dizzy gillespie


  • One of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time, Gillespie was such a complex player that his contemporaries ended up being similar to those of Miles Davis and Fats Navarro
    instead, and it was not until Jon Faddis’s emergence in the 1970s that Dizzy’s style was successfully recreated [….] Gillespie is remembered, by both critics and fans alike, as one of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time”.

  • Two years later I read that that was ‘bop’ and the beginning of modern jazz … but the band never made recordings.

  • [28][29] During this time, he also continued to lead a big band that performed throughout the United States and featured musicians including Pee Wee Moore and others.

  • [73] He was honored on December 31, 2006 in A Jazz New Year’s Eve: Freddy Cole & the Dizzy Gillespie All-Star Big Band at The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.

  • “A Night in Tunisia”, written in 1942, while he was playing with Earl Hines’ band, is noted for having a feature that is common in today’s music: a syncopated bass line.

  • [27] On January 6, 1953, he threw a party for his wife Lorraine at Snookie’s, a club in Manhattan, where his trumpet’s bell got bent upward in an accident, but he liked the
    sound so much he had a special trumpet made with a 45 degree raised bell, becoming his trademark.

  • A concert by one of his small groups in New York’s Town Hall on June 22, 1945 presented bebop to a broad audience; recordings of it were released in 2005.

  • He and his big bands, with arrangements provided by Tadd Dameron, Gil Fuller, and George Russell, popularized bebop and made him a symbol of the new music.

  • In 1956 Gillespie organized a band to go on a State Department tour of the Middle East which was well-received internationally and earned him the nickname “the Ambassador
    of Jazz”.

  • [22] Gillespie performing in 1955 After his work with Parker, Gillespie led other small combos (including ones with Milt Jackson, John Coltrane, Lalo Schifrin, Ray Brown,
    Kenny Clarke, James Moody, J.J. Johnson, and Yusef Lateef) and put together his successful big bands starting in 1947.

  • [2] In the 1940s, Gillespie, with Charlie Parker, became a major figure in the development of bebop and modern jazz.

  • Gillespie sent a request to Martin to make him a “bent” trumpet from a sketch produced by Lorraine, and from that time forward played a trumpet with an upturned bell.

  • [13][14] Gillespie’s first professional job was with the Frank Fairfax Orchestra in 1935, after which he joined the respective orchestras of Edgar Hayes and later Teddy Hill,
    replacing Frankie Newton as second trumpet in May 1937.

  • Rise of bebop[edit] Gillespie with John Lewis, Cecil Payne, Miles Davis, and Ray Brown, between 1946 and 1948 Bebop was known as the first modern jazz style.

  • According to Gillespie’s autobiography, this was originally the result of accidental damage caused by the dancers Stump and Stumpy falling onto the instrument while it was
    on a trumpet stand on stage at Snookie’s in Manhattan on January 6, 1953, during a birthday party for Gillespie’s wife Lorraine.

  • Gillespie started to play the piano at the age of four.

  • [47] Shortly after the death of Charlie Parker, Gillespie encountered an audience member after a show.

  • Teddy Hill’s band was where Gillespie made his first recording, “King Porter Stomp”.

  • Dizzy Gillespie and his Bebop Six, which included Parker, started an extended gig at Billy Berg’s club in Los Angeles in December 1945.

  • [16] During his time in Calloway’s band, Gillespie started writing big band music for Woody Herman and Jimmy Dorsey.

  • [32] Final years[edit] Gillespie holding memoir To Be or Not to Bop published in 1979 In the 1980s, Gillespie led the United Nations Orchestra.

  • In 1945, Gillespie left Eckstine’s band because he wanted to play with a small combo.

  • In August 1937 while gigging with Hayes in Washington D.C., Gillespie met a young dancer named Lorraine Willis who worked a Baltimore–Philadelphia–New York City circuit which
    included the Apollo Theater.

  • Campaign buttons had been manufactured years before by Gillespie’s booking agency as a joke[42] but proceeds went to Congress of Racial Equality, Southern Christian Leadership
    Conference and Martin Luther King Jr.;[43] in later years they became a collector’s item.

  • He took in all the music of his youth—from Roy Eldridge to Duke Ellington—and developed a unique style built on complex rhythm and harmony balanced by wit.

  • Afro-Cuban jazz[edit] In the late 1940s, Gillespie was involved in the movement called Afro-Cuban music, bringing Afro-Latin American music and elements to greater prominence
    in jazz and even pop music, particularly salsa.

  • The next year, at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts ceremonies celebrating the centennial of American jazz, Gillespie received the Kennedy Center Honors Award and
    the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers Duke Ellington Award for 50 years of achievement as a composer, performer, and bandleader.

  • According to Jones, Calloway referred to it as “Chinese music”.

  • Gillespie also worked with Mario Bauza in New York jazz clubs on 52nd Street and several famous dance clubs such as the Palladium and the Apollo Theater in Harlem.

  • [75] In popular culture[edit] Samuel E. Wright played Dizzy Gillespie in the film Bird (1988), about Charlie Parker.

  • The film is a crime drama about a jazz pianist who falls for a dangerous woman while in Portugal with an American expatriate’s jazz band.

  • [21] “Woody ‘n’ You” was recorded in a session led by Coleman Hawkins with Gillespie as a featured sideman on February 16, 1944 (Apollo), the first formal recording of bebop.

  • In December 1986 Gillespie gave the National Museum of American History his 1972 King “Silver Flair” trumpet with a Cass mouthpiece.

  • I first learned the significance of rhythm there and all about how music can transport people spiritually.

  • The music evolved from what went before.

  • [19] Gillespie said of the Hines band, “[p]eople talk about the Hines band being ‘the incubator of bop’ and the leading exponents of that music ended up in the Hines band.

  • Afro-Cuban jazz was successful because it never decreased in popularity and it always attracted people to dance.

  • Each musician gave tribute to their friend, this great soul and innovator in the world of jazz.

  • He performed one more night but cancelled the rest of the tour for medical reasons, ending his 56-year touring career.

  • [50] The Rough Guide to Jazz describes his musical style: The whole essence of a Gillespie solo was cliff-hanging suspense: the phrases and the angle of the approach were
    perpetually varied, breakneck runs were followed by pauses, by huge interval leaps, by long, immensely high notes, by slurs and smears and bluesy phrases; he always took listeners by surprise, always shocking them with a new thought.

  • [15] Gillespie stayed with Teddy Hill’s band for a year, then left and freelanced with other bands.

  • In 1943 I heard the great Earl Hines band which had Bird in it and all those other great musicians.

  • This band recorded a live album at the 1957 Newport jazz festival that featured Mary Lou Williams as a guest artist on piano.

  • “[20] Gillespie joined the big band of Hines’ long-time collaborator Billy Eckstine, and it was as a member of Eckstine’s band that he was reunited with Charlie Parker, a
    fellow member.

  • [9] His father was a local bandleader,[10] so instruments were made available to the children.

  • He started to organize big bands in late 1945.

  • Gillespie’s magnificent sense of time and emotional intensity of his playing came from childhood roots.

  • They played together in the Chick Webb band and Cab Calloway’s band, where Gillespie and Bauza became lifelong friends.

  • All the musicians respected him because, in addition to outplaying everyone, he knew so much and was so generous with that knowledge…[60] Bent trumpet[edit] Gillespie performs
    with his bent trumpet in 1988.


Works Cited

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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nahidv/13910479407/’]






  • Observations using larger telescopes of a few nearby bright galaxies, like the Andromeda Galaxy, began resolving them into huge conglomerations of stars, but based simply
    on the apparent faintness and sheer population of stars, the true distances of these objects placed them well beyond the Milky Way.

  • These structures are thought to develop when a larger galaxy absorbs a smaller companion galaxy—that as the two galaxy centers approach, they start to oscillate around a center
    point, and the oscillation creates gravitational ripples forming the shells of stars, similar to ripples spreading on water.

  • Since the Hubble sequence is entirely based upon visual morphological type (shape), it may miss certain important characteristics of galaxies such as star formation rate in
    starburst galaxies and activity in the cores of active galaxies.

  • Though the stars and other visible material contained in such a galaxy lie mostly on a plane, the majority of mass in spiral galaxies exists in a roughly spherical halo of
    dark matter which extends beyond the visible component, as demonstrated by the universal rotation curve concept.

  • [81] Many dwarf galaxies may orbit a single larger galaxy; the Milky Way has at least a dozen such satellites, with an estimated 300–500 yet to be discovered.

  • Wilson telescope, Edwin Hubble was able to resolve the outer parts of some spiral nebulae as collections of individual stars and identified some Cepheid variables, thus allowing
    him to estimate the distance to the nebulae: they were far too distant to be part of the Milky Way.

