franck-condon principle


  • However, as was known at the time, molecules will only absorb energy corresponding to allowed quantum transitions, and there are no vibrational levels above the dissociation
    energy level of the potential well.

  • Note that while the electronic transitions are quantized, the chromophore-solvent interaction energy is treated as a classical continuum due to the large number of molecules

  • The physical intuition of this principle is anchored by the idea that the nuclear coordinates of the atoms constituting the molecule do not have time to change during the
    very brief amount of time involved in an electronic transition.

  • Since the dependence is usually rather smooth it is neglected (i.e., the assumption that the transition dipole surface is independent of nuclear coordinates, called the Condon
    approximation is often allowed).The first integral after the plus sign is equal to zero because electronic wavefunctions of different states are orthogonal.

  • Figure 1 illustrates the Franck–Condon principle for vibronic transitions in a molecule with Morse-like potential energy functions in both the ground and excited electronic

  • Classically, the Franck–Condon principle is the approximation that an electronic transition is most likely to occur without changes in the positions of the nuclei in the molecular
    entity and its environment.

  • The remaining two integrals contributing to the probability amplitude determine the electronic spatial and spin selection rules.The Franck–Condon principle is a statement
    on allowed vibrational transitions between two different electronic states; other quantum mechanical selection rules may lower the probability of a transition or prohibit it altogether.

  • The principle states that during an electronic transition, a change from one vibrational energy level to another will be more likely to happen if the two vibrational wave
    functions overlap more significantly.

  • Combining these equations leads to an expression for the probability amplitude in terms of separate electronic space, spin and vibrational contributions: The spin-independent
    part of the initial integral is here approximated as a product of two integrals:This factorization would be exact if the integral over the spatial coordinates of the electrons would not depend on the nuclear coordinates.

  • Just like in the Franck–Condon principle, the probability of transitions involving phonons is determined by the overlap of the phonon wavefunctions at the initial and final
    energy levels.

  • In this case we have a very great change in the oscillation energy on excitation by light… — James Franck, 1926 James Franck recognized that changes in vibrational levels
    could be a consequence of the instantaneous nature of excitation to higher electronic energy levels and a new equilibrium position for the nuclear interaction potential.

  • [1] Electronic transitions are relatively instantaneous compared with the time scale of nuclear motions, therefore if the molecule is to move to a new vibrational level during
    the electronic transition, this new vibrational level must be instantaneously compatible with the nuclear positions and momenta of the vibrational level of the molecule in the originating electronic state.

  • In the low temperature approximation, the molecule starts out in the vibrational level of the ground electronic state and upon absorbing a photon of the necessary energy,
    makes a transition to the excited electronic state.

  • In this situation, transitions to higher electronic levels can take place when the energy of the photon corresponds to the purely electronic transition energy or to the purely
    electronic transition energy plus the energy of one or more lattice phonons.

  • The rearrangement of the solvent molecules according to the new potential energy curve is represented by the curved arrows in Figure 7.

  • The electron configuration of the new state may result in a shift of the equilibrium position of the nuclei constituting the molecule.

  • Since the electronic transition is essentially instantaneous on the time scale of solvent motion (vertical arrow), the collection of excited state chromophores is immediately
    far from equilibrium.

  • At the same time the equilibrium position of the nuclei moves with the excitation to greater values of r. If we go from the equilibrium position (the minimum of potential
    energy) of the n curve vertically [emphasis added] upwards to the a curves in Diagram I. the particles will have a potential energy greater than D’ and will fly apart.

  • This effect is analogous to the original Franck–Condon principle: the electronic transition is very fast compared with the motion of nuclei—the rearrangement of solvent molecules
    in the case of solvation.

  • In examining how much vibrational energy a molecule could acquire when it is excited to a higher electronic level, and whether this vibrational energy could be enough to immediately
    break apart the molecule, he drew three diagrams representing the possible changes in binding energy between the lowest electronic state and higher electronic states.

  • The probability that the molecule can end up in any particular vibrational level is proportional to the square of the (vertical) overlap of the vibrational wavefunctions of
    the original and final state (see Quantum mechanical formulation section below).

  • Franck–Condon metaphors in spectroscopy The Franck–Condon principle, in its canonical form, applies only to changes in the vibrational levels of a molecule in the course of
    a change in electronic levels by either absorption or emission of a photon.

  • Although emission is depicted as taking place from the minimum of the excited state chromophore-solvent interaction potential, significant emission can take place before equilibrium
    is reached when the viscosity of the solvent is high or the lifetime of the excited state is short.

  • The Franck–Condon principle (named for James Franck and Edward Condon) is a rule in spectroscopy and quantum chemistry that explains the intensity of vibronic transitions
    (the simultaneous changes in electronic and vibrational energy levels of a molecule due to the absorption or emission of a photon of the appropriate energy).

  • Franck–Condon principles can be applied when the interactions between the chromophore and the surrounding solvent molecules are different in the ground and in the excited
    electronic state.

  • The vibrational structure of molecules in a cold, sparse gas is most clearly visible due to the absence of inhomogeneous broadening of the individual transitions.

  • Weaker magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole electronic transitions along with the incomplete validity of the factorization of the total wavefunction into nuclear, electronic
    spatial and spin wavefunctions means that the selection rules, including the Franck–Condon factor, are not strictly observed.

  • The quantum mechanical formulation of this principle is that the intensity of a vibronic transition is proportional to the square of the overlap integral between the vibrational
    wavefunctions of the two states that are involved in the transition.

  • When the solution is illuminated by light corresponding to the electronic transition energy, some of the chromophores will move to the excited state.

  • In this use of the Franck–Condon metaphor, the vibrational levels of the chromophores, as well as interactions of the chromophores with phonons in the liquid, continue to
    contribute to the structure of the absorption and emission spectra, but these effects are considered separately and independently.

  • This change in interaction can originate, for example, due to different dipole moments in these two states.

  • In the original Franck–Condon principle, after the electronic transition, the molecules which end up in higher vibrational states immediately begin to relax to the lowest
    vibrational state.

  • Rotational contributions can be observed in the spectra of gases but are strongly suppressed in liquids and solids.It should be clear that the quantum mechanical formulation
    of the Franck–Condon principle is the result of a series of approximations, principally the electrical dipole transition assumption and the Born–Oppenheimer approximation.

  • Immediately after the transition to the ground electronic state, the solvent molecules must also rearrange themselves to accommodate the new electronic configuration of the

  • Electronic transitions to and from the lowest vibrational states are often referred to as 0–0 (zero zero) transitions and have the same energy in both absorption and fluorescence.

  • High-energy photon absorption leads to a transition to a higher electronic state instead of dissociation.

  • The overall wavefunctions are the product of the individual vibrational (depending on spatial coordinates of the nuclei) and electronic space and spin wavefunctions: This
    separation of the electronic and vibrational wavefunctions is an expression of the Born–Oppenheimer approximation and is the fundamental assumption of the Franck–Condon principle.

  • Equal spacing between vibrational levels is only the case for the parabolic potential of simple harmonic oscillators, in more realistic potentials, such as those shown in
    Figure 1, energy spacing decreases with increasing vibrational energy.


Works Cited

[‘Franck, J. (1926). “Elementary processes of photochemical reactions”. Transactions of the Faraday Society. 21: 536–542. doi:10.1039/tf9262100536.
2. ^ Condon, Edward (1926-12-01). “A Theory of Intensity Distribution in Band Systems”. Physical Review.
28 (6): 1182–1201. Bibcode:1926PhRv…28.1182C. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.28.1182.
Photo credit:’]






  • The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, burns as follows: In inadequate supply of air, carbon monoxide gas and water vapour are formed: Another example is the combustion of propane:
    And finally, for any linear alkane of n carbon atoms, Partial oxidation characterizes the reactions of alkenes and oxygen.

  • Common properties of hydrocarbons are the facts that they produce steam, carbon dioxide and heat during combustion and that oxygen is required for combustion to take place.

  • Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are mainly consumed for fuel, but they are also the source of virtually all synthetic organic compounds, including plastics and pharmaceuticals.

  • Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and may be either linear or branched species.

  • Some large-scale non-fuel applications of hydrocarbons begins with ethane and propane, which are obtained from petroleum and natural gas.

  • Free-radical substitution Main article: Free-radical halogenation Substitution reactions occur also in saturated hydrocarbons (all single carbon–carbon bonds).

  • [22][23] Safety Hydrocarbons are generally of low toxicity, hence the widespread use of gasoline and related volatile products.

  • In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

  • In the fossil fuel industries, hydrocarbon refers to naturally occurring petroleum, natural gas and coal, or their hydrocarbon derivatives and purified forms.

  • [5] There is also potential to harvest hydrocarbons from plants like Euphorbia lathyris and E. tirucalli as an alternative and renewable energy source for vehicles that use

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons containing a double bond between carbon atoms are sometimes referred to as ‘olefins’.

  • Petroleum (literally “rock oil”) and coal are generally thought to be products of decomposition of organic matter.

  • With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures,
    and deeper color.

  • [18] Bioremediation Bioremediation of hydrocarbon from soil or water contaminated is a formidable challenge because of the chemical inertness that characterize hydrocarbons
    (hence they survived millions of years in the source rock).

  • Methane is the predominant component of natural gas.

  • Usage The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source.

  • [8][9] Often this energy is used directly as heat such as in home heaters, which use either petroleum or natural gas.

  • Hydrocarbons are introduced into the environment through their extensive use as fuels and chemicals as well as through leaks or accidental spills during exploration, production,
    refining, or transport of fossil fuels.

  • Combustion of hydrocarbons is the main source of the world’s energy.

  • [16] Mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon phytoremediation[17] When soil is contaminated by hydrocarbons, it can have a significant impact on its microbiological, chemical,
    and physical properties.

  • High-temperature reactions Cracking Main article: Cracking (chemistry) Dehydrogenation Main article: Dehydrogenation Further information: Steam reforming Pyrolysis Main article:
    Pyrolysis Combustion Main article: Combustion Combustion of hydrocarbons is currently the main source of the world’s energy for electric power generation, heating (such as home heating) and transportation.

  • They are collected and widely utilized as roofing compounds, pavement composition (bitumen), wood preservatives (the creosote series) and as extremely high viscosity shear-resisting

  • [6] Furthermore, endophytic bacteria from plants that naturally produce hydrocarbons have been used in hydrocarbon degradation in attempts to deplete hydrocarbon concentration
    in polluted soils.


