Wars (1913), which set out rules for fighting battles with toy soldiers (miniatures).

  • Anticipating what the world would be like in the year 2000, the book is interesting both for its hits (trains and cars resulting in the dispersion of populations from cities
    to suburbs; moral restrictions declining as men and women seek greater sexual freedom; the defeat of German militarism, and the existence of a European Union) and its misses (he did not expect successful aircraft before 1950, and averred that
    “my imagination refuses to see any sort of submarine doing anything but suffocate its crew and founder at sea”).

  • [55] These picshuas have been the topic of study by Wells scholars for many years, and in 2006, a book was published on the subject.

  • “[60] In “Wells’s Law”, a science fiction story should contain only a single extraordinary assumption.

  • In 1883, Wells persuaded his parents to release him from the apprenticeship, taking an opportunity offered by Midhurst Grammar School again to become a pupil–teacher; his
    proficiency in Latin and science during his earlier short stay had been remembered.

  • So prolific did Wells become at this mode of journalism that many of his early pieces remain unidentified.

  • [32] Upon leaving the Normal School of Science, Wells was left without a source of income.

  • [11] He was also an outspoken socialist from a young age, often (but not always, as at the beginning of the First World War) sympathising with pacifist views.

  • Radioactive decay plays a much larger role in The World Set Free (1914), a book dedicated to Frederick Soddy who would receive a Nobel for proving the existence of radioactive
    isotopes.

  • According to David C. Smith, “Most of Wells’s occasional pieces have not been collected, and many have not even been identified as his.

  • [85] The court found no proof of copying, and decided the similarities were due to the fact that the books had similar nature and both writers had access to the same sources.

  • [92] Prior to 1933, Wells’s books were widely read in Germany and Austria, and most of his science fiction works had been translated shortly after publication.

  • However, Uppark had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself, reading many classic works, including Plato’s Republic, Thomas More’s Utopia, and the works of Daniel
    Defoe.

  • Wells in this period was regarded as an enormously influential figure; the literary critic Malcolm Cowley stated: “by the time he was forty, his influence was wider than any
    other living English writer”.

  • To earn money, he began writing short humorous articles for journals such as The Pall Mall Gazette, later collecting these in volume form as Select Conversations with an Uncle
    (1895) and Certain Personal Matters (1897).

  • Not all his scientific romances ended in a Utopia, and Wells also wrote a dystopian novel, When the Sleeper Wakes (1899, rewritten as The Sleeper Awakes, 1910), which pictures
    a future society where the classes have become more and more separated, leading to a revolt of the masses against the rulers.

  • [99] In 1918 Wells worked for the British War Propaganda Bureau, also called Wellington House.

  • [79] Wells contemplates the ideas of nature and nurture and questions humanity in books such as The First Men in the Moon, where nature is completely suppressed by nurture,
    and The Island of Doctor Moreau, where the strong presence of nature represents a threat to a civilized society.

  • His first non-fiction bestseller was Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress upon Human Life and Thought (1901).

  • “[68] The H. G. Wells crater, located on the far side of the Moon, was named after the author of The First Men in the Moon (1901) in 1970 Wells also wrote non-fiction.

  • [66] In addition to science fiction, Wells produced work dealing with mythological beings like an angel in The Wonderful Visit (1895) and a mermaid in The Sea Lady (1902).

  • “[70] In 1934, Szilárd took his ideas for a chain reaction to the British War Office and later the Admiralty, assigning his patent to the Admiralty to keep the news from reaching
    the notice of the wider scientific community.

  • While having some sympathy for Deeks, he argues that she had a weak case that was not well presented, and though she may have met with sexism from her lawyers, she received
    a fair trial, adding that the law applied is essentially the same law that would be applied to a similar case today (i.e., 2004).

  • [100] In fact, it had become one of the most common catchphrases of the war.

  • These years mark the beginning of his interest in a possible reformation of society.

  • [25] As an alumnus, he later helped to set up the Royal College of Science Association, of which he became the first president in 1909.

  • He wrote, “Knowing what this [a chain reaction] would mean—and I knew it because I had read H. G. Wells—I did not want this patent to become public.

  • [93] Near the end of World War II, Allied forces discovered that the SS had compiled lists of people slated for immediate arrest during the invasion of Britain in the abandoned
    Operation Sea Lion, with Wells included in the alphabetical list of “The Black Book”.

  • It is obvious that many early Wells items have been lost.

  • Wells did not automatically receive the byline his reputation demanded until after 1896 or so … As a result, many of his early pieces are unknown.

  • The accident effectively put an end to Joseph’s career as a cricketer, and his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary
    source of family income.

  • The inspiration for some of his descriptions in The War of the Worlds is thought to have come from his short time spent here, seeing the iron foundry furnaces burn over the
    city, shooting huge red light into the skies.

  • In 1938, he published a collection of essays on the future organisation of knowledge and education, World Brain, including the essay “The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia”.

 

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39. ^ In the run-up to the 143rd anniversary of Wells’s birth, Google published
a cartoon riddle series with the solution being the coordinates of Woking’s nearby Horsell Common—the location of the Martian landings in The War Of The Worlds—described in newspaper article by Schofield, Jack (21 September 2009). “HG Wells – Google
reveals answer to teaser doodles”. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
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