  • [28][29] In 1750, English astronomer Thomas Wright, in his An Original Theory or New Hypothesis of the Universe, correctly speculated that it might be a rotating body of a
    huge number of stars held together by gravitational forces, akin to the Solar System but on a much larger scale, and that the resulting disk of stars could be seen as a band on the sky from our perspective inside it.

  • They can grow to enormous sizes (compared to spiral galaxies, for example), and giant elliptical galaxies are often found near the core of large galaxy clusters.

  • [84][85] Starburst Main article: Starburst galaxy M82, a starburst galaxy that has ten times the star formation of a “normal” galaxy[86] Stars are created within galaxies
    from a reserve of cold gas that forms giant molecular clouds.

  • Particularly, surveys in the Zone of Avoidance (the region of sky blocked at visible-light wavelengths by the Milky Way) have revealed a number of new galaxies.

  • [55] The Hubble Deep Field, an extremely long exposure of a relatively empty part of the sky, provided evidence that there are about 125 billion (1.25×1011) galaxies in the
    observable universe.

  • [77] Such an event may have affected the Andromeda Galaxy, as it displays a multi-ring-like structure when viewed in infrared radiation.

  • Extremely luminous, they were first identified as high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that appeared more similar to stars
    than to extended sources similar to galaxies.

  • To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula is an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well
    as the significant Doppler shift.

  • About one-tenth of elliptical galaxies have a shell-like structure, which has never been observed in spiral galaxies.

  • [96] They are strong enough to be dynamically important, as they: • Drive mass inflow into the centers of galaxies • Modify the formation of spiral arms • Can affect the rotation
    of gas in the galaxies’ outer regions • Provide the transport of angular momentum required for the collapse of gas clouds, and hence the formation of new stars The typical average equipartition strength for spiral galaxies is about 10 μG (microgauss)
    or 1 nT (nanotesla).

  • [31] Both analyses failed to take into account the absorption of light by interstellar dust present in the galactic plane; but after Robert Julius Trumpler quantified this
    effect in 1930 by studying open clusters, the present picture of our host galaxy emerged.

  • Seen in visible light, most look like normal spiral galaxies; but when studied under other wavelengths, their cores’ luminosity is equivalent to the luminosity of whole galaxies
    the size of the Milky Way.

  • [49] Modern research Rotation curve of a typical spiral galaxy: predicted based on the visible matter (A) and observed (B).

  • Radio-faint galaxies like M 31 and M33, our Milky Way’s neighbors, have weaker fields (about 5 μG), while gas-rich galaxies with high star-formation rates, like M 51, M 83
    and NGC 6946, have 15 μG on average.

  • This suggests that galaxies are largely formed by dark matter, and that the minimum size may indicate a form of warm dark matter incapable of gravitational coalescence on
    a smaller scale.

  • Instead, they are dominated by generally older, more evolved stars that are orbiting the common center of gravity in random directions.

  • “[25] Andalusian astronomer Ibn Bâjjah (“Avempace”, d. 1138) proposed that it was composed of many stars that almost touched one another, and appeared to be a continuous image
    due to the effect of refraction from sublunary material,[21][26] citing his observation of the conjunction of Jupiter and Mars as evidence of this occurring when two objects were near.

  • Many elliptical galaxies are believed to form due to the interaction of galaxies, resulting in a collision and merger.

  • [32] The first project to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun was undertaken by William Herschel in 1785 by counting the number of stars in different
    regions of the sky.

  • [68] Hoag’s Object, an example of a ring galaxy Barred spiral galaxy A majority of spiral galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, have a linear, bar-shaped band of stars
    that extends outward to either side of the core, then merges into the spiral arm structure.

  • It may be the same size as the Milky Way, but have a visible star count only one percent of the Milky Way’s.

  • There are multiple classification and naming schemes for AGNs, but those in the lower ranges of luminosity are called Seyfert galaxies, while those with luminosities much
    greater than that of the host galaxy are known as quasi-stellar objects or quasars.

  • They are relatively small when compared with other galactic formations, being about one hundredth the size of the Milky Way, with only a few billion stars.

  • If one of the galaxies is much more massive than the other, the result is known as cannibalism, where the more massive larger galaxy remains relatively undisturbed, and the
    smaller one is torn apart.

  • [40] In 1750, Thomas Wright correctly speculated that the Milky Way was a flattened disk of stars, and that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate
    Milky Ways.

  • Starburst galaxies were more common during the universe’s early history,[87] but still contribute an estimated 15% to total star production.

  • [20] Aristotle (384–322 BCE), however, believed the Milky Way was caused by “the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars that were large, numerous and close together”
    and that the “ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the World that is continuous with the heavenly motions.

  • A study of 27 Milky Way neighbors found that in all dwarf galaxies, the central mass is approximately 10 million solar masses, regardless of whether it has thousands or millions
    of stars.

  • The stars of interacting galaxies usually do not collide, but the gas and dust within the two forms interacts, sometimes triggering star formation.

  • In 2021, data from NASA’s New Horizons space probe was used to revise the previous estimate to roughly 200 billion galaxies (2×1011),[7] which followed a 2016 estimate that
    there were two trillion (2×1012) or more[8][9] galaxies in the observable universe, overall, and as many as an estimated 1×1024 stars[10][11] (more stars than all the grains of sand on all beaches of the planet Earth).

  • Consequently, these galaxies also have a low portion of open clusters and a reduced rate of new star formation.

  • Among other things, its data helped establish that the missing dark matter in our galaxy could not consist solely of inherently faint and small stars.

  • He produced a diagram of the shape of the galaxy with the Solar System close to the center.

  • Actual proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in 1610 when the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study it and discovered it was composed
    of a huge number of faint stars.

  • All the well-known galaxies appear in one or more of these catalogs but each time under a different number.

  • o A ring galaxy has a ring-like structure of stars and interstellar medium surrounding a bare core.

  • [36] In 1734, philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg in his Principia speculated that there might be galaxies outside our own that were formed into galactic clusters that were minuscule
    parts of the universe that extended far beyond what we could see.

  • Today, the galaxy rotation problem is thought to be explained by the presence of large quantities of unseen dark matter.

  • [88] Starburst galaxies are characterized by dusty concentrations of gas and the appearance of newly formed stars, including massive stars that ionize the surrounding clouds
    to create H II regions.

  • Milky Way Main article: Milky Way Greek philosopher Democritus (450–370 BCE) proposed that the bright band on the night sky known as the Milky Way might consist of distant

  • The standard model for an active galactic nucleus is based on an accretion disc that forms around a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the galaxy’s core region.

  • The radiation from an active galactic nucleus results from the gravitational energy of matter as it falls toward the black hole from the disc.

  • [64] A galaxy with poorly defined arms is sometimes referred to as a flocculent spiral galaxy; in contrast to the grand design spiral galaxy that has prominent and well-defined
    spiral arms.

  • A different method by Harlow Shapley based on the cataloguing of globular clusters led to a radically different picture: a flat disk with diameter approximately 70 kiloparsecs
    and the Sun far from the center.

  • Bars are thought to be temporary structures that can occur as a result of a density wave radiating outward from the core, or else due to a tidal interaction with another galaxy.

  • Most 18th- to 19th-century astronomers considered them as either unresolved star clusters or anagalactic nebulae, and were just thought of as a part of the Milky Way, but
    their true composition and natures remained a mystery.

  • “[39] In 1745, Pierre Louis Maupertuis conjectured that some nebula-like objects were collections of stars with unique properties, including a glow exceeding the light its
    stars produced on their own, and repeated Johannes Hevelius’s view that the bright spots were massive and flattened due to their rotation.

  • The arms are visible because the high density facilitates star formation, and therefore they harbor many bright and young stars.

  • Ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are at least ten times more luminous still and form stars at rates >180 M☉ yr−1.

  • They are thought to have an increased star formation rate around 30 times faster than the Milky Way.

  • Observation history The realization that we live in a galaxy that is one among many parallels major discoveries about the Milky Way and other nebulae.

  • [17][18] In the astronomical literature, the capitalized word “Galaxy” is often used to refer to our galaxy, the Milky Way, to distinguish it from the other galaxies in our

  • A significant portion of the galaxy’s total energy output is emitted by the active nucleus instead of its stars, dust and interstellar medium.

  • Some galaxies have been observed to form stars at an exceptional rate, which is known as a starburst.

  • “[27] The shape of the Milky Way as estimated from star counts by William Herschel in 1785; the Solar System was assumed to be near the center.