Works Cited

[‘1. Silberberg, Martin (2004). Chemistry: The Molecular Nature Of Matter and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN 0-07-310169-9.
2. ^ Meierhenrich, Uwe (2008). Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life: Caught in the Act of Formation. Berlin:
Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-76886-9. OCLC 288470227.
3. ^ Barnes, I. “TROPOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND COMPOSITION (Aromatic Hydrocarbons)”. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
4. ^ “Benzene global market volume 2015-2026”. Statista. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
5. ^
Nunes, T.M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Mateus, S.; Nascimento, F.S.; Lopes, N.P.; Zucchi, R. (2009). “Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Stingless Bee Schwarziana quadripunctata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): Differences between Colonies, Castes and Age” (PDF).
Genetics and Molecular Research. 8 (2): 589–595. doi:10.4238/vol8-2kerr012. PMID 19551647. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2015.
6. ^ Calvin, Melvin (1980). “Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations”. Naturwissenschaften.
67 (11): 525–533. Bibcode:1980NW…..67..525C. doi:10.1007/BF00450661. S2CID 40660980.
7. ^ Pawlik, Malgorzata (2017). “Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus
and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 24 (24): 19640–19652. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9496-1. PMC 5570797. PMID 28681302.
8. ^ “Generating Electricity”. Canadian Electricity
Association. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
9. ^ Zou, Caineng; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Guosheng; Xiong, Bo (1 January 2016). “Energy revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era”. Natural Gas Industry B. 3 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.ngib.2016.02.001.
ISSN 2352-8540.
10. ^ Clayden, J., Greeves, N., et al. (2001) Organic Chemistry Oxford ISBN 0-19-850346-6, p. 21.
11. ^ McMurry, J. (2000). Organic Chemistry 5th ed. Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-495-11837-0. pp. 75–81.
12. ^ Sephton,
M. A.; Hazen, R. M. (2013). “On the Origins of Deep Hydrocarbons”. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 75 (1): 449–465. Bibcode:2013RvMG…75..449S. doi:10.2138/rmg.2013.75.14.
13. ^ Dewulf, Jo. “Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere” (PDF). Retrieved
26 October 2020.
14. ^ NASA’s Cassini Spacecraft Reveals Clues About Saturn Moon. Archived 2 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. NASA (12 December 2013).
15. ^ Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K. (2014).
“PAH formation in O-rich planetary nebulae”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 441 (1): 364–377. arXiv:1403.1856. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.441..364G. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu454. S2CID 118540862.
16. ^ “Microbial Degradation of Alkanes (PDF
Download Available)”. ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
17. ^ Rohrbacher, Fanny; St-Arnaud, Marc (9 March 2016). “Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation”. Agronomy.
MDPI AG. 6 (1): 19. doi:10.3390/agronomy6010019. ISSN 2073-4395.
18. ^ “Additives Affecting the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons”, Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils, CRC Press, pp. 353–360, 9 June 2000, doi:10.1201/9781482270235-27,
ISBN 978-0-429-07804-0
19. ^ Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong (2016). “A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil — Present works and future directions”. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 109 (1): 14–45. Bibcode:2016MarPB.109…14L.
doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.04.023. PMID 27267117.
20. ^ Mason OU, Nakagawa T, Rosner M, Van Nostrand JD, Zhou J, Maruyama A, Fisk MR, Giovannoni SJ (2010). “First investigation of the microbiology of the deepest layer of ocean crust”. PLOS ONE.
5 (11): e15399. Bibcode:2010PLoSO…515399M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015399. PMC 2974637. PMID 21079766.
21. ^ Yakimov, M. M.; Timmis, K. N.; Golyshin, P. N. (2007). “Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria”. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18 (3): 257–266.
CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2007.04.006. PMID 17493798.
22. ^ Stamets, Paul (2008). “6 ways mushrooms can save the world” (video). TED Talk. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014.
23. ^ Stamets, Paul (2005). “Mycoremediation”.
Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Ten Speed Press. p. 86. ISBN 9781580085793.
Photo credit:’]




polyglutamic acid


  • [2] Alpha PGA is industally made by chemical synthesis, using a ring-opening polymerization reaction.

  • [13] G-PGA was found to bind and efficiently remove 99.8% of lead ions from water via a suitable low-pressure ultrafiltration technique.

  • [citation needed] Water treatment[edit] The “PolyGlu” water flocculant, based on a mixture of gamma PGA, calcium sulfate, and calcium carbonate,[11] is used by the International
    Organization for Migration to treat water for refugees.

  • In practical use, alpha PGA is almost universally purely contain the L form,[1] while gamma PGA tends to have a mixture of both.

  • [5] Uses Gamma PGA has been used for food, medicine[6] [7], cosmeceuticals[8] and water treatment.


Works Cited

[‘1. Zhang, Y; Song, W; Lu, Y; Xu, Y; Wang, C; Yu, DG; Kim, I (25 April 2022). “Recent Advances in Poly(α-L-glutamic acid)-Based Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery”. Biomolecules. 12 (5). doi:10.3390/biom12050636. PMID 35625562.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c
d Li, D; Hou, L; Gao, Y; Tian, Z; Fan, B; Wang, F; Li, S (2 March 2022). “Recent Advances in Microbial Synthesis of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid: A Review”. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 11 (5). doi:10.3390/foods11050739. PMID 35267372.
3. ^
4. ^
Johnson, Leah C.; Akinmola, Adekunle Titus; Scholz, Carmen (March 2022). “Poly(glutamic acid): From natto to drug delivery systems”. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 40: 102292. doi:10.1016/j.bcab.2022.102292.
5. ^ Jang, J; Cho, M; Chun,
JH; Cho, MH; Park, J; Oh, HB; Yoo, CK; Rhie, GE (September 2011). “The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule of Bacillus anthracis enhances lethal toxin activity”. Infection and immunity. 79 (9): 3846–54. doi:10.1128/IAI.01145-10. PMID 21690241.
6. ^ Choi,
Jae-Chul; Uyama, Hiroshi; Sung, Chul-Hoon Lee and Moon-Hee (2015-06-28). “Promotion Effects of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid on Wound Healing”. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 25 (6): 941–945. doi:10.4014/jmb.1412.12083.
PMID 25791849.
7. ^ Lee, Na-Ri; Go, Tae-Hun; Lee, Sang-Mee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Park, Geun-Tae; Hong, Chang-Oh; Son, Hong-Joo (2014-04-21). “In vitro evaluation of new functional properties of poly-γ-glutamic acid produced by Bacillus subtilis D7”.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 21 (2): 153–158. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.09.004. ISSN 1319-562X. PMC 3942858. PMID 24600308.
8. ^ Eroglu, I. (March 12, 2022). “Polyglutamic Acid in Skincare, Explained”. Ejollify. Retrieved April 12, 2022.
9. ^
Bringing Safe Drinking Water to the World
10. ^ C. Li; D.F. Yu; A. Newman; F. Cabral; C. Stephens; N.R. Hunter; L. Milas; S. Wallace (1998). “Complete regression of well-established tumors using a novel water-soluble poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel
conjugate” (PDF). Cancer Research. 58 (11): 2404–2409. PMID 9622081.
11. ^ Yanagibashi, Tomokazu; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi; Omori, Keisuke (22 August 2019). “Application of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Flocculant to Flocculation–Sedimentation Treatment of Ultrafine
Cement Suspension”. Water. 11 (9): 1748. doi:10.3390/w11091748. A food-derived amino acid-based polymer, namely the PGAF (PGα21Ca, Japan Poly-Glu Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan), was used as the flocculant. Figure 3 shows the appearance of PGα21Ca. PGα21Ca
is a natural polymer consisting of γ-PGA, which is an amino acid obtained from Bacillus subtilis [7]. PGα21Ca is composed of cross-linked γ-PGA with an average molecular weight of 107 and natural minerals such as calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate
12. ^ “UN Migration Agency, Japan Hand Over New Water Purification Facility in Sierra Leone”. International Organization for Migration.
13. ^ Bhattacharyya, D (April 1998). “Novel poly-glutamic acid functionalized microfiltration membranes
for sorption of heavy metals at high capacity”. Journal of Membrane Science. 141 (1): 121–135. doi:10.1016/S0376-7388(97)00301-3.
Photo credit:’]




the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism


  • While Marx’s historical materialism held that all human institutions – including religion – were based on economic foundations, many have seen The Protestant Ethic as turning
    this theory on its head by implying that a religious movement fostered capitalism, not the other way around.

  • “[6]: 19  Weber points out that such a spirit is not limited to Western culture if one considers it as the attitude of individuals, but that such individuals – heroic entrepreneurs,
    as he calls them – could not by themselves establish a new economic order (capitalism).

  • The British economic thought was rather a step backwards since it espoused the labor theory of value, which had already been proved incorrect by the School of Salamanca.

  • Another reason for Weber’s decision was that Troeltsch’s work already achieved what he desired in that area, which is laying groundwork for comparative analysis of religion
    and society.

  • [6]: 102–104  What Weber argued, in simple terms: • According to the new Protestant religions, an individual was religiously compelled to follow a secular vocation (German:
    Beruf) with as much zeal as possible.

  • In the end, the study of Protestant ethic, according to Weber, investigated a part of the detachment from magic, that disenchantment of the world that could be seen as a unique
    characteristic of Western culture.

  • In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in Northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work
    in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment.

  • Though it may be true that predominantly Protestant countries, such as the Netherlands and England, were the first economic successes of the modern era, there is little relationship
    between religion and economic success.

  • “In an early era, Protestant asceticism and dedication to work, as noted both by Wesley and Weber, seem to have been important patterns of action contributing to economic

  • Looking farther east, you’ll see that none of the economic successes of East Asia have anything to do with any form of Christian religion, so there is not much support for
    a special relationship between Protestantism and economic success there, either.

  • [12] However, it is possible that the Protestant “work ethic” reinforced or legitimized these legal measures within a larger cultural context.

  • [16] Other criticism[edit] It has recently been suggested that Protestantism has indeed influenced positively the capitalist development of respective social systems not so
    much through the “Protestant ethics” but rather through the promotion of literacy.

  • The strict ascetic self-discipline that has been successfully institutionalized in the Pentecostal congregations, the readiness to work more and with greater effort and to
    take less leisurely attitudes lead many Pentecostal Christians to believe that their new faith in God is supported by their economic successes.

  • [7]: 55  As he wrote in his essays: In order that a manner of life well adapted to the peculiarities of the capitalism… could come to dominate others, it had to originate
    somewhere, and not in isolated individuals alone, but as a way of life common to the whole groups of man.

  • Protestant work ethic in Weber’s time[edit] By the time Weber wrote his essay, he believed that the religious underpinnings of the Protestant ethic had largely gone from society.

  • [6]: 9–12  The Reformation profoundly affected the view of work, dignifying even the most mundane professions as adding to the common good and thus blessed by God, as much
    as any “sacred” calling (German: Ruf).

  • From a psychological viewpoint, the average person had difficulty adjusting to this new worldview, and only the most devout believers or “religious geniuses” within Protestantism,
    such as Martin Luther, were able to make this adjustment, according to Weber.

  • Weber maintained that while Puritan religious ideas had significantly impacted the development of economic systems in Europe and United States, there were other factors in
    play, as well.

  • That is to say, at some point the Calvinist rationale informing the “spirit” of capitalism became unreliant on the underlying religious movement behind it, leaving only rational

  • [8] Weber shows that certain branches of Protestantism had supported worldly activities dedicated to economic gain, seeing them as endowed with moral and spiritual significance.