  • A ring galaxy is thought to occur when a smaller galaxy passes through the core of a spiral galaxy.

  • The Milky Way’s central black hole, known as Sagittarius A*, has a mass four million times greater than the Sun.

  • Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million (108) stars to giants with one hundred trillion (1014) stars,[3] each orbiting its galaxy’s center of mass.

  • [92] Blazars Main article: Blazar Blazars are believed to be active galaxies with a relativistic jet pointed in the direction of Earth.

  • In the 1970s, Vera Rubin uncovered a discrepancy between observed galactic rotation speed and that predicted by the visible mass of stars and gas.

  • [8][9] However, later observations with the New Horizons space probe from outside the zodiacal light reduced this to roughly 200 billion (2×1011).

  • [70] Many barred spiral galaxies are active, possibly as a result of gas being channeled into the core along the arms.

  • The prototype example of such a starburst-forming interaction is M82, which experienced a close encounter with the larger M81.

  • They are very large with an upward diameter of 437,000 light-years (compared to the Milky Way’s 100,000 light-year diameter).

  • Formation Artist’s impression of a protocluster forming in the early universe[97] Current models of the formation of galaxies in the early universe are based on the ΛCDM model.


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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmtnprairie/5223643767/ ‘]


argentine painting


  • Among them were English mariner Emeric Essex Vidal (1791–1861), a watercolorist who left important graphic evidence of Argentine history; French engineer Carlos E. Pellegrini
    (1800–1875), who was devoted to painting out of necessity and who would be the father of president Carlos Pellegrini; the mariner Adolfo D’Hastrel (1805–1875), who published his drawings and watercolors in the book Colección de vistas y costumbres
    del Río de la Plata (1875); and lithographer César Hipólito Bacle (1790–1838).

  • In 1948 it Organized the paint shop of the Superior Institute of Arts of the National University of Tucumán led by Enes Lino Spilimbergo and direction of Guido Parpagnoli,
    que Formed plastic one pole of the Argentina of great interest to the Most outstanding artists: School Tucumano muralists, inspired by the Teachings and principles of Lothar Matyla Ghyka harmonics.

  • The project of the Higher Institute of Arts joined in various disciplines: Lorenzo Dominguez for the section of sculpture, Víctor Rebuffo recorded in Zurro and Pedro de la
    Fuente in matalistería.

  • Tomás Maldonado is one of the most well known abstract artists.

  • In 1948 he organized the painting workshop at the Higher Institute of Arts of the National University of Tucumán under the leadership of Enes Lino Spilimbergo and Guido Parpagnoli
    address, where he formed a plastic pole Argentina of great interest with leading artists : Tucumanos Muralistas School, inspired by the teachings of Lothe and Ghyka Matyla harmonic principles.

  • The project of the Higher Institute of Arts in different disciplines joined Lorenzo Dominguez for the section of sculpture, printmaking and Víctor Rebuffo in Zurro Pedro de
    la Fuente in matalistería.

  • In the 1830s, Carlos Morel (1813–1894), considered the first strictly Argentine painter, came to prominence.

  • Eduardo Sívori (1847–1918) introduced naturalism with works such as El despertar de la criada, followed by painters like Reinaldo Giudici (1853–1927) and Ernesto de la Cárcova
    (1866–1927), Ángel Della Valle (1852–1903) developed a painting movement depicting the customs of the countryside, with works like La vuelta del malón.

  • Among the leading artistic groups were: • The Orion Group, composed of Luis Barragán, Vicente Forte, and Leopoldo Presas, among others.

  • Abstract art[edit] Juan Del Prete (later the creator of Futucubismo, a mixture of Cubism and Futurism) came from the abstract art movement in Argentina, which developed in
    the 1940s from, of course, concrete art.

  • Soon after, Fernando Fader (1882–1935) and the artists of the Nexus group began to push for the development of artistic currents that, without ignoring or disavowing the painting
    fashionable in Paris, would be capable of expressing independent views of painting.

  • In the middle of the 19th century the first Argentine artistic institutions began to be organized.

  • An Argentine painting refers to all the pictorial production done in the country of Argentina throughout the centuries.

  • First avant-garde movement[edit] The first major artistic movements in Argentina coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction
    of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the first president to be popularly elected (1916), and the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918.

  • Campos for his naive painting of social elements via caricature and the use of “significant” color; and Pantoja whose painting was inspired by the indigenous Andean and Latin
    American cultures.

  • Nineteenth century[edit] In the first years of the 19th century, many foreign artists visited and resided in Argentina, leaving their works.

  • Twentieth century[edit] Martín Malharro, Las parvas (la pampa de hoy), 1885–1911, National Museum of Fine Arts, Buenos Aires At a 1902 exhibition, Martín Malharro (1865–1911)
    introduced impressionism to Argentina.

  • The La Boca group was strongly influenced by Italian immigration and developed a distinctive style centered on labor and immigrant neighborhoods.

  • Escuela de Muralistas Tucumanos School Tucumano muralists[edit] From 1946 there is a shift in the academic policy of the Schools of Fine Arts of Argentina, to the sound of
    Argentine teachers political apartments expelled from other schools of fine arts as Mendoza and Buenos Aires.

  • Since 1946 was a turning point in the academic policy of the schools of Fine Arts of Argentina, the apartments are of the Argentine political masters Expelled from other schools
    of fine arts as Mendoza and Buenos Aires.

  • Pre-Columbian painting Cueva de las Manos (Cave of the Hands), in Patagonia, Argentina, is an example of one such work.

  • The great wave of European immigration (1870–1930) established a strong relationship to European painting, mainly through Italian painters or children of Italians.

  • One source claims Madí was founded in protest to the government control of the arts under Juan Perón.

  • The New Figuration, met in the decade of 60, several artists who adopted the name “Another Figuration,” recovering the human figure, but in order to give free-form, often
    monstrous and corpses.

  • He was followed by painters including Faustino Brughetti (1877–1956), Walter de Navazio (1887–1919) and Ramón Silva (1890–1919).

  • Argentina has a rich history of different types of art.

  • The New Figuration, which met in the 60s, several artists who adopted the name “Another Figuration,” recovering the human figure, but in order to give free-form, often monstrous
    and corpses.

  • Since the notion of “system”, derived from the science of cybernetics, from the early 70s, several artists and specialists in communication, develop a stream called the System
    of Art, expressed in different ways under names such as “conceptual art” “Eco Art of the Earth “,” poor art “,” Art of propositions “and” cyber-art. “

  • Since the notion of “system”, derived from the science cybernetics, from the early 70s, several artists and specialists in communication, develop a stream called the System
    of Art, expressed in different ways under names such as “conceptual art” “Eco Art of the Earth”, “poor art”, “Art of propositions” and “cyber-art.”

  • It is considered the only artistic movement founded in Buenos Aires to have a significant impact internationally.

  • The New Figuration brought together in the 60s, several artists who adopted the name “Other Figuration”, which recover the human figure, but in order to give free, often monstrous
    and cadaverous forms.


Works Cited

[‘Cueva de las Manos at the UNESCO:
 UNESCO World Heritage Centre. “Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas”. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2021-04-14. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
 World Heritage Sites: a Complete Guide
to 1007 UNESCO World Heritage Sites (6th ed.). UNESCO Publishing. 2014. p. 607. ISBN 978-1-77085-640-0. OCLC 910986576.
2. ^ “LOGIC, INTUITION POWER MADI ART” Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico, USA). 1996-09-15. p. D3. Retrieved from Newsbank’s “America’s
Newspapers” through the Dallas Public Library Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine on 2010-03-06.
3. ^ Stewart, Jennifer. “Lively, playful geometric works of art for fun” St. Petersburg Times (Florida, USA). 2006-07-16. Retrieved from Newsbank’s
“America’s Newspapers” through the Dallas Public Library Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine on 2010-03-06.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/2331651885/’]



kew gardens


  • [6] The Kew site, which has been dated as formally starting in 1759,[7] although it can be traced back to the exotic garden at Kew Park, formed by Henry, Lord Capell of Tewkesbury,
    consists of 132 hectares (330 acres)[8] of gardens and botanical glasshouses, four Grade I listed buildings, and 36 Grade II listed structures, all set in an internationally significant landscape.

  • [citation needed] The bridge forms part of a path designed to encourage visitors to visit more of the gardens than had hitherto been popular and connects the two art galleries,
    via the Temperate and Evolution Houses and the woodland glade, to the Minka House and the Bamboo Garden.

  • [17] William Chambers built several garden structures, including the lofty Great Pagoda built in 1761 which still remains.

  • [11] Around 1600, the land that would become the gardens was known as Kew Field, a large field strip farmed by one of the new private estates.