  • [13] Other recent scholarship continues to find valid Protestant ethic effects both in historical and contemporary development patterns.

  • After defining the “spirit of capitalism,” Weber argues that there are many reasons to find its origins in the religious ideas of the Reformation.

  • It revealed, among other insights, that there were significant differences between Catholics on the one hand and (white) Protestants and Jews on the other hand with respect
    to economics and the sciences.

  • The inability to influence one’s own salvation presented a very difficult problem for Calvin’s followers, who, in Weber’s view, considered it an absolute duty to believe that
    one was chosen for salvation and to dispel any doubt about that: lack of self-confidence was evidence of insufficient faith and a sign of damnation.

  • [6]: 90  The Baptists diluted the concept of the calling relative to Calvinists, but other aspects made its congregants fertile soil for the development of capitalism—namely,
    a lack of paralyzing ascetism, the refusal to accept state office and thereby develop unpolitically, and the doctrine of control by conscience which caused rigorous honesty.

  • His idea of modern capitalism as growing out of the religious pursuit of wealth meant a change to a rational means of existence, wealth.

  • Kirby argues that it is difficult to draw parallels between contemporary neo-Pentecostals and Weber’s ascetic Protestants, specifically because the former group of practitioners,
    many of whom espouse Prosperity theologies, often do not exhibit the same commitment to “sober economic virtue” and “rational bourgeois economic life” as Weber’s Calvinistic Puritans.

  • […] At any rate, many pious persons there interpret their transition from the Roman Catholic church to Protestant Pentecostal congregations in terms of a moral idea that
    promises long-term economic gains through strong innerworldly asceticism.

  • For him, this general fact was not related to Protestantism and so capitalism came largely by force and not by any vocational training regarding an inner-worldliness of Protestantism.

  • For when asceticism was carried out of monastic cells into everyday life, and began to dominate worldly morality, it did its part in building the tremendous cosmos of the
    modern economic order.

  • In other words, the Protestant work ethic was an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated emergence of modern capitalism.

  • Weber identifies the applicability of Luther’s conclusions, noting that a “vocation” from God was no longer limited to the clergy or church, but applied to any occupation
    or trade.

  • [10][11] Rather than Protestantism leading to capitalism, it may be the case that individuals and communities who were more prone to capitalism were also more likely to adopt

  • This attitude is well-noted in certain classes which have endured religious education, especially of a Pietist background.

  • In his conclusion to the book, Weber lamented that the loss of religious underpinning to capitalism’s spirit has led to a kind of involuntary servitude to mechanized industry.

  • He cited the writings of Benjamin Franklin, which emphasized frugality, hard work and thrift, but were mostly free of spiritual content.

  • Weber moved beyond Protestantism with his research but would continue research into sociology of religion within his later works (the study of Judaism and the religions of
    China and India).

  • [7]: 57  Origins of the Protestant work ethic[edit] Weber traced the origins of the Protestant ethic to the Reformation, though he acknowledged some respect for secular everyday
    labor as early as the Middle Ages.

  • This order is now bound to the technical and economic conditions of machine production which today determine the lives of all the individuals who are born into this mechanism,
    not only those directly concerned with economic acquisition, with irresistible force.

  • [11] Economic criticism[edit] The economist and historian Henryk Grossman criticises Weber’s analysis on two fronts, firstly with reference to Marx’s extensive work which
    showed that the stringent legal measures taken against poverty and vagabondage was a reaction to the massive population shifts caused by factors such as the enclosure of the commons.

  • [7]: 54–55  He further noted that the spirit of capitalism could be divorced from religion, and that those passionate capitalists of his era were either passionate against
    the Church or at least indifferent to it.

  • This recognition was not a goal in itself; rather they were a byproduct of other doctrines of faith that encouraged planning, hard work and self-denial in the pursuit of worldly

  • [6]: 23  Desire for profit with minimum effort and seeing work as a burden to be avoided, and doing no more than what was enough for modest life, were common attitudes.

  • Criticism Methodology[edit] Weber’s causal claim that the Protestant ethic led to capitalism has been criticized for endogeneity problems and case selection problems.

  • In the absence of such assurances from religious authority, Weber argued that Protestants began to look for other “signs” that they were saved.

  • In explaining urban growth in early-modern Europe, specifications compatible with human-capital versions of the neoclassical model and endogenous-growth theory are rejected
    in favor of a “small-world” formulation based on the Weber thesis.

  • Weber states in the closing of this essay, “it is, of course, not my aim to substitute for a one-sided materialistic an equally one-sided spiritualistic causal interpretation
    of culture and history.

  • The ‘spirit of capitalism’ does not refer to the spirit in the metaphysical sense but rather a set of values, the spirit of hard work and progress.

  • To view the craft as an end in itself, or as a “calling” would serve this need well.

  • To emphasize the work ethic in Protestantism relative to Catholics, he notes a common problem that industrialists face when employing precapitalist laborers: Agricultural
    entrepreneurs will try to encourage time spent harvesting by offering a higher wage, with the expectation that laborers will see time spent working as more valuable and so engage it longer.

  • As such, scholars have suggested that what Weber observed was in fact “anti-Polish discrimination” visible in the different levels of income, savings and literacy between
    Germans and Poles.


Works Cited

[‘Max Weber; Peter R. Baehr; Gordon C. Wells (2002). The Protestant ethic and the “spirit” of capitalism and other writings. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-043921-2. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b McKinnon, AM (2010). “Elective affinities of
the Protestant ethic: Weber and the chemistry of capitalism” (PDF). Sociological Theory. 28 (1): 108–126. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01367.x. hdl:2164/3035. S2CID 144579790.
3. ^ “ISA – International Sociological Association: Books of the Century”.
International Sociological Association. 1998. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
4. ^ Green, Elliott (12 May 2016). “What are the most-cited publications in the social sciences (according to Google Scholar)?”. LSE Impact Blog. London School of Economics.
5. ^
Michael Shea (6 October 2015). “The Protestant Ethic and the Language of Austerity”. Discover Society.
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Weber, Max “The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism” (Penguin Books, 2002) translated by Peter Baehr
and Gordon C. Wells
7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Reinhard Bendix, Max Weber: an intellectual portrait, University of California Press, 1977
8. ^ Bendix. Max Weber. p. 54.
9. ^ Arthur Mitzman (1970). The Iron Cage: An Historical Interpretation of
Max Weber. Transaction Publishers. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-4128-3745-3. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
10. ^ George, Alexander L.; Bennett, Andrew (2005). Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. MIT Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-262-30307-1.
OCLC 944521872.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b King, Gary; Keohane, Robert O.; Verba, Sidney (1994). Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 186–187. doi:10.1515/9781400821211. ISBN 978-1-4008-2121-1.
12. ^ Grossman, Henryk
(2006) ‘The Beginnings of Capitalism and the New Mass Morality’ Journal of Classical Sociology 6 (2): July
13. ^ Cantoni, Davide (2015). “The Economic Effects of the Protestant Reformation: Testing the Weber Hypothesis in the German Lands”. Journal
of the European Economic Association. 13 (4): 561–598. doi:10.1111/jeea.12117. hdl:10230/11729. ISSN 1542-4766. JSTOR 24539263. S2CID 7528944.
14. ^ Blum, Ulrich; Dudley, Leonard (February 2001), “Religion and Economic Growth: Was Weber Right?”
(PDF), Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 11 (2): 207–230, doi:10.1007/PL00003862, S2CID 13889938, archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2003
15. ^ Daron Acemoglu & James A. Robinson (2012). Why Nations Fail (PDF). Crown Business. p. 75.
ISBN 978-0307719218. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
16. ^ Rothbard, Murray N. (February 1957), Catholicism, Protestantism, and Capitalism, Ludwig von Mises Institute, archived from the original on 13 March 2014
17. ^ Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina
D. (2006), Introduction to Social Macrodynamics, Moscow: URSS, ISBN 5-484-00414-4 [1] (Chapter 6: Reconsidering Weber: Literacy and “the Spirit of Capitalism”). pp. 87–91.
18. ^ Jump up to:a b Becker, Sascha O. and Wossmann, Ludger. “Was Weber Wrong?
A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economics History.” Munich Discussion Paper No. 2007-7, 22 January 2007.
19. ^ Felix Kersting, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Iris Wohnsiedler, Humboldt-Universität
zu Berlin; Nikolaus Wolf, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (26 May 2020). “Weber Revisited: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Nationalism”. ICPSR – Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi:10.3886/E119604V1.
20. ^ Braudel,
Fernand (1979). Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism. London: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-1901-6.
21. ^ Gerhard Lenski (1963), The Religious Factor: A Sociological Study of Religion’s Impact on Politics, Economics.
and Family Life, Revised Edition, Garden City, N.Y., pp. 350–352
22. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Graf (2010), Der Protestantismus. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Second, Revised Edition, Munich (Germany), pp. 116–117
23. ^ Kirby, Benjamin (2019). “Pentecostalism,
economics, capitalism: Putting the Protestant Ethic to work”. Religion. 49 (4): 571–591. doi:10.1080/0048721X.2019.1573767. S2CID 182190916.
Photo credit:’]




bayesian game


  • The second is called the induced normal form (see Section 6.3.3 of Multiagent Systems[10]) which still has players yet expands the number of each player i’s actions from to
    , i.e., the pure policy is a combination of actions the player should take for different types.

  • Player1 will never have complete information about player2, but may be able to infer the probability of type1 and type2 appearing from whether the previous firm entering the
    market was blocked, it is a Bayesian game.

  • In a non-Bayesian game, a strategy profile is a Nash equilibrium if every strategy in that profile is a best response to every other strategy in the profile; i.e., there is
    no strategy that a player could play that would yield a higher payoff, given all the strategies played by the other players.

  • Roughly speaking, Harsanyi defined Bayesian games in the following way: players are assigned by nature at the start of the game a set of characteristics.

  • Therefore, players can be essentially modelled as having incomplete information and the probability space of the game still follows the law of total probability.

  • In game theory, a Bayesian game is a strategic decision-making model which assumes players have incomplete information.

  • Thus, the payoff matrix of this Normal-form game for both players depends on the type of the suspect.

  • The first is called the agent-form game (see Theorem 9.51 of the Game Theory book[9]) which expands the number of players from to , i.e., every type of each player becomes
    a player.

  • An analogous concept can be defined for a Bayesian game, the difference being that every player’s strategy maximizes their expected payoff given their beliefs about the state
    of nature.

  • ad infinitum – common knowledge), play in the game will be as follows according to perfect Bayesian equilibrium:[25][26] When the type is “criminal”, the dominant strategy
    for the suspect is to shoot, and when the type is “civilian”, the dominant strategy for the suspect is not to shoot; alternative strictly dominated strategy can thus be removed.

  • An information set of player i is a subset of player i’s decision nodes that she cannot distinguish between.

  • They are notable because they allowed, for the first time in game theory, for the specification of the solutions to games with incomplete information.

  • Pure strategies[edit] In a strategic game, a pure strategy is a player’s choice of action at each point where the player must make a decision.

  • That is, a strategy profile is a Bayesian Nash equilibrium if and only if for every player keeping the strategies of every other player fixed, strategy maximizes the expected
    payoff of player according to that player’s beliefs.

  • That is, if player i is at one of her decision nodes in an information set, she does not know which node within the information set she is at.

  • This game is defined by (N,A,T,p,u), where: If both players are rational and both know that both players are rational and everything that is known by any player is known to
    be known by every player (i.e.

  • A player recognises payoffs as expected values based on a prior distribution of all possible types.

  • [23] Another approach is to assume that players within any collective agent know that the agent exists, but that other players do not know this, although they suspect it with
    some probability.

  • Players know their own type, but only a probability distribution of other players.

  • There is a probability p that the suspect is a criminal, and a probability 1-p that the suspect is a civilian; both players are aware of this probability (common prior assumption,
    which can be converted into a complete-information game with imperfect information).

  • [24] For example, Alice and Bob may sometimes optimize as individuals and sometimes collude as a team, depending on the state of nature, but other players may not know which
    of these is the case.

  • If players do not have private information, the probability distribution over types is known as a common prior.

  • Player 1 does not and believes that the value v of the car to the owner (Player 2) is distributed uniformly between 0 and 100 (i.e., each of two value sub-intervals of [0,
    100] of equal length are equally likely).

  • • Consider two players with a zero-sum objective function.

  • A Bayesian Nash equilibrium (BNE) is defined as a strategy profile that maximizes the expected payoff for each player given their beliefs and given the strategies played by
    the other players.

  • By mapping probability distributions to these characteristics and by calculating the outcome of the game using Bayesian probability, the result is a game whose solution is,
    for technical reasons, far easier to calculate than a similar game in a non-Bayesian context.

  • Except, by attaching probability to the game, the final game functions as though it were an incomplete information game.

  • • Only “lemons” (used cars in bad conditions, specifically with value at most equal to p) are traded • Player 1 can guarantee herself a payoff of zero by bidding 0, hence
    in equilibrium, • Since only “lemons” (used cars in bad conditions) are traded, the market collapses • No trade is possible even when trade would be economically efficient[27] Enter the monopolized market[edit] A new company (player1) that
    wants to enter a market that is monopolised by a large company will encounter two types of monopolist (player2), type1 is prevented and type2 is allowed.

  • A player’s beliefs about the state of nature are formed by conditioning the prior probabilities on the player’s own type according to Bayes’ rule.

  • One approach is to continue to treat individual players as reasoning in isolation, but to allow them, with some probability, to reason from the perspective of a collective.

  • Players hold private information relevant to the game, meaning that the payoffs are not common knowledge.


Works Cited

[‘Zamir, Shmuel (2009). “Bayesian Games: Games with Incomplete Information” (PDF). Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science: 426. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_29. ISBN 978-0-387-75888-6. S2CID 14218591.
2. ^ Harsanyi, John C., 1967/1968. “Games
with Incomplete Information Played by Bayesian Players, I-III.” Management Science 14 (3): 159-183 (Part I), 14 (5): 320-334 (Part II), 14 (7): 486-502 (Part III).
3. ^ Harsanyi, John C. (1968). “Games with Incomplete Information Played by “Bayesian”
Players, I-III. Part II. Bayesian Equilibrium Points”. Management Science. 14 (5): 320–334. doi:10.1287/mnsc.14.5.320. ISSN 0025-1909. JSTOR 2628673.
4. ^ Harsanyi, John C. (1968). “Games with Incomplete Information Played by “Bayesian” Players,
I-III. Part III. The Basic Probability Distribution of the Game”. Management Science. 14 (7): 486–502. doi:10.1287/mnsc.14.7.486. ISSN 0025-1909. JSTOR 2628894.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b Kajii, A.; Morris, S. (1997). “The Robustness of Equilibria to Incomplete
Information”. Econometrica. 65 (6): 1283–1309. doi:10.2307/2171737. JSTOR 2171737.
6. ^ Grüne-Yanoff, Till; Lehtinen, Aki (2012). “Philosophy of Game Theory”. Philosophy of Economics: 532.
7. ^ Koniorczyk, Mátyás; Bodor, András; Pintér, Miklós
(29 June 2020). “Ex ante versus ex post equilibria in classical Bayesian games with a nonlocal resource”. Physical Review A. 1 (6): 2–3. arXiv:2005.12727. Bibcode:2020PhRvA.101f2115K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.101.062115. S2CID 218889282.
8. ^ Harsanyi,
John C. (2004). “Games with Incomplete Information Played by “Bayesian” Players, I-III: Part I. The Basic Model”. Management Science. 50 (12): 1804–1817. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1040.0270. ISSN 0025-1909. JSTOR 30046151.
9. ^ Maschler, Michael; Solan,
Eilon; Zamir, Shmuel (2013). Game Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511794216. ISBN 978-0-511-79421-6.
10. ^ Shoham, Yoav; Leyton-Brown, Kevin (2008). Multiagent Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511811654.
ISBN 978-0-511-81165-4.
11. ^ Ponssard, J. -P.; Sorin, S. (June 1980). “The LP formulation of finite zero-sum games with incomplete information”. International Journal of Game Theory. 9 (2): 99–105. doi:10.1007/bf01769767. ISSN 0020-7276. S2CID
12. ^ Narahari, Y (July 2012). “Extensive Form Games” (PDF). Department of Computer Science and Automation: 1.
13. ^ “Strategic-form games”, Game Theory, Cambridge University Press, pp. 75–143, 2013-03-21, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511794216.005,
ISBN 9780511794216, retrieved 2023-04-23
14. ^ Zamir, Shmuel (2009). “Bayesian Games: Games with Incomplete Information” (PDF). Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science: 119. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_29. ISBN 978-0-387-75888-6. S2CID
15. ^ “Bayes’ rule: a tutorial introduction to Bayesian analysis”. Choice Reviews Online. 51 (6): 51–3301–51-3301. 2014-01-21. doi:10.5860/choice.51-3301. ISSN 0009-4978.
16. ^ Peters, Hans (2015). Game Theory. Springer Texts in Business
and Economics. Berlin: Springer. p. 60. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46950-7. ISBN 978-3-662-46949-1.
17. ^ Albrecht, Stefano; Crandall, Jacob; Ramamoorthy, Subramanian (2016). “Belief and Truth in Hypothesised Behaviours”. Artificial Intelligence. 235:
63–94. arXiv:1507.07688. doi:10.1016/j.artint.2016.02.004. S2CID 2599762.
18. ^ Caballero, William N.; Banks, David; Wu, Keru (2022-08-08). “Defense and security planning under resource uncertainty and multi‐period commitments”. Naval Research Logistics
(NRL). 69 (7): 1009–1026. doi:10.1002/nav.22071. ISSN 0894-069X. S2CID 251461541.
19. ^ Maccarone, Lee Tylor (2021). Stochastic Bayesian Games for the Cybersecurity of Nuclear Power Plants. PhD Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
20. ^ Bernhard,
Julian; Pollok, Stefan; Knoll, Alois (2019). “Addressing Inherent Uncertainty: Risk-Sensitive Behavior Generation for Automated Driving using Distributional Reinforcement Learning”. 2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV). Paris, France: IEEE.
pp. 2148–2155. arXiv:2102.03119. doi:10.1109/IVS.2019.8813791. ISBN 978-1-7281-0560-4. S2CID 201811314.
21. ^ Asheralieva, Alia; Niyato, Dusit (2021). “Fast and Secure Computational Offloading With Lagrange Coded Mobile Edge Computing”. IEEE Transactions
on Vehicular Technology. 70 (5): 4924–4942. doi:10.1109/TVT.2021.3070723. ISSN 0018-9545. S2CID 234331661.
22. ^ Ramtin, Amir Reza; Towsley, Don (2021). “A Game-Theoretic Approach to Self-Stabilization with Selfish Agents”. arXiv:2108.07362 [cs.DC].
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Bacharach, M. (1999). “Interactive team reasoning: A contribution to the theory of cooperation”. Research in Economics. 53 (2): 117–47. doi:10.1006/reec.1999.0188.
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25. ^
“Coursera”. Coursera. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
26. ^ Hu, Yuhuang; Loo, Chu Kiong (2014-03-17). “A Generalized Quantum-Inspired Decision Making Model for Intelligent Agent”. The Scientific World Journal. 2014: 240983. doi:10.1155/2014/240983. ISSN 1537-744X.
PMC 3977121. PMID 24778580.
27. ^ Akerlof, George A. (August 1970). “The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 84 (3): 488–500. doi:10.2307/1879431. JSTOR 1879431.
Photo credit:’]




history of athens


  • [29] Middle Ages Byzantine Athens[edit] Further information: Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greece, and Hellas (theme) The city was threatened by Saracen raids in the 8th–9th
    centuries—in 896, Athens was raided and possibly occupied for a short period, an event which left some archaeological remains and elements of Arabic ornamentation in contemporary buildings[31]—but there is also evidence of a mosque existing
    in the city at the time.

  • [25] The Macedonian astronomer Andronicus of Cyrrhus subsequently designed the Tower of the Winds for the Roman forum, which mostly survives to the present day Under Roman
    rule, Athens was given the status of a free city because of its widely admired schools.

  • Late Antiquity In the early 4th century AD, the eastern Roman empire began to be governed from Constantinople, and with the construction and expansion of the imperial city,
    many of Athens’s works of art were taken by the emperors to adorn it.

  • Almost all of the most important Middle Byzantine churches in and around Athens were built during these two centuries, and this reflects the growth of the town in general.

  • Along with rest of Byzantine Greece, Athens was part of the series of feudal fiefs, similar to the Crusader states established in Syria and on Cyprus after the First Crusade.

  • Athens thus came under Roman rule.

  • Following a period of sharp decline under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Athens re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent and self-governing Greek

  • In this dialogue, a story is told about information given to Athenian leader Solon from Egyptian priests of the goddess Neith while he visited Egypt, according to which a
    well advanced Athenian state was established 9,000 years prior to his time that preceded Egypt’s oldest kingdom by a thousand years.

  • Roman Athens[edit] Main articles: Roman Greece and Roman Empire The ruins of the Roman Agora, the second commercial centre of ancient Athens During the First Mithridatic War,
    Athens was ruled by Aristion, a tyrant installed by Mithridates the Great.

  • Situated in southern Europe, Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the first millennium BC, and its cultural achievements during the 5th century BC laid the
    foundations of Western civilization.

  • [18] Subsequently, the conquests of Alexander the Great widened Greek horizons and made the traditional Greek city state obsolete.

  • [29] The emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) banned the teaching of philosophy by pagans in 529,[30] an event whose impact on the city is much debated,[29] but is generally taken
    to mark the end of the ancient history of Athens.

  • [29] In the great dispute over Byzantine Iconoclasm, Athens is commonly held to have supported the iconophile position, chiefly due to the role played by Empress Irene of
    Athens in the ending of the first period of Iconoclasm at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

  • But then the Greek cities (including Athens and Sparta) turned against Thebes, whose dominance was stopped at the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC) with the death of its military-genius
    leader Epaminondas.