  • [51] The Temperate House[edit] Main article: Temperate House, Kew Gardens Inside the Temperate House The Temperate House, re-opened in May 2018 after being closed for restoration,
    is a greenhouse that has twice the floor area of the Palm House and is the world’s largest surviving Victorian glass structure.

  • Although various other members of Nymphaeaceae grew well, the house did not suit the Victoria, purportedly because of a poor ventilation system, and this specimen was moved
    to another, smaller, house (Victoria amazonica House No.

  • The gallery originally opened in 1882 and is still the only permanent exhibition in Great Britain dedicated to the work of one woman.

  • [11] Royal residences in the area which would later influence the layout and construction of the gardens began in 1299 when Edward I moved his court to a manor house in neighbouring
    Richmond (then called Sheen).

  • Work on the building of the house was completed in November 2001 but the internal artifacts were not all in place until 2006.

  • 1[edit] Near the Palm House is a building known as the General Museum or “Museum No.

  • [72] After 1958 it was known as the Wood Museum and displayed samples of wood from around the world.

  • To the rear of the building is the “Queen’s Garden” which includes a collection of plants believed to have medicinal qualities.

  • [81] The Palm House and lake to Victoria Gate The Arboretum, which covers the southern two-thirds of the site, contains over 14,000 trees of many thousands of varieties.

  • [71] During the time the gallery was closed the opportunity was also taken to restore the paintings to their original condition.

  • [citation needed] Kew consists mostly of the gardens themselves and a small surrounding community.

  • [93] In 1965, following increasing overcrowding, a new building was constructed, and research expanded into seed collection for plant conservation.

  • [12][13][14] Around the start of the 16th century courtiers attending Richmond Palace settled in Kew and built large houses.

  • The Temperate House, which is twice as large as the Palm House, followed later in the 19th century.

  • It was initially installed as a temporary exhibition, but was given a permanent home at Kew Gardens due to its popularity.

  • The building was formerly known as the Aroid House No.

  • 3 was originally known as the Timber Museum, it opened in 1863 and closed in 1958.

  • [22] In 1840, the gardens were adopted as a national botanical garden, in large part due to the efforts of the Royal Horticultural Society and its president William Cavendish.

  • “[19] Some early plants came from the walled garden established by William Coys at Stubbers in North Ockendon.

  • [47] The tunnel is now used to carry piped hot water to the Palm House, from oil-fired boilers located near the original chimney, which is extant,[47] and is Grade II listed.

  • The Tea House at Kew Gardens after the arson attack in 1913 by suffragettes Olive Wharry and Lilian Lenton The Palm House was built by architect Decimus Burton and iron-maker
    Richard Turner between 1844 and 1848, and was the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron.

  • Former plant houses[edit] The following plant houses were in use in 1974.

  • [52] There is a viewing gallery in the central section from which visitors can look down on that part of the collection.

  • It was originally erected in around 1900 in a suburb of Okazaki and is now located within the bamboo collection in the west-central part of Kew Gardens.

  • [73] It became part of the Gardens in 1904, and was opened in 1910 as the Museum of British Forestry or Museum No.

  • Former museum buildings[edit] The School of Horticulture building was formerly known as the Reference Museum or Museum No.

  • Intended to accommodate Kew’s expanding collection of hardy and temperate plants, it took 40 years to construct, during which time costs soared.

  • The building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 for its special architectural or historic interest.

  • [80] The Orchid Collection is housed in two climate zones within the Princess of Wales Conservatory.

  • [11] Early royal residences at Kew included Mary Tudor’s house, which was in existence by 1522 when a driveway was built to connect it to the palace at Richmond.

  • [53] Evolution House[edit] Formerly known as the Australian House.

  • 1″ (even though it is now the only museum on the site), which was designed by Decimus Burton and opened in 1857.

  • It was sculpted by Martin Holden and is a replica of one by Thomas Tompion, a celebrated 17th-century clockmaker, which had been sited near the surviving palace building since
    1832 to mark the site of James Bradley’s observations leading to his discovery of the aberration of light.

  • [70] Marianne North Gallery[edit] The Marianne North Gallery of Botanic Art The Marianne North Gallery was built in the 1880s to house the paintings of Marianne North, an
    MP’s daughter who travelled alone to North and South America, South Africa, and many parts of Asia, at a time when women rarely did so, to paint plants.

  • The upper two floors are now an education center and the ground floor houses The Botanical restaurant.

  • Each storey finishes with a projecting roof, after the Chinese manner, originally covered with ceramic tiles and adorned with large dragons; a tale is still propagated that
    they were made of gold and were reputedly sold by George IV to settle his debts.

  • It is considered “the world’s most important surviving Victorian glass and iron structure”.

  • [39] The compost heap is in an area of the gardens not accessible to the public,[38] but a viewing platform, made of wood which had been illegally traded but seized by Customs
    officers in HMRC, has been erected to allow visitors to observe the heap as it goes through its cycle.

  • Kew was the location of the successful effort in the 19th century to propagate rubber trees for cultivation outside South America.

  • Palm House[edit] Main article: Palm House, Kew Gardens The Palm House and Parterre The disguised Palm House chimney, the “Shaft of the Great Palm-Stove”, designed by Decimus
    Burton The Palm House (1844–1848) was the result of cooperation between architect Decimus Burton and iron founder Richard Turner,[42] and continues upon the glass house design principles developed by John Claudius Loudon[43][44] and Joseph

  • As the Alpine House can only house around 200 at a time the ones on show are regularly rotated.

  • [33] The accompanying photograph shows a section of the walkway, including the steel supports, which were designed to rust to a tree-like appearance to help the walkway fit
    in visually with its surroundings.

  • After many changes of use, it is currently used as a restaurant.

  • [79] The Grass Garden was created on its current site in the early 1980s to display ornamental and economic grasses; it was redesigned and replanted between 1994 and 1997.

  • [65] Ice House[edit] The Ice House is believed to be early 18th-century, it has a brick dome with an access arch and barrel-vaulted passageway, covered by a mound of earth.

  • It was built to house Victoria amazonica, the largest of the water lily family Nymphaeaceae.

  • 1 and was used to display species of Araceae, the building was listed Grade II* in 1950.

  • A large part of the herbarium has been digitised,[83] and is available to the general public on-line.

  • [citation needed] Plant houses Alpine House[edit] The Davies Alpine House (2014).

  • It is one of London’s top tourist attractions and is a World Heritage Site.

  • Waterlily House[edit] The Waterlily House The Waterlily House is the hottest and most humid of the houses at Kew and contains a large pond with varieties of water lily, surrounded
    by a display of economically important heat-loving plants.

  • [38] The compost is mainly used in the gardens, but on occasion has been auctioned as part of a fundraising event for the gardens.

  • [40] With an abundance of natural light, the building is now used for various exhibitions, weddings, and private events.

  • Work on the house started on 7 May 2001 and, when the framework was completed on 21 May, a Japanese ceremony was held to mark what was considered an auspicious occasion.

  • [92] Jodrell Laboratory[edit] View of the Jodrell Laboratory across part of the grass collection The original Jodrell laboratory, named after Mr. T. J. Phillips Jodrell who
    funded it, was established in 1876 and consisted of four research rooms and an office.

  • King William’s Temple[edit] A double porticoed Doric temple in stone with a series of cast-iron panels set in the inside walls commemorating British military victories from
    Minden (1759) to Waterloo (1815).

  • This plant was originally transported to Kew in vials of clean water and arrived in February 1849, after several prior attempts to transport seeds and roots had failed.

  • The glass roof extends down to the ground, giving the conservatory a distinctive appearance and helping to maximize the use of the sun’s energy.

  • In front of the Palm House on the east side are the Queen’s Beasts, ten statues of animals bearing shields.

  • The gallery had suffered considerable structural degradation since its creation and during a period from 2008 to 2009 major restoration and refurbishment took place, with
    works led by leading conservation architects Donald Insall Associates.

  • Japanese craftsmen reassembled the framework and British builders who had worked on the Globe Theatre added the mud wall panels.

  • The heat for the house was initially obtained by running a flue from the nearby Palm House but it was later equipped with its own boiler.

  • [47] The tunnel acted as a flue between the boilers and the chimney, but the distance proved too great for efficient working, and so two small chimneys were added to the Palm

  • The “Dutch House” adjoining was purchased by George III in 1781 as a nursery for the royal children.

  • Although only 16 metres (52 ft) long the apex of the roof arch extends to a height of 10 metres (33 ft) in order to allow the natural airflow of a building of this shape to
    aid in the all-important ventilation required for the type of plants to be housed.