  • In the later Roman period, Athens was ruled by the emperors continuing until the 13th century, its citizens identifying themselves as citizens of the Roman Empire (“Rhomaioi”).

  • Founding myths[edit] According to legend, Athens was formerly ruled by kings, a situation which may have continued up until the 9th century BC.

  • [12] This position may well have resulted from its central location in the Greek world, its secure stronghold on the Acropolis and its access to the sea, which gave it a natural
    advantage over inland rivals such as Thebes and Sparta.

  • Ancient Athens, in the first millennium BC, occupied a very small area compared to the sprawling metropolis of modern Greece.

  • [7] Geographical setting There is evidence that the site on which the Acropolis (‘high city’) stands was first inhabited in the Neolithic period, perhaps as a defensible settlement,
    around the end of the fourth millennium BC or a little later.

  • Classical Athens[edit] Main article: Classical Athens Further information: Classical Greece Roman statuette of Athena, copy of the Phidias statue, created for the Parthenon
    in 447 BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens Early Athenian military history and Persian era[edit] Main articles: Ionian Revolt and Graeco-Persian Wars Prior to the rise of Athens, Sparta considered itself to be the leader (or hegemon)
    of the Greeks[citation needed].

  • Athens and the rise of Macedon[edit] Main article: Rise of Macedon By the mid-4th century BC, however, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian

  • The conflict was a drawn out one that saw Sparta control the land while Athens was dominant at sea, however the disastrous Sicilian Expedition severely weakened Athens and
    the war eventually ended in an Athenian defeat following the Battle of Aegospotami which ended Athenian naval supremacy.

  • Athens remained a wealthy city with a brilliant cultural life, but ceased to be a leading power.

  • [29] The sack of the city by the Herules in 267 and by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I (r. 395–410) in 396, however, dealt a heavy blow to the city’s fabric and fortunes,
    and Athens was henceforth confined to a small fortified area that embraced a fraction of the ancient city.

  • The Florentines had to dispute the city with the Republic of Venice, but they ultimately emerged victorious after seven years of Venetian rule (1395–1402).

  • The new system laid the foundations for what eventually became Athenian democracy, but in the short-term it failed to quell class conflict and after twenty years of unrest
    the popular party, led by Peisistratos, seized power.

  • [citation needed] However, Athens, like many other Bronze Age settlements, went into economic decline for around 150 years following this.

  • During Michel Fourmont’s visit in the city in the 1720s, he witnessed much construction going on, and by the time the Athenian teacher Ioannis Benizelos wrote an account of
    the city’s affairs in the 1770s, Athens was once again enjoying some prosperity, so that, according to Benizelos, it “could be cited as an example to the other cities of Greece”.

  • It did not become Greek in government again until the 19th century.

  • This process of synoikismos – the bringing together into one home – created the largest and wealthiest state on the Greek mainland, but it also created a larger class of people
    excluded from political life by the nobility.

  • After Thebes became a possession of the Latin dukes, which were of the Burgundian family called De la Roche, it replaced Athens as the capital and seat of government, although
    Athens remained the most influential ecclesiastical centre in the duchy and site of a prime fortress.

  • The leading statesman of the mid-fifth century BC was Pericles, who used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments
    of classical Athens.

  • Unlike other Mycenaean centers, such as Mycenae and Pylos, it is unclear whether Athens suffered destruction in about 1200 BC, an event traditionally attributed to a Dorian
    invasion (though now commonly attributed to a systems collapse, part of the Late Bronze Age collapse).

  • [28] Under Ottoman rule, Athens was denuded of any importance and its population severely declined, leaving it as a “small country town” (Franz Babinger).

  • Peloponnesian War[edit] Main article: Peloponnesian War The resentment felt by other cities at the hegemony of Athens led to the Peloponnesian War, which began in 431 BC and
    pitted Athens and its increasingly rebellious overseas empire against a coalition of land-based states led by Sparta.

  • Peisistratos was in fact a very popular ruler, who made Athens wealthy, powerful, and a centre of culture.

  • In the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), Philip II’s armies defeated an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes, forcing them into a confederation
    and effectively limiting Athenian independence.

  • Classical period[edit] During the 1st millennium BC, Athens succeeded in bringing the other towns of Attica under its rule.

  • Iron Age burials, in the Kerameikos and other locations, are often richly provided for and demonstrate that from 900 BC onwards Athens was one of the leading centres of trade
    and prosperity in the region; as were Lefkandi in Euboea and Knossos in Crete.

  • Two other major religious sites, the Temple of Hephaestus (which is still largely intact) and the Temple of Olympian Zeus or Olympeion (once the largest temple in mainland
    Greece but now in ruins) also lay within the city walls.

  • As the empire became increasingly anti-pagan, Athens became a provincial town and experienced fluctuating fortunes.

  • Further information: Duchy of Athens and Frankokratia From 1204 until 1458, Athens was ruled by Latins in three separate periods, following the Crusades.

  • Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for perhaps 5,000 years.

  • However, this medieval prosperity was not to last.

  • [36] In 1759 the new pasha, a native Muslim, destroyed one of the pillars of the Temple of Olympian Zeus to provide material for a fifth mosque for the city—an illegal act,
    as the temple was considered the Sultan’s property.

  • In 88–85 BC, most Athenian fortifications and homes were leveled by the Roman general Sulla after the Siege of Athens and Piraeus, although many civic buildings and monuments
    were left intact.

  • The Turkish community numbered several families established in the city since the Ottoman conquest; and their relations with their Christian neighbours were friendlier than
    elsewhere, as they had assimilated

  • In addition, no evidence exists of any possible cultural or other ties between Egypt and any part of present-day Greece at such early a date.

  • The city of Athens was twice captured and sacked by the Persians within one year after Thermopylae.

  • The poorest class, the Thetai, (Ancient Greek ) who formed the majority of the population, received political rights for the first time and were able to vote in the Ecclesia

  • (Later the Southern Italian city of Paestum was founded under the name of Poseidonia at about 600 BC.)

  • Corinthian War and the Second Athenian League[edit] Sparta’s former allies soon turned against her, due to her imperialist policy, and soon Athens’ former enemies Thebes and
    Corinth had become her allies; they fought with Athens and Argos against Sparta in the indecisive Corinthian War (395 – 387 BC).

  • The hill of the Pnyx, where the Athenian Assembly met, lay at the western end of the city.

  • Early modern period Ottoman Athens[edit] Leonardos Philaras (c. 1595–1673) was a Greek scholar, born in Athens,[32] and an early supporter of Greek liberation.

  • During the early Middle Ages, the city experienced a decline, then recovered under the later Byzantine Empire and was relatively prosperous during the period of the Crusades
    (12th and 13th centuries), benefiting from Italian trade.

  • [16] Athens then took the war to Asia Minor.

  • The period following the death of Alexander in 323 BC is known as Hellenistic Greece.

  • One of the most important religious sites in ancient Athens was the Temple of Athena, known today as the Parthenon, which stood on top of the Acropolis, where its evocative
    ruins still stand.

  • However, after losing the fleet one year prior, Polyperchon had to flee Macedon when in 316 BC Cassander secured control of Athens.

  • [33] The first Ottoman attack on Athens, which involved a short-lived occupation of the town, came in 1397, under the Ottoman generals Yaqub Pasha and Timurtash.

  • This system remained remarkably stable and, with a few brief interruptions, it remained in place for 170 years, until Philip II of Macedon defeated Athens and Thebes at the
    Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC.

  • Athens and the rise of the Roman empire[edit] After the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) Rome asserted its hegemony over Magna Graecia and became increasingly involved in Greece and
    the Balkans peninsula.

  • Antiquity Origins and early history[edit] Athens has been inhabited from Neolithic times, possibly from the end of the fourth millennium BC, or over 5,000 years.

  • Hellenistic Athens[edit] Further information: Hellenistic Greece, Lamian War, Phocion, Demetrius of Phalerum, Chremonidean War, Second Macedonian War, and First Mithridatic
    War Shortly after the death of Alexander the Great, Antipater and Craterus became joint generals of Greece and Macedonia.

  • Athenian coup of 411 BC[edit] Main article: Athenian coup of 411 BC The Karyatides statues of the Erechtheion, constructed 421–406 BC on the Acropolis Due to its poor handling
    of the war, the democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown by a coup in 411 BC; however, it was quickly restored.

  • [36] Its Greek population possessed a considerable degree of self-government, under a council of primates composed of the leading aristocratic families, along with the city’s
    metropolitan bishop.

  • A sacred olive tree said to be the one created by the goddess was still kept on the Acropolis at the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD).

  • Artists and philosophers[edit] Main articles: Greek philosophy and Greek theatre See also: Attic Greek The modern Academy of Athens, with Apollo and Athena on their columns,
    and Socrates and Plato seated in front The period from the end of the Persian Wars to the Macedonian conquest marked the zenith of Athens as a center of literature, philosophy, and the arts.

  • [13] This story is not supported by any scholarly evidence, as no Athenian state is known to have existed during the 10th millennium BC.

  • [29] Invasion of the empire by the Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and the ensuing civil wars, largely passed the region by and Athens continued its provincial
    existence unharmed.

  • From later accounts, it is believed that these kings stood at the head of a land-owning aristocracy known as the Eupatridae (the ‘well-born’), whose instrument of government
    was a Council which met on the Hill of Ares, called the Areopagus and appointed the chief city officials, the archons and the polemarch (commander-in-chief).

  • The Greeks saw this as a symbol that Athena still had her mark there on the city.


Works Cited

[‘o “Name of Athena”.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Herodotus, The Histories, 8.55
o ^ Bibliotheca, 3.14
o ^ Plutarch, Themistocles Them. 19
o ^ Instead of a spring, Ovid says Poseidon offered a horse.
o ^ [Pausa%3D1%3Achapter%3D27%3Asection%3D2
Paus. 1.27.2]
o ^ Plato, Cratylus, Plat. Crat. 407b
o ^ Schneider, Lambert & Christoph Hoecker (2001). Die Akropolis von Athen, Darmstadt, pp. 62–63.
o ^ Immerwahr, S. (1971). The Athenian Agora XII: the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Princeton.
o ^
Jump up to:a b Iakovides, S. (1962). E mykenaïke akropolis ton Athenon. Athens.
o ^ Broneer, Oscar (1939). “A Mycenaean Fountain on the Athenian Acropolis”, Hesperia VIII.
o ^ Osborne, R. (1996, 2009). Greece in the Making 1200 – 479 BC.
o ^
Garvey, Tom (2008). “Plato’s Atlantis Story: A Prose Hymn to Athena”. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, vol. 48, pp. 381-392.
o ^ “Roman aqueducts: Athens (Greece)”.
o ^ Lewis, John David (25 January 2010). Nothing Less
than Victory: Decisive Wars and the Lessons of History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400834303. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
o ^ Salomon, Marilyn J. (1974). Great Cities of the World 3: Next Stop… Athens. The Symphonette Press. p. 16.
o ^
Salomon, Marilyn J. (1974). Great Cities of the World 3: Next Stop… Athens. The Symphonette Press. p. 19.
o ^ Worthinton, Ian (2001). Dinarchus, Hyperides & Lycurgus. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. pp. 80–86. ISBN 0-292-79143-7.
o ^
Henderson, J. (1993). Comic Hero versus Political Elite, pp. 307–19 in Sommerstein, A. H.; S. Halliwell; J. Henderson; B. Zimmerman, eds. (1993). Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis. Bari: Levante Editori. ISBN 88-7949-026-5.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Worthington,
Ian (2021). Athens after empire : a history from Alexander the Great to the Emperor Hadrian. New York, NY. ISBN 978-0-19-063399-8. OCLC 1157812352.
o ^ “Antipater”. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
o ^ “Craterus – Livius”.
Retrieved 20 May 2021.
o ^ From Polis to Empire–The Ancient World, c. 800 B.C. – A.D. 500: A Biographical Dictionary (The Great Cultural Eras of the Western World): “Antipater (c.400-319 B.C) Antipater was a Macedonian nobleman who served Kings
Philip II and Alexander the Great”
o ^ Athenaeus, vi.272, xii.542; Aelian, Varia Historia, ix. 9; Polybius, xii.13.
o ^ Tung, Anthony (2001). Preserving the World’s Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York:
Three Rivers Press. pp. 256–260. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
o ^ “Roman aqueducts: Hadrian’s Athens (Greece)”.
o ^ Travlos, John (1971). Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens. London: Thames and Hudson, passim
o ^ Jump up to:a
b c d e f g h i j Tung, Anthony (2001). “The City of the Gods Besieged”. Preserving the World’s Great Cities:The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York: Three Rivers Press. pp. 260, 263, 265. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
o ^ Jump up
to:a b c d e f g Gregory, Timothy E.; Ševčenko, Nancy Patterson (1991). “Athens”. In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 221–223. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
o ^ Alan Cameron,
“The Last Days of the Academy at Athens,” in A. Cameron, Wandering Poets and Other Essays on Late Greek Literature and Philosophy, 2016, (Oxford University Press: Oxford), pp. 205-246
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Babinger, Franz (1986). “Atīna”.
The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 738–739. ISBN 90-04-08114-3.
o ^ Hutton, James (1946). The Greek anthology in France and in the Latin writers of the Netherlands to the year 1800 Volume 28. Cornell
University Press. p. 188. OCLC 3305912. LEONARD PHILARAS or VILLERET (c. 1595–1673) Philaras was born in Athens of good family and spent his childhood there. His youth was passed in Rome, where he was educated, and his manhood
o ^ Merry, Bruce (2004).
Encyclopedia of modern Greek literature. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 442. ISBN 0-313-30813-6. Leonardos Filaras (1595–1673) devoted much of his career to coaxing Western European intellectuals to support Greek liberation. Two letters from Milton
(1608–1674) attest Filaras’s patriiotic crusade.
o ^ Augustinos, Olga (2007). “Eastern Concubines, Western Mistresses: Prévost’s Histoire d’une Grecque moderne”. In Buturović, Amila; Schick, İrvin Cemil (eds.). Women in the Ottoman Balkans: Gender,
Culture and History. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84511-505-0.
o ^ “and (Dontas, The Acropolis and its Museum, 16)”. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Miller,
William (1921). The Turkish restoration in Greece, 1718–1797. London and New York: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, The Macmillan Company.
o ^ Valeriano, Pierio; Gaisser, Julia Haig (1999). Pierio Valeriano on the ill fortune of learned
men: a Renaissance humanist and his world. University of Michigan Press. p. 281. ISBN 9780472110551. Demetrius Chalcondyles was a prominent Greek humanist. He taught Greek in Italy for over forty years.
o ^ “Demetrius Chalcondyles.”. Encyclopædia
Britannica. Retrieved 25 September 2009. Demetrius Chalcondyles published the first printed editions of Homer (1488), of Isocrates (1493), and of the Suda lexicon (1499), and a Greek grammar (Erotemata) in question-and-answer form.
o ^ “Laonicus
Chalcocondyles.”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Laonicus Chalcocondyles Byzantine historianal so spelled Laonicus Chalcondyles or Laonikos Chalkokondyles born c. 1423, Athens, Greece, Byzantine Empire [now in Greece] died 1490?
Chalcocondyles was a great admirer of Herodotus and roused the interest of contemporary Italian humanists in that ancient historian. He strove for objectivity and, in spite of some inaccuracies and the interpolation of far-fetched anecdotes, is one
of the most valuable of the later Greek historians.
o ^ Buhayer, Constantine (2006). Greece: a quick guide to customs & etiquette. Kuperard. p. 36. ISBN 1-85733-369-1. The Athenian politician and medical doctor Leonardos Philaras (1595–1673) was
an advisor to the French court, enjoying the patronage of Cardinal Richelieu
o ^ Parker, William Riley – Campbell, Gordon (1996). Milton: The life. Oxford University Press. pp. 418–419. ISBN 0-19-812889-4. The writer was a Greek, Leonard Philaras
(or Villere, as he was known in France), an able diplomat and scholar, ambassador to the French court from the Duke of Parma
o ^ Merry, Bruce (2004). Encyclopedia of modern Greek literature. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 442. ISBN 0-313-30813-6.
Leonardos Filaras (1595–1673) devoted much of his career to coaxing Western European intellectuals to support Greek liberation. Two letters from Milton (1608–1674) attest Filaras’s patriotic crusade.
o ^ Milton, John – Diekhoff, John Siemon (1965).
Milton on himself: Milton’s utterances upon himself and his works. Cohen & West. p. 267. OCLC 359509. Milton here refuses a request from Philaras for the assistance of his pen in the freeing of the Greeks from Turkish rule on the basis of his confidence
that only those people are slaves who deserve to be.
o ^ “World Gazetter City Pop:Athens”. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007.
o ^ “World Gazetter Metro Pop:Athens”. Archived from the original
on 1 October 2007.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c “Population of Greece”. General Secretariat Of National Statistical Service Of Greece. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
• Bayliss, Andrew J. (2011).
After Demosthenes : the politics of early Hellenistic Athens. London: Continuum. ISBN 9781441111517.
• Bouras, Charalambos (28 February 2018). Byzantine Athens, 10th – 12th Centuries. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-59697-8.
• Castrén, Paavo, ed. (1994).
Post-Herulian Athens : aspects of life and culture in Athens, A.D. 267-529. Helsinki: Suomen Ateenan-instituutin säätiö. ISBN 9789519529523.
• Dimitriadou, Eirini M. (31 March 2019). Early Athens: Settlements and Cemeteries in the Submycenaean,
Geometric and Archaic Periods. ISD LLC. ISBN 978-1-938770-88-3.
• Freely, John (2004). Strolling through Athens: Fourteen Unforgettable Walks through Europe’s Oldest City. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 978-1-85043-595-2.
• Geagan, Daniel J. (1967).
The Athenian Constitution after Sulla. Athens: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
• Geagan, Daniel J. (1979). “Roman Athens: Some Aspects of Life and Culture I. 86 B.C. – A.D. 267”. Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt. 2.7.1:
• Habicht, Christian (1997). Athens from Alexander to Antony. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674051119.
• Hoff, Michael C.; Rotroff, Susan I., eds. (1997). The Romanization of Athens: Proceedings of an International
Conference Held at Lincoln, Nebraska (April 1996). Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-900188-51-7.
• Hornblower, Simon (2011). The Greek world : 479-323 BC (4th ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 9780415602921.
• Mikalson, Jon D. (1998). Religion in Hellenistic
Athens. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91967-9.
• Oliver, G. J. (2007). War, food, and politics in early Hellenistic Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199283507.
• O’Sullivan, Lara (2009). The Regime of Demetrius
of Phalerum in Athens, 317-307 BCE: A Philosopher in Politics. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17888-5.
• Paga, Jessica (2021). Building democracy in late archaic Athens. New York, NY. ISBN 9780190083571.
• Palagia, Olga, ed. (2016). The Macedonians
in Athens, 322-229 B.C. proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Athens, May 24-26, 2001. Oxford: Oxbow Books. ISBN 9781785705304.
• Parker, Robert (1997). Athenian Religion: A History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-815240-8.
• Samons
II, Loren J., ed. (15 January 2007). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Pericles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-82669-3.
• Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Heleen, ed. (2000). Peisistratos and the Tyranny: A Reappraisal of the Evidence. BRILL.
ISBN 978-90-5063-416-8.
• Sicilianos, Demetrios (1960). Old and New Athens (Abridged ed.). Putnam.
• Thanasakis, Konstantinos; Georgopoulou, Maria, eds. (2019). Ottoman Athens: Archaeology, Topography, History. Athens: Gennadius Library. ISBN
• Vryonis, Speros (2002). “The Ghost of Athens in Byzantine and Ottoman Times”. Balkan Studies: Biannual Publication of the Institute for Balkan Studies. 43 (1): 5–115. ISSN 2241-1674.
• van Wees, Hans (2013). Ships and silver,
taxes and tribute : a fiscal history of archaic Athens. London: I B Tauris. ISBN 9781780766867.
• Worthington, Ian (2021). Athens after empire : a history from Alexander the Great to the Emperor Hadrian. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN
Photo credit:’]




james halliwell-phillipps


  • He took an active interest in the Camden Society, the Percy Society and the Shakespeare Society, for which he edited many early English and Elizabethan works.

  • A Weekly Journal of English and Foreign Literature, the Arts, and Sciences;[3] in 1839 he edited Sir John Mandeville’s Travels; in 1842 published an Account of the European
    manuscripts in the Chetham Library, besides a newly discovered metrical romance of the 15th century (Torrent of Portugal).

  • [5] In 1848 he published his Life of Shakespeare, illustrated by John Thomas Blight (1835–1911), which had several editions; in 1853–1865 a sumptuous edition, limited to 150
    copies, of Shakespeare in folio,[b] with full critical notes.

  • An Historical Account of the New Place, Stratford-Upon-Avon, the Last Residence of Shakespeare[13] • (1866).

  • However, also around this time, Halliwell was accused of stealing manuscripts from Trinity College, Cambridge.

  • [7] From 1845 Halliwell was excluded from the library of the British Museum on account of the suspicion concerning his possession of some manuscripts which had been removed
    from the library of Trinity College, Cambridge.

  • Some account of the Vernon Manuscript, a volume of early English poetry preserved in the Bodleian Library.

  • [2] He devoted himself to antiquarian research, particularly of early English literature.

  • In 1842, Halliwell published the first edition of Nursery Rhymes of England followed by Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Tales, containing the first printed version of the Three
    Little Pigs[6] and a version of the Christmas carol The Twelve Days of Christmas.

  • A Skeleton Hand-List of the Early Quarto editions of the Plays of Shakespeare; with notices of the old impressions of the Poems.