  • On the walls garlands and medallions with the names and numbers of British and Hanovarian units connected with the Seven Years’ War.

  • [55] Ornamental buildings Great Pagoda[edit] The Pagoda Main article: Great Pagoda, Kew Gardens In the southeast corner of Kew Gardens stands the Great Pagoda (by Sir William
    Chambers), erected in 1762, from a design in imitation of the Chinese Ta.


Works Cited

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2. ^ “Living collections at Kew”. Kew.org.
3. ^ “Science collections at Kew”. kew.org.
4. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew”. UNESCO World
Heritage Centre. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
5. ^ “Most visited attractions in London UK 2021”. Statista. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
6. ^ Dyduch, Amy (28 March 2014). “Dozens of jobs at risk as Kew Gardens faces £5m shortfall”. Richmond Guardian. Retrieved
26 June 2014.
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8. ^ “Kew, History & Heritage” (PDF). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 24
January 2013.
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10. ^ Historic England (1 October 1987). “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1000830)”.
National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
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12. ^ Lysons, Daniel (1792). The Environs of London: volume 1: County of
Surrey. pp. 202–211.
13. ^ “London Attractions and Places of Interest Index”. milesfaster.co.uk.
14. ^ Harrison, W (1848). The Visitor’s Hand-book to Richmond, Kew Gardens, and Hampton Court. Cradock and Company. p. 25.
15. ^ Parker, Lynn and
Ross-Jones, Kiri (13 August 2013). The Story of Kew Gardens. Arcturus Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 9781782127482.
16. ^ Jones, Martin. “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Wakehurst Place”. infobritain.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013.
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17. ^ UNESCO Advisory Body (2003). UNESCO Advisory Body Evaluation Kew (United Kingdom) No 1084 (PDF) (Report). UNESCO.
18. ^ Drayton, Richard Harry (2000). Nature’s Government: Science, Imperial Britain, and the
‘Improvement’ of the World. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN 0300059760.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/frted/7042692841/’]






  • [47] The weak emperors of the fifth century could not stop the decay, leading to the deposition of Romulus Augustus on 22 August 476, which marked the end of the Western Roman
    Empire and, for many historians, the beginning of the Middle Ages.

  • [56] On Christmas night of 800, Charlemagne was crowned in Rome as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III: on that occasion, the city hosted for the first time the
    two powers whose struggle for control was to be a constant of the Middle Ages.

  • Middle Ages 15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visigothic king Alaric I After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome was first
    under the control of Odoacer and then became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom before returning to East Roman control after the Gothic War, which devastated the city in 546 and 550.

  • After the fall of the Empire in the west, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome slowly fell under the political control of the Papacy, and in the 8th century,
    it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870.

  • Eventually, the city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and is regarded by many as the first-ever Imperial city
    and metropolis.

  • [43] Trajan’s Column, triumphal column and place where the relics of Emperor Trajan are placed After the end of the Severan Dynasty in 235, the Empire entered into a 50-year
    period known as the Crisis of the Third Century during which there were numerous putsches by generals, who sought to secure the region of the empire they were entrusted with due to the weakness of central authority in Rome.

  • The War of the League of Cognac caused the first plunder of the city in more than five hundred years since the previous sack; in 1527, the Landsknechts of Emperor Charles
    V sacked the city, bringing an abrupt end to the golden age of the Renaissance in Rome.

  • That year Rome was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope’s control.

  • [63] Late modern and contemporary The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic (1798–1800), which was established under the influence of the French

  • [63] Early modern history Main article: Roman Renaissance Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro (from 1575) shows the city’s primary monuments.

  • While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it a major human settlement for almost three millennia
    and one of the oldest continuously occupied cities in Europe.

  • [63] The return of the pope to Rome in that year unleashed the Western Schism (1377–1418), and for the next forty years, the city was affected by the divisions which rocked
    the Church.

  • Before his early death, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins.

  • [35] During the reign of Nero, two thirds of the city was ruined after the Great Fire of Rome, and the persecution of Christians commenced.

  • He transformed the town of Byzantium into his new residence, which, however, was not officially anything more than an imperial residence like Milan or Trier or Nicomedia until
    given a city prefect in May 359 by Constantius II; Constantinople.

  • [27][28] Monarchy and republic Main articles: Ancient Rome, Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire After the foundation by Romulus according to a legend,[25] Rome
    was ruled for a period of 244 years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.

  • Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all popes since Nicholas V (1447–1455) pursued a coherent architectural and urban programme over four hundred years, aimed at making
    the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world.

  • The Bishops of Rome were also seen (and still are seen by Catholics) as the successors of Peter, who is considered the first Bishop of Rome.

  • [40] The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5×106 km2 (2.5×106 sq mi)[42] of land surface The Roman Forum are the remains of those buildings that
    during most of Ancient Rome’s time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.

  • [63] This brought to Rome a century of internal peace, which marked the beginning of the Renaissance.

  • [23] These developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during the mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the “birth” of the city.

  • [23] Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome was founded deliberately in the middle of the eighth century BC, as the legend of Romulus suggests,
    remains a fringe hypothesis.

  • the capital of the known world, an expression which had already been used in the Republican period.

  • Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.

  • [13] In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Renaissance,[14] and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.

  • The so-called Edict of Milan of 313, actually a fragment of a letter from Licinius to the governors of the eastern provinces, granted freedom of worship to everyone, including
    Christians, and ordered the restoration of confiscated church properties upon petition to the newly created vicars of dioceses.

  • Vatican City (the smallest country in the world)[4] is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city.

  • [36][37][38] Rome was established as a de facto empire, which reached its greatest expansion in the second century under the Emperor Trajan.

  • In the 12th century, this administration, like other European cities, evolved into the commune, a new form of social organisation controlled by the new wealthy classes.

  • The old St. Peter’s Basilica built by Emperor Constantine the Great[64] (which by then was in a dilapidated state) was demolished and a new one begun.

  • Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 with the temporary capital in Florence.

  • The city thus became of increasing importance as the centre of the Catholic Church.

  • In 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic.

  • [18] Etymology Roman representation of the god Tiberinus, Capitoline Hill in Rome According to the Ancient Romans’ founding myth,[19] the name Roma came from the city’s founder
    and first king, Romulus.

  • Because of this, in the second half of the second century and during the first century BC there were conflicts both abroad and internally: after the failed attempt of social
    reform of the populares Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus,[33] and the war against Jugurtha,[33] there was a civil war from which the general Sulla emerged victorious.

  • [56] Since this period, three powers tried to rule the city: the pope, the nobility (together with the chiefs of militias, the judges, the Senate and the populace), and the
    Frankish king, as king of the Lombards, patricius, and Emperor.

  • [57] After the decay of Carolingian power, Rome fell prey to feudal chaos: several noble families fought against the pope, the emperor, and each other.

  • Constantine the Great undertook a major reform of the bureaucracy, not by changing the structure but by rationalising the competencies of the several ministries during the
    years 325–330, after he defeated Licinius, emperor in the East, at the end of 324.

  • This angered the people of the city, who then unroofed the building where they met and imprisoned them until they had nominated the new pope; this marked the birth of the

  • [56] These three parties (theocratic, republican, and imperial) were a characteristic of Roman life during the entire Middle Ages.

  • Rome is often referred to as the City of Seven Hills due to its geographic location, and also as the “Eternal City”.

  • [63] An idealist and a lover of ancient Rome, Cola dreamed about a rebirth of the Roman Empire: after assuming power with the title of Tribuno, his reforms were rejected by
    the populace.

  • Rome became able to compete with other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur, the arts, learning and architecture.

  • [25] This legend had to be reconciled with a dual tradition, set earlier in time, that had the Trojan refugee Aeneas escape to Italy and found the line of Romans through his
    son Iulus, the namesake of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

  • During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection thanks to the foreign policy of Napoleon III.

  • During the 5th century, the emperors from the 430s mostly resided in the capital city, Rome.

  • [59] Pope Boniface VIII, born Caetani, was the last pope to fight for the church’s universal domain; he proclaimed a crusade against the Colonna family and, in 1300, called
    for the first Jubilee of Christianity, which brought millions of pilgrims to Rome.

  • [63] Forced to flee, Cola returned as part of the entourage of Cardinal Albornoz, who was charged with restoring the Church’s power in Italy.

  • [59] In this period, the papacy played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs and exercising additional political

  • The Papal States were restored in June 1800, but during Napoleon’s reign Rome was annexed as a Département of the French Empire: first as Département du Tibre (1808–1810)
    and then as Département Rome (1810–1814).

  • [55] The Bishop of Rome, called the Pope, was important since the early days of Christianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostles Peter and Paul there.

  • [44] In 292, he created two ‘junior’ emperors, the Caesars, one for each Augustus, Constantius for Britain, Gaul, and Spain whose seat of power was in Trier and Galerius in
    Sirmium in the Balkans.

  • [63] The ruling popes until the first half of the 16th century, from Nicholas V, founder of the Vatican Library, to Pius II, humanist and literate, from Sixtus IV, a warrior
    pope, to Alexander VI, immoral and nepotist, from Julius II, soldier and patron, to Leo X, who gave his name to this period (“the century of Leo X”), all devoted their energy to the greatness and the beauty of the Eternal City and to the patronage
    of the arts.

  • In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic.

  • [65] During the Age of Enlightenment, new ideas reached the Eternal City, where the papacy supported archaeological studies and improved the people’s welfare.

  • [40] This time was also characterised by the spread of the Christian religion, preached by Jesus Christ in Judea in the first half of the first century (under Tiberius) and
    popularised by his apostles through the empire and beyond.

  • [32] From the beginning of the 2nd century BC, power was contested between two groups of aristocrats: the optimates, representing the conservative part of the Senate, and
    the populares, which relied on the help of the plebs (urban lower class) to gain power.

  • The conquest of Gaul made Caesar immensely powerful and popular, which led to a second civil war against the Senate and Pompey.

  • The seat of government in the Western Roman Empire was transferred to Ravenna after the Siege of Milan in 402.

  • He funded the building of several churches and allowed clergy to act as arbitrators in civil suits (a measure that did not outlast him but which was restored in part much

  • In 296, he elevated Maximian to Augustus of the western half, where he ruled mostly from Mediolanum when not on the move.

  • [23] Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed gradually through the aggregation (“synoecism”) of several villages around the largest one, placed above the

  • He was the last emperor of a unified empire: after his death in 395, his sons, Arcadius and Honorius divided the empire into a western and an eastern part.

  • [19] They decided to build a city, but after an argument, Romulus killed his brother and the city took his name.

  • [29] After becoming master of Latium, Rome led several wars (against the Gauls, Osci-Samnites and the Greek colony of Taranto, allied with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus) whose result
    was the conquest of the Italian peninsula, from the central area up to Magna Graecia.

  • The corruption of the Popes and the huge expenses for their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation.

  • Even so, strenuous efforts were made to maintain the monumental centre, the palatine, and the largest baths, which continued to function until the Gothic siege of 537.

  • The Persian Empire invaded from the east several times during the 230s to 260s but were eventually defeated.

  • [30] The third and second century BC saw the establishment of Roman hegemony over the Mediterranean and the Balkans, through the three Punic Wars (264–146 BC) fought against
    the city of Carthage and the three Macedonian Wars (212–168 BC) against Macedonia.

  • [63] Back in power for a short time, Cola was soon lynched by the populace, and Albornoz took possession of the city.

  • [49] The population decline coincided with the general collapse of urban life in the West in the fifth and sixth centuries, with few exceptions.

  • Majestic works, as the new Saint Peter’s Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity, although on Roman foundations)
    were created.

  • Between the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village (on the Capitol Hill, a village is attested
    since the end of the 14th century BC).


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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wwootton/9204730092/’]




dante alighieri


  • [6] His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio,[7] is widely considered one of the most important
    poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

  • Some speculative sources claim he visited Paris between 1308 and 1310, and other sources even less trustworthy say he went to Oxford: these claims, first made in Boccaccio’s
    book on Dante several decades after his death, seem inspired by readers who were impressed with the poet’s wide learning and erudition.

  • Publishing in the vernacular language marked Dante as one of the first in Roman Catholic Western Europe (among others such as Geoffrey Chaucer and Giovanni Boccaccio) to break
    free from standards of publishing in only Latin (the language of liturgy, history and scholarship in general, but often also of lyric poetry).

  • Its first section, the Inferno, begins, “Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita” (“Midway upon the journey of our life”), implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the
    average lifespan according to the Bible (Psalm 89:10, Vulgate) is 70 years; and since his imaginary travel to the netherworld took place in 1300, he was most probably born around 1265.

  • It is also noticeable that Beatrice has returned to his imagination with renewed force and with a wider meaning than in the Vita Nuova; in Convivio (written c. 1304–07) he
    had declared that the memory of this youthful romance belonged to the past.

  • [21] Dante’s interactions with Beatrice set an example of so-called courtly love, a phenomenon developed in French and Provençal poetry of prior centuries.

  • Brunetto later received special mention in the Divine Comedy (Inferno, XV, 28) for what he had taught Dante: Nor speaking less on that account I go With Ser Brunetto, and
    I ask who are his most known and most eminent companions.

  • His work set a precedent that important Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would later follow.

  • [34]) It is known that the Inferno had been published by 1317; this is established by quoted lines interspersed in the margins of contemporary dated records from Bologna,
    but there is no certainty as to whether the three parts of the poem were each published in full or, rather, a few cantos at a time.

  • [64][65] In May 2021, a symbolic re-trial of Dante Alighieri was held virtually in Florence to posthumously clear his name.

  • Ironically, while he was widely honored in the centuries after his death, the Comedy slipped out of fashion among men of letters: too medieval, too rough and tragic, and not
    stylistically refined in the respects that the high and late Renaissance came to demand of literature.

  • Dante saw in him a new Charlemagne who would restore the office of the Holy Roman Emperor to its former glory and also retake Florence from the Black Guelphs.

  • [26] The poet was still in Rome in 1302, as the Pope, who had backed the Black Guelphs, had “suggested” that Dante stay there.

  • However, unlike Boccaccio, Milton or Ariosto, Dante did not really become an author read across Europe until the Romantic era.

  • It was in the name of this love that Dante left his imprint on the dolce stil novo (“sweet new style”, a term that Dante himself coined), and he would join other contemporary
    poets and writers in exploring never-before-emphasized aspects of love (Amore).

  • [15] Dante claimed to have seen Beatrice again frequently after he turned 18, exchanging greetings with her in the streets of Florence, though he never knew her well.

  • He still hoped late in life that he might be invited back to Florence on honorable terms.

  • To the Romantics, Dante, like Homer and Shakespeare, was a prime example of the “original genius” who set his own rules, created persons of overpowering stature and depth,
    and went far beyond any imitation of the patterns of earlier masters; and who, in turn, could not truly be imitated.

  • [33] The brief note gives no incontestable indication that Barberino had seen or read even the Inferno, or that this part had been published at the time, but it indicates
    composition was well underway and that the sketching of the poem might have begun some years before.

  • He next dedicated himself to philosophical studies at religious schools like the Dominican one in Santa Maria Novella.

  • (It has been suggested that a knowledge of Dante’s work also underlies some of the illuminations in Francesco da Barberino’s earlier Officiolum [c. 1305–08], a manuscript
    that came to light in 2003.

  • [69] Dante’s other works include Convivio (“The Banquet”),[70] a collection of his longest poems with an (unfinished) allegorical commentary; De Monarchia,[71] a summary treatise
    of political philosophy in Latin which was condemned and burned after Dante’s death[72][73] by the Papal Legate Bertrando del Poggetto, which argues for the necessity of a universal or global monarchy to establish universal peace in this life,
    and this monarchy’s relationship to the Roman Catholic Church as guide to eternal peace; and De vulgari eloquentia (“On the Eloquence in the Vernacular”),[74] on vernacular literature, partly inspired by the Razos de trobar of Raimon Vidal
    de Bezaudun.

  • At the same time (1 November, 1301), Charles of Valois entered Florence with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroyed much of the city and killed many of their

  • [citation needed] Throughout the 19th century, Dante’s reputation grew and solidified; and by 1865, the 600th anniversary of his birth, he had become established as one of
    the greatest literary icons of the Western world.

  • His use of the Florentine dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and Divine Comedy helped establish the modern-day standardized Italian language.

  • [67] It also contains, or constructs, the story of his love for Beatrice Portinari, who later served as the ultimate symbol of salvation in the Comedy, a function already
    indicated in the final pages of the Vita Nuova.

  • However, Dante’s commentary on his own work is also in the vernacular—both in the Vita Nuova and in the Convivio—instead of the Latin that was almost universally used.

  • [citation needed] Education and poetry[edit] Mural of Dante in the Uffizi, Florence, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450 Not much is known about Dante’s education; he presumably
    studied at home or in a chapter school attached to a church or monastery in Florence.

  • Some verses of the Paradiso section of the Divine Comedy also provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of Gemini: “As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw
    revealed, from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious” (XXII 151–154).