  • A Hand-Book Index to the Works of Shakespeare: Including References to the Phrases, Manners, Customs, Proverbs, Songs, Particles, &c., Which Are Used or Alluded to by the
    Great Dramatist.

  • Notes on Ascertaining the Value, and Directions for the Preservation, of Old Books, Manuscripts, Deeds and Family Papers.


Works Cited

[‘Torrent of Portugal. London: John Russell Smith. 1842.
o ^ Shakespeare in folio
o ^ Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare
o “Halliwell, James Orchard” . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
o ^ “Halliwell (post
Phillipps and Halliwell-Phillipps), James Orchard (HLWL836JO)”. A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
o ^ Douglas Wertheimer, “J.O. Halliwell’s Contributions to ‘The Parthenon’ — 1836-37,” Victorian Periodicals Newsletter vol.
8 (March 1975), pp. 3-6.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Halliwell-Phillipps, James Orchard”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol.
12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 857.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Rasmussen, Eric (2011). The Shakespeare Thefts. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 83–87. ISBN 9780230109414.
o ^ Ashliman, Professor D. L. “Three Little Pigs and other folktales
of Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 124”. Folklore and Mythology Electronic Texts. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
o ^ Halliwell, James Orchard (1842). The Nursery Rhymes of England. London: Richards. pp. 127–128.
o ^ Statement in answer
to reports which have been spread abroad against Mr. James Orchard Halliwell. (Anonymous) Islip, Oxfordshire (printer W. A. Wright, London). 26 July 1845.
o ^ James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps: the life and works of the Shakespearean scholar and
bookman. Oak Knoll Press. 2001. p. 583.
o ^ The Halliwell-Phillipps Collection, Chetham’s Library Archived 28 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
o ^ Collection of James O. Halliwell-Phillipps, Edinburgh University Library
o ^ Engel III, Wilson
F. (1980). “J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps and the Edinburgh University Library”. The Library: The Transactions of the Bibliographical Society. s6-II (2) (2): 193–198. doi:10.1093/library/s6-II.2.193.
o ^ “James Orchard Halliwell – An Historical account
of the New Place, Stratford-upon-Avon, the last residence of Shakespeare / by James O. Halliwell”. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
Photo credit:’]




semiotics of dress


  • Clothing symbols are a reflection of what a specific society believes is valuable at a given time.

  • [4]: 7  This means that when an individual’s body and clothes fuse together to form one, the individual’s sense of importance increases.

  • The way one dresses is informed by the biological and social needs of the individual.

  • Perhaps a better understanding of this could be derived from the church fathers, who said that seductive attire is a mixture of exposure and coverage of the body.

  • [4]: 11  Therefore, an intimate comprehension of an individual’s history as well as time investment is required to understand and comprehend an individual through clothing

  • While clothing is defined as “any covering of the human body”,[2] fashion is defined as the style of dress accepted by members of a society as being appropriate for specific
    times and occasions.

  • Central to the semiotics of dress is the psychology of self-perception and self-presentation, both as individuals who see themselves, as well as how individuals are seen within
    a greater group, society, culture or subculture.

  • Cultural values in dress can easily increase an individual’s self-significance by portraying those good, desirable values in accordance with one’s society.

  • [8]: 148  This idea may include visual images or verbal descriptions that people may use to describe which “look” suits them best and which “look” doesn’t.

  • However; due to their clothing, they portray an image or an idea to the viewer of being sexy or attractive, therefore putting her physical strength as a secondary attribute.

  • All in efforts to show others that they possess a privileged place in a social class, where they could not be seen working in a field.

  • Clothing symbols do not offer implications about a person’s rights, duties or obligations, and they should not be used to judge or predict one’s behavior.

  • [4]: 7  Clothing that shows or portrays some kind of authority in society would fall in the first category.

  • Symbols in clothing don’t represent one’s level in a social institution.

  • [2] People develop meaning of signs and signals based on an individual and personal ideology.

  • In other words, if one’s body and clothes don’t come together as a whole, then one may feel embarrassed, and therefore belittle its sense of importance.

  • People who wear these kinds of clothing are expected by society to behave in certain ways.

  • [8]: 120  Psychology in dress Psychologist J. C. Flugel concluded that styles of dress affect one’s appearance, yet triggering feelings that enable role performance.

  • “Personal dress,” refers to the “I” component we bring in when dressing the public self.


Works Cited

[‘Rubinstein, Ruth (2000). Society’s Child: Identity, Clothing, and Style. the University of Michigan: Westview Press. p. 297. ISBN 9780813366715.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Owyong, Yuet See Monica (2009-06-01). “Clothing semiotics and the social construction
of power relations”. Social Semiotics. 19 (2): 191–211. doi:10.1080/10350330902816434. ISSN 1035-0330. S2CID 144239853.
3. ^ Chandler, Daniel (June 14, 2017). Semiotics: the basics (3 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 332. ISBN 9781315311043.
4. ^ Jump
up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Rubinstein, Ruth (2001). Dress Codes: meanings and messages in American culture. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813322834.
5. ^ Davis, Fred. (1994). Fashion, Culture, and Identity. The University of Chicago
6. ^ Rubenstein, Ruth (2018). Dress Codes: Meanings And Messages In American Culture (2 ed.). Routledge. p. 388. ISBN 9780429974915.
7. ^ Maynard, argaret (1993). Fashioned from penury : dress as cultural practice in colonial Australia.
Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 9780521453103.
8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Kaiser, Susan (1997). The Social Psychology of Clothing. New York: Fairchild Publications. ISBN 978-1563671074.
Photo credit:’]




arbia’s law of geography


  • • Tobler’s second law of geography, “the phenomenon external to a geographic area of interest affects what goes on inside,” is probably the most widely accepted.

  • • the uncertainty principle: “that the geographic world is infinitely complex and that any representation must therefore contain elements of uncertainty, that many definitions
    used in acquiring geographic data contain elements of vagueness, and that it is impossible to measure location on the Earth’s surface exactly.

  • [14][15] Dividing the land differently may produce different statistical results from the same underlying dataset, an example of which can be found in Simpson’s paradox.

  • [2][5][8] Arbia’s law builds on Tobler’s first law of geography which states, “Everything is related to everything else, but near things tend to be more related than distant.”

  • Other Proposed Second Laws of Geography Some have argued that geographic laws do not need to be numbered.

  • Arbia’s law of geography states, “Everything is related to everything else, but things observed at a coarse spatial resolution are more related than things observed at a finer

  • [2] The laws of geography need not be numbered, however.

  • Importantly, when working with spatially aggregate data (either in vector or raster) at a coarse resolution, it is impossible to make assumptions about what that data looks
    like at a finer resolution.

  • [1][2][6][7] Background Since Tobler first invoked the first law of geography in his 1970s paper, there have been many attempts at a second law, including Tobler’s second
    law of geography, and Arbia’s law is one such contender.

  • Thus, a coarse resolution has a soothing effect on the image, making land cover appear more homogenous than an image with a fine spatial resolution.


Works Cited

[‘Arbia, Giuseppe; Benedetti, R.; Espa, G. (1996). “”Effects of MAUP on image classification””. Journal of Geographical Systems. 3: 123–141.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Tobler, Waldo (2004). “On the First Law of Geography: A Reply”. Annals of the
Association of American Geographers. 94 (2): 304–310. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.2004.09402009.x. S2CID 33201684. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Smith, Peter (2005). “The laws of geography”. Teaching Geography. 30 (3): 150.
o ^ Otto,
Philipp; Dogan, Osman; Taspınar, Suleyman (November 8, 2022). “A Dynamic Spatiotemporal Stochastic Volatility Model with an Application to Environmental Risks”. arXiv:2211.03178 [stat.ME].
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Hecht, Brent; Moxley, Emily (2009).
“Terabytes of Tobler: Evaluating the First Law in a Massive, Domain-Neutral Representation of World Knowledge”. Spatial Information Theory 9th International Conference, COSIT 2009, Aber Wrac’h, France, September 21–25, 2009, Proceedings. Lecture
Notes in Computer Science. Springer. 5756: 88. Bibcode:2009LNCS.5756…88H. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03832-7_6. ISBN 978-3-642-03831-0.
o ^ Amdaoud, Mounir; Arcur, Giuseppe; Levratto, Nadine; Succurro, Marianna; Costanzo, Damiana (2020). “Geography
of COVID-19 outbreak and first policy answers in European regions and cities”.
o ^ Zhang, Boen; Xu, Gang; Jiao, Limin; Liu, Jiafeng (January 2019). “The scale effects of the spatial autocorrelation measurement: aggregation level and spatial resolution
January 2019 International J”. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 33 (5): 1–22. doi:10.1080/13658816.2018.1564316. S2CID 68155432. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Goodchild, Michael (2004). “The Validity
and Usefulness of Laws in Geographic Information Science and Geography”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 94 (2): 300–303. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.2004.09402008.x. S2CID 17912938.
o ^ Wu, Jianguo (2004). “Effects of changing scale
on landscape pattern analysis: scaling relations” (PDF). Landscape Ecology. 19 (2): 125–138. doi:10.1023/ S2CID 16977988.
o ^ Taylor, Peter (1983). Distance Decay in Spatial Interactions (PDF). ISBN 0-86094-090-X.
o ^
Doignon, Yoann; Oliveau, Sébastien (2015). “Territorial grids in the Mediterranean: space versus population”. Bollettino dell’Associazione Italiana di Cartografia. 154: 46–63. doi:10.13137/2282-472X/11827.
o ^ Jensen, John (2016). Introductory
digital image processing: a remote sensing perspective. Glenview, IL: Pearson Education, Inc. p. 623. ISBN 978-0-13-405816-0.
o ^ Tobler, Waldo (1969). “Geographical filters and their inverses”. Geographical Analysis. 1 (3): 234–53. doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1969.tb00621.x.
o ^
Jump up to:a b Openshaw, Stan (1983). The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (PDF). ISBN 0-86094-134-5.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Chen, Xiang; Ye, Xinyue; Widener, Michael J.; Delmelle, Eric; Kwan, Mei-Po; Shannon, Jerry; Racine, Racine F.; Adams, Aaron; Liang,
Lu; Peng, Jia (27 December 2022). “A systematic review of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) in community food environmental research”. Urban Informatics. 1. doi:10.1007/s44212-022-00021-1. S2CID 255206315. Retrieved 27 December 2022.