  • Dante’s in-depth knowledge (within the limits of his time) of Roman antiquity, and his evident admiration for some aspects of pagan Rome, also point forward to the 15th century.

  • [25] Dante was accused of corruption and financial wrongdoing by the Black Guelphs for the time that Dante was serving as city prior (Florence’s highest position) for two
    months in 1300.

  • Evidently, Dante’s command of philosophy and his literary interests deepened in exile and when he was no longer busy with the day-to-day business of Florentine domestic politics,
    and this is evidenced in his prose writings in this period.

  • By this meaning of the word, as Dante himself allegedly wrote in a letter to Cangrande I della Scala, the progression of the pilgrimage from Hell to Paradise is the paradigmatic
    expression of comedy, since the work begins with the pilgrim’s moral confusion and ends with the vision of God.

  • [47] Although several statements and episodes of it have been deemed unreliable on the basis of modern research, an earlier account of Dante’s life and works had been included
    in the Nuova Cronica of the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani.

  • In March 1302, Dante, a White Guelph by affiliation, along with the Gherardini family, was condemned to exile for two years and ordered to pay a large fine.

  • The work is much more assured and on a larger scale than anything he had written in Florence; it is likely he would have undertaken such a work only after he realized his
    political ambitions, which had been central to him up to his banishment, had been halted for some time, possibly forever.

  • The work contains many of Dante’s love poems in Tuscan, which was not unprecedented; the vernacular had been regularly used for lyric works before, during all the thirteenth

  • [citation needed] Death and burial[edit] Dante’s tomb exterior and interior in Ravenna, built in 1780 Dante’s final days were spent in Ravenna, where he had been invited to
    stay in the city in 1318 by its prince, Guido II da Polenta.

  • [15] She died when Dante was not yet ten years old.

  • Love for Beatrice (as Petrarch would express for Laura somewhat differently) would be his reason for writing poetry and for living, together with political passions.

  • Dante was more aware than most early Italian writers of the variety of Italian dialects and of the need to create a literature and a unified literary language beyond the limits
    of Latin writing at the time; in that sense, he is a forerunner of the Renaissance, with its effort to create vernacular literature in competition with earlier classical writers.

  • He is described as the “father” of the Italian language,[12] and in Italy he is often referred to as il Sommo Poeta (“the Supreme Poet”).

  • A substantial portion of minutes from such meetings in the years 1298–1300 was lost, however, so the true extent of Dante’s participation in the city’s councils is uncertain.

  • [32] An early indication that the poem was underway is a notice by Francesco da Barberino, tucked into his Documenti d’Amore (Lessons of Love), probably written in 1314 or
    early 1315.

  • [citation needed] New readers often wonder how such a serious work may be called a “comedy”.

  • He wrote to Henry and several Italian princes, demanding that they destroy the Black Guelphs.

  • [citation needed] Dante Alighieri, detail from Luca Signorelli’s fresco in the Chapel of San Brizio, Orvieto Cathedral He wrote the Comedy in a language he called “Italian”,
    in some sense an amalgamated literary language mostly based on the regional dialect of Tuscany, but with some elements of Latin and other regional dialects.

  • [15] Dante said he first met Beatrice Portinari, daughter of Folco Portinari, when he was nine (she was eight),[17] and he claimed to have fallen in love with her “at first
    sight”, apparently without even talking with her.

  • In the following years, his name is occasionally recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic.

  • [citation needed] Exile from Florence[edit] Pope Boniface quickly dismissed the other delegates and asked Dante alone to remain in Rome.

  • [30] Mixing religion and private concerns in his writings, he invoked the worst anger of God against his city and suggested several particular targets, who were also his personal

  • This oldest picture of Dante was painted just prior to his exile and has since been extensively restored.

  • Although the split was along family lines at first, ideological differences arose based on opposing views of the papal role in Florentine affairs.

  • [27] Dante did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty and in part because all his assets in Florence had been seized by the Black Guelphs.

  • (In June 2008, nearly seven centuries after his death, the city council of Florence passed a motion rescinding Dante’s sentence.

  • [29] Dante in Verona, by Antonio Cotti Dante took part in several attempts by the White Guelphs to regain power, but these failed due to treachery.

  • [44] Recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence A copy of Dante’s so-called death mask has been displayed since 1911 in the Palazzo Vecchio; scholars
    today believe it is not a true death mask and was probably carved in 1483, perhaps by Pietro and Tullio Lombardo.

  • Of the books, Purgatorio is arguably the most lyrical of the three, referring to more contemporary poets and artists than Inferno; Paradiso is the most heavily theological,
    and the one in which, many scholars have argued, the Divine Comedy’s most beautiful and mystic passages appear.

  • [38] In 1315, Florence was forced by Uguccione della Faggiuola (the military officer controlling the town) to grant an amnesty to those in exile, including Dante.

  • To take part in public life, one had to enroll in one of the city’s many commercial or artisan guilds, so Dante entered the Physicians’ and Apothecaries’ Guild.

  • [54] In that year, the pope also donated a golden iron Greek Cross to Dante’s burial site in Ravenna, in occasion of the 700th anniversary of his birth.

  • In the classical sense the word comedy refers to works that reflect belief in an ordered universe, in which events tend toward not only a happy or amusing ending but one influenced
    by a Providential will that orders all things to an ultimate good.

  • The case was made that “the greatest symbol of Italianness” should be present at fascism’s “heroic” end.


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often called Dante”. He may have been named for his maternal grandfather Durante degli Abati.[1]
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accomplishment: the pursuit of excellence in the arts and sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 (1st ed.). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019247-1. OCLC 52047270.
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as “probably in the end of May” by Robert Hollander in “Dante” in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 4. According to Giovanni Boccaccio, the poet said he was born in May. See “Alighieri, Dante” in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani.
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18. ^ florence Inferno
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and co. p. 5. And in that I spoke before entrance on the prime of manhood, and in this when I had already passed the same.
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VIBS. p. 85. ISBN 978-90-420-2321-5. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
39. ^ “Frater Nicolaus Brunatii [† 1322] sacerdos et predicator gratiosus, fuit lector castellanus, arectinus, perusinus, urbevetanus et romanus apud Sanctam Sabinam tempore quo papa
erat in Urbe, viterbiensis et florentinus in studio generali legens ibidem annis tribus (Cr Pg 37v). Cuius sollicita procuratione conventus perusinus meruit habere gratiam a summo pontifice papa Benedicto XI ecclesiam scilicet et parrochiam Sancti
Stephani tempore quo [maggio 13041 ipse prior actu in Perusio erat (Cr Pg 38r)”. E-theca.net. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
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50. ^ Boswell, Jackson Campbell (1999). Dante’s Fame
in England: References in Printed British Books, 1477-1640. University of Delaware Press. pp. xv. ISBN 978-0-87413-605-0. after John Foxe’s enormously influental Ecclesiastical History Contayning the Actes and Monumentes was published, Dante’s role
as a proto-Protestant was sealed.
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Teodolinda (ed.). Dante’s Lyric Poetry: Poems of Youth and of the ‘Vita Nuova’. University of Toronto Press, 2014.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/32020964@N08/5060536705/’]





coco chanel


  • Years later, Diana Vreeland, editor of Vogue, would insist that “the passionate, focused and fiercely-independent Chanel, a virtual tour de force,” and the Prince “had a great
    romantic moment together”.

  • Dincklage purportedly said, The Abwehr had first to bring to France a young Italian woman [Lombardi] Coco Chanel was attached to because of her lesbian vices …[8]: 163–64
    Unaware of the machinations of Schellenberg and Chanel, Lombardi was led to believe that the forthcoming journey to Spain would be a business trip exploring the potential for establishing Chanel couture in Madrid.

  • [24]: 95  Later, unhappy with the arrangement, Chanel worked for more than twenty years to gain full control of Parfums Chanel.

  • [34] The writer Colette, who moved in the same social circles as Chanel, provided a whimsical description of Chanel at work in her atelier, which appeared in Prisons et Paradis
    (1932): If every human face bears a resemblance to some animal, then Mademoiselle Chanel is a small black bull.

  • [21] In later years, Chanel reminisced of this time in her life: “two gentlemen were outbidding for my hot little body.

  • At the time of the French liberation in 1944, Chanel left a note in her store window explaining Chanel No.

  • Working as a spy, Chanel was directly involved in a plan for the Third Reich to take control of Madrid.

  • When the Nazi occupation of France began, Chanel decided to close her store, claiming a patriotic motivation behind such decision.

  • However, when she moved into the same Hotel Ritz that was housing the German military, her motivations became clear to many.

  • [4] Her couture house closed in 1939, when the German occupation of France during World War II began; Chanel stayed in France, and was criticized during the war for being
    too close to the German occupiers to boost her professional career; one of Chanel’s liaisons was with a German diplomat, Baron (Freiherr) Hans Günther von Dincklage.

  • [24]: 103  The couple spent time together at fashionable resorts such as Deauville, but despite Chanel’s hopes that they would settle together, Capel was never faithful to

  • [7] When the war ended, Chanel moved to Switzerland, returning to Paris in 1954 to revive her fashion house.

  • [37] World War II, specifically the Nazi seizure of all Jewish-owned property and business enterprises, provided Chanel with the opportunity to gain the full monetary fortune
    generated by Parfums Chanel and its most profitable product, Chanel No.

  • [15][16] Personal life and early career Aspirations for a stage career[edit] Having learned to sew during her six years at Aubazine, Chanel found employment as a seamstress.

  • [8]: 5  Later in life, Chanel would retell the story of her childhood somewhat differently; she would often include more glamorous accounts, which were generally untrue.

  • [32] During the summer, Chanel discovered that the Stravinsky family sought a place to live, having left the Russian Soviet Republic after the war.

  • [24]: 150 [33] During the period directly following the end of World War II, the business world watched with interest and some apprehension the ongoing legal wrestle for control
    of Parfums Chanel.

  • [24]: 150 [33] She wrote: I have an indisputable right of priority … the profits that I have received from my creations since the foundation of this business … are disproportionate
    … [and] you can help to repair in part the prejudices I have suffered in the course of these seventeen years.

  • In closing her couture house, Chanel made a definitive statement of her political views.

  • [40] World War II[edit] In 1939, at the beginning of World War II, Chanel closed her shops, maintaining her apartment situated above the couture house at 31 Rue de Cambon.

  • [8]: 80–81  According to Chandler Burr’s The Emperor of Scent, Luca Turin related an apocryphal story in circulation that Chanel was “called Coco because she threw the most
    fabulous cocaine parties in Paris”.

  • She said that it was not a time for fashion;[30] as a result of her action, 4,000 female employees lost their jobs.

  • A review of her correspondence reveals a complete contradiction between the clumsiness of Chanel the letter writer and the talent of Chanel as a composer of maxims … After
    correcting the handful of aphorisms that Chanel wrote about her métier, Reverdy added to this collection of “Chanelisms” a series of thoughts of a more general nature, some touching on life and taste, others on allure and love.

  • [9]: 14 [10] She was Jeanne’s second child with Albert Chanel; the first, Julia, had been born less than a year earlier.

  • She is the only fashion designer listed on Time magazine’s list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

  • [33] In 1924, Chanel made an agreement with the Wertheimer brothers, Pierre and Paul, directors since 1917 of the eminent perfume and cosmetics house Bourjois.

  • While many women in France were punished for “horizontal collaboration” with German officers, Chanel faced no such action.

  • [8]: xix [5][6] In late 1943 or early 1944, Chanel and her SS superior, Schellenberg, who had a weakness for unconventional schemes,[5] devised a plan to get Britain to consider
    a separate peace to be negotiated by the SS.

  • They left the costumes in Europe and were re-made, according to Dali’s initial designs, by Karinska.

  • [8]: 101  Her biographer Hal Vaughan suggests that Chanel used the outbreak of war as an opportunity to retaliate against those workers who had struck for higher wages and
    shorter work hours in the French general labor strike of 1936.

  • After one year of operation, the business proved to be so lucrative that in 1916 Chanel was able to reimburse Capel’s original investment.

  • Interested parties in the proceedings were cognizant that Chanel’s Nazi affiliations during wartime, if made public knowledge, would seriously threaten the reputation and
    status of the Chanel brand.

  • Placement in the orphanage may have contributed to Chanel’s future career, as it was where she learned to sew.

  • Hollywood wants a lady to look like two ladies.

  • They had a romantic interlude, and maintained a close association for many years afterward.

  • [37] In 1943, Chanel travelled to the RSHA in Berlin—the “lion’s den”—with her liaison and “old friend”, the German Embassy in Paris press attaché Baron Hans Günther von Dincklage,
    a former Prussian Army officer and attorney general, who was also known as “Sparrow” among his friends and colleagues.

  • In addition, Pierre Wertheimer agreed to an unusual stipulation proposed by Chanel herself: Wertheimer agreed to pay all of Chanel’s living expenses—from the trivial to the
    large—for the rest of her life.

  • The New Yorker speculated that Chanel left Hollywood because “they told her her dresses weren’t sensational enough.

  • [11]: 42  Adrienne and Antoinette were recruited to model Chanel’s designs; on a daily basis the two women paraded through the town and on its boardwalks, advertising the
    Chanel creations.

  • Chanel introduced the left-wing Renoir to Luchino Visconti, aware that the shy Italian hoped to work in film.

  • Chanel immediately sought refuge in the deluxe Hotel Ritz, which was also used as the headquarters of the German military.

  • [38] Her experience with American moviemaking left Chanel with a dislike for Hollywood’s film business and a distaste for the film world’s culture, which she called “infantile”.

  • [9]: 306  Significant liaisons: Reverdy and Iribe[edit] Chanel was the mistress of some of the most influential men of her time, but she never married.

  • [45] Operation Modellhut[edit] In late 2014, French intelligence agencies declassified and released documents confirming Coco Chanel’s role with Germany in World War II.

  • She also claimed to have been born a decade later than 1883 and that her mother had died when she was much younger than 11.

  • [28] Twenty-five years after the event, Chanel, then residing in Switzerland, confided to her friend, Paul Morand, “His death was a terrible blow to me.

  • “[36] During Chanel’s affair with the Duke of Westminster in the 1930s, her style began to reflect her personal emotions.

  • However, due to Britain’s declaration of war on 3 September 1939, the ballet was forced to leave London.

  • Chanel had the dedicated support of two family members, her sister Antoinette, and her paternal aunt Adrienne, who was of a similar age.

  • [8]: 205–07  Suspicions of Coco Chanel’s involvement first began when German tanks entered Paris and began the Nazi occupation.

  • [29] As this location already housed an established clothing business, Chanel sold only her millinery creations at this address.

  • At age eighteen, Chanel, too old to remain at Aubazine, went to live in a boarding house for Catholic girls in the town of Moulins.

  • It was at this time that Gabrielle acquired the name “Coco” when she spent her nights singing in the cabaret, often the song, “Who Has Seen Coco?”

  • [37] After the liberation, she was known to have been interviewed in Paris by Malcolm Muggeridge, who at the time was an officer in British military intelligence, about her
    relationship with the Nazis during the occupation of France.

  • Forbes magazine summarized the dilemma faced by the Wertheimers: [it is Pierre Wertheimer’s worry] how “a legal fight might illuminate Chanel’s wartime activities and wreck
    her image—and his business.

  • For ten percent of the stock, Chanel licensed her name to Parfums Chanel and withdrew from involvement in business operations.

  • [8]: 78–79 [9]: 300  In 1936, one year after Le Témoin ceased publication, Chanel veered to the opposite end of the ideological continuum by financing Pierre Lestringuez’s
    radical left-wing magazine Futur.

  • [10] She said that when her mother died, her father sailed for America to seek his fortune, and she was sent to live with two aunts.

  • Her future share would be two percent of all Chanel No.

  • [11]: 49  Obliged to find employment, she took work at the Grande Grille, where as a donneuse d’eau she was one whose job was to dispense glasses of the purportedly curative
    mineral water for which Vichy was renowned.

  • She said that she had agreed to go to Hollywood to “see what the pictures have to offer me and what I have to offer the pictures.

  • Chanel’s designs for film stars in Hollywood were not successful and had not enhanced her reputation as expected.

  • [24]: 152–53  Chanel was not aware that the Wertheimers, anticipating the forthcoming Nazi mandates against Jews had, in May 1940, legally turned control of Parfums Chanel
    over to Félix Amiot, a Christian French businessman and industrialist.

  • Chanel’s youth and physical charms impressed those for whom she auditioned, but her singing voice was marginal and she failed to find stage work.

  • She often liked to say the nickname was given to her by her father.

  • Chanel built a villa here, which she called La Pausa[citation needed] (‘restful pause’), hiring the architect Robert Streitz.

  • [10] Albert Chanel was an itinerant street vendor who peddled work clothes and undergarments,[11]: 27  living a nomadic life, traveling to and from market towns.

  • One of the most prominent missions she was involved in was Operation Modellhut (“Operation Model Hat”).

  • One plan in late 1943 was for her to carry an SS peace overture to Churchill to end the war.

  • Gossip had it that he visited Chanel in