  • [118] Services hindered[edit] Provisioning services • Greater species diversity of plants reduces primary production (Synthesis of 7 experimental studies)[54] Regulating services
    • greater genetic and species diversity of a number of organisms reduces freshwater purification (Synthesis of 8 experimental studies, although an attempt by the authors to investigate the effect of detritivore diversity on freshwater purification
    was unsuccessful due to a lack of available evidence (only 1 observational study was found[102] • Effect of species diversity of plants on biofuel yield (In a survey of the literature, the investigators only found 3 studies)[102] • Effect
    of species diversity of fish on fishery yield (In a survey of the literature, the investigators only found 4 experimental studies and 1 observational study)[102] Regulating services • Effect of species diversity on the stability of biofuel
    yield (In a survey of the literature, the investigators did not find any studies)[102] • Effect of species diversity of plants on the stability of fodder yield (In a survey of the literature, the investigators only found 2 studies)[102] •
    Effect of species diversity of plants on the stability of crop yield (In a survey of the literature, the investigators only found 1 study)[102] • Effect of genetic diversity of plants on the stability of crop yield (In a survey of the literature,
    the investigators only found 2 studies)[102] • Effect of diversity on the stability of wood production (In a survey of the literature, the investigators could not find any studies)[102] • Effect of species diversity of multiple taxa on erosion
    control (In a survey of the literature, the investigators could not find any studies – they did, however, find studies on the effect of species diversity and root biomass)[102] • Effect of diversity on flood regulation (In a survey of the
    literature, the investigators could not find any studies)[102] • Effect of species and trait diversity of plants on soil moisture (In a survey of the literature, the investigators only found 2 studies)[102] Other sources have reported somewhat
    conflicting results and in 1997 Robert Costanza and his colleagues reported the estimated global value of ecosystem services (not captured in traditional markets) at an average of $33 trillion annually.

  • [31] Some 0.075 million species of fungi had been documented by 2001;[32] • 1 million mites[33] • The number of microbial species is not reliably known, but the Global Ocean
    Sampling Expedition dramatically increased the estimates of genetic diversity by identifying an enormous number of new genes from near-surface plankton samples at various marine locations, initially over the 2004–2006 period.

  • [92] Some scientists believe that corrected for sampling artifacts, modern biodiversity may not be much different from biodiversity 300 million years ago,[89] whereas others
    consider the fossil record reasonably reflective of the diversification of life.

  • [18] As one author states, “Tetrapods have not yet invaded 64 percent of potentially habitable modes and it could be that without human influence the ecological and taxonomic
    diversity of tetrapods would continue to increase exponentially until most or all of the available eco-space is filled.

  • [25] Other estimates include: • 220,000 vascular plants, estimated using the species-area relation method[26] • 0.7-1 million marine species[27] • 10–30 million insects;[28]
    (of some 0.9 million we know today)[29] • 5–10 million bacteria;[30] • 1.5-3 million fungi, estimates based on data from the tropics, long-term non-tropical sites and molecular studies that have revealed cryptic speciation.

  • [99] It has been argued that the present rate of extinction is sufficient to eliminate most species on the planet Earth within 100 years.

  • Colombia is characterized by high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemics (species that are not found
    naturally anywhere else) of any country.

  • While records of life in the sea show a logistic pattern of growth, life on land (insects, plants and tetrapods) shows an exponential rise in diversity.

  • [97][98] Most biologists agree however that the period since human emergence is part of a new mass extinction, named the Holocene extinction event, caused primarily by the
    impact humans are having on the environment.

  • • Greater species and trait diversity of plants may or may not increase long term carbon storage (Synthesis of 33 observational studies)[102] • Greater pollinator diversity
    may or may not increase pollination (Synthesis of 7 observational studies),[102] but a publication from March 2013 suggests that increased native pollinator diversity enhances pollen deposition (although not necessarily fruit set as the authors
    would have you believe, for details explore their lengthy supplementary material).

  • [106] One review found mixed evidence (Synthesis of 287 experimental studies[115]), while another found contrary evidence (Synthesis of 100 experimental studies[112]) • Greater
    species diversity of animals may or may not decrease disease prevalence on those animals (Synthesis of 45 experimental and observational studies),[116] although a 2013 study offers more support showing that biodiversity may in fact enhance
    disease resistance within animal communities, at least in amphibian frog ponds.

  • [40] Estimates reach as high as 140,000 species per year (based on Species-area theory).

  • [34] The findings may eventually cause a significant change in the way science defines species and other taxonomic categories.

  • [120] Agriculture[edit] See also: Agricultural biodiversity Amazon Rainforest in South America Agricultural diversity can be divided into two categories: intraspecific diversity,
    which includes the genetic variation within a single species, like the potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is composed of many different forms and types (e.g.

  • [109][110] Although another review of 38 experimental studies found mixed support for this claim, suggesting that in cases where mutual intraguild predation occurs, a single
    predatory species is often more effective[111] • of plants decreases disease prevalence on plants (Synthesis of 107 experimental studies)[112] • of plants increases resistance to plant invasion (Data from two separate reviews; Synthesis of
    105 experimental studies;[112] Synthesis of 15 experimental studies[113]) • of plants increases carbon sequestration, but note that this finding only relates to actual uptake of carbon dioxide and not long-term storage, see below; Synthesis
    of 479 experimental studies)[54] • plants increases soil nutrient remineralization (Synthesis of 103 experimental studies)[112] • of plants increases soil organic matter (Synthesis of 85 experimental studies)[112] Services with mixed evidence[edit]
    Provisioning services • None to date Regulating services • Greater species diversity of plants may or may not decrease herbivorous pest populations.

  • “[5] • 1967 – Raymond F. Dasmann used the term biological diversity in reference to the richness of living nature that conservationists should protect in his book A Different
    Kind of Country.

  • History of the term • 1916 – The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in “The Variable Desert,” Scientific American: “The bare statement that the region
    contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is entirely inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity.

  • [4] The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity named the Holocene extinction, and
    often referred to as the sixth mass extinction.

  • [citation needed] The rate of species loss is greater now than at any time in human history, with extinctions occurring at rates hundreds of times higher than background extinction

  • “[18] It also appears that the diversity continues to increase over time, especially after mass extinctions.

  • [100] New species are regularly discovered (on average between 5–10,000 new species each year, most of them insects) and many, though discovered, are not yet classified (estimates
    are that nearly 90% of all arthropods are not yet classified).

  • [58] Areas with dense human populations and intense agricultural land use, such as Europe, parts of Bangladesh, China, India and North America, are less intact in terms of
    their biodiversity.

  • Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future as a primary result of deforestation.

  • According to one of the researchers, “If life arose relatively quickly on Earth…then it could be common in the universe.

  • [87] The origin of life has not been established by science, however, some evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established only a few hundred million years
    after the formation of the Earth.

  • [35][36] Since the rate of extinction has increased, many extant species may become extinct before they are described.

  • [49] Dave Goulson of Sussex University stated that their study suggested that humans “appear to be making vast tracts of land inhospitable to most forms of life, and are currently
    on course for ecological Armageddon.

  • [94] Diversification[edit] The existence of a global carrying capacity, limiting the amount of life that can live at once, is debated, as is the question of whether such a
    limit would also cap the number of species.

  • [46] In absolute terms, the planet has lost 58% of its biodiversity since 1970 according to a 2016 study by the World Wildlife Fund.

  • Brazil’s Atlantic Forest is considered one such hotspot, containing roughly 20,000 plant species, 1,350 vertebrates and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere

  • [21] • The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit defined “biological diversity” as “the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia, terrestrial,
    marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.

  • [119] Since the Stone Age, species loss has accelerated above the average basal rate, driven by human activity.

  • [59] Role and benefits of biodiversity General ecosystem services[edit] Further information: Ecosystem services From the perspective of the method known as Natural Economy
    the economic value of 17 ecosystem services for Earth’s biosphere (calculated in 1997) has an estimated value of US$33 trillion per year.

  • [18] However, not all scientists support this view, since there is uncertainty as to how strongly the fossil record is biased by the greater availability and preservation
    of recent geologic sections.

  • [61][62] The biodiversity of forests varies considerably according to factors such as forest type, geography, climate and soils – in addition to human use.

  • This is despite the fact that high-income countries use five times the ecological resources of low-income countries, which was explained as a result of a process whereby wealthy
    nations are outsourcing resource depletion to poorer nations, which are suffering the greatest ecosystem losses.

  • Definitions “Biodiversity” is most commonly used to replace the more clearly-defined and long-established terms, species diversity and species richness.

  • [107] However, there is not enough data to draw a conclusion about the effect of tree trait diversity on wood production.

  • [38] Loss of biodiversity During the last century, decreases in biodiversity have been increasingly observed.

  • [23] • The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines biodiversity in 2019 as “the variability that exists among living organisms (both within and
    between species) and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  • diversity within a single species) increases overall crop yield (synthesis of 575 experimental studies).

  • [93] Most of the terrestrial diversity is found in tropical forests and in general, the land has more species than the ocean; some 8.7 million species may exist on Earth,
    of which some 2.1 million live in the ocean.

  • [18] Estimates of the present global macroscopic species diversity vary from 2 million to 100 million, with a best estimate of somewhere near 9 million,[59] the vast majority

  • [95] On the other hand, changes through the Phanerozoic correlate much better with the hyperbolic model (widely used in population biology, demography and macrosociology,
    as well as fossil biodiversity) than with exponential and logistic models.

  • [58] A new method used in 2011, put the total number of species on Earth at 8.7 million, of which 2.1 million were estimated to live in the ocean.

  • “[86] Evolution History[edit] Biodiversity is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution.

  • [60] Apparent marine fossil diversity during the Phanerozoic[88] The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic (the last 540 million years), starts with rapid growth
    during the Cambrian explosion—a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared.

  • The ongoing global biodiversity crisis not only involves biological extinctions, but also the loss of experience and the gradual fading of cultural knowledge and collective
    memory of species.

  • Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in many ways, although a few negative effects are studied.

  • The conservation of the world’s biodiversity is thus utterly dependent on the way in which we interact with and use the world’s forests.

  • In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all organisms living on Earth.

  • [41] This figure indicates unsustainable ecological practices, because few species emerge each year.

  • [47] The Living Planet Report 2014 claims that “the number of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish across the globe is, on average, about half the size it was 40
    years ago”.

  • [16][17] An advantage of this definition is that it presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety previously identified: • taxonomic diversity (usually
    measured at the species diversity level)[18] • ecological diversity (often viewed from the perspective of ecosystem diversity)[18] • morphological diversity (which stems from genetic diversity and molecular diversity[19]) • functional diversity
    (which is a measure of the number of functionally disparate species within a population (e.g.

  • [1] Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth; it is usually greater in the tropics as a result of the warm climate and high primary productivity in the region near
    the equator.

  • Several ecological factors may contribute to the gradient, but the ultimate factor behind many of them is the greater mean temperature at the equator compared to that of the

  • The reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction.

  • [93] Diversity appears to increase continually in the absence of natural selection.

  • The other category of agricultural diversity is called interspecific diversity and refers to the number and types of different species.

  • [96] The hyperbolic pattern of the world population growth arises from a second-order positive feedback between the population size and the rate of technological growth.

  • [72] In this study, the species pool size and the fractal nature of ecosystems were combined to clarify some general patterns of this gradient.

  • “[3] Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity.

  • Estimates on the number of Earth’s current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% have not yet been described.

  • [22] • Gaston and Spicer’s definition in their book “Biodiversity: an introduction” in 2004 is “variation of life at all levels of biological organization”.

  • “[50] In 2020 the World Wildlife Foundation published a report saying that “biodiversity is being destroyed at a rate unprecedented in human history”.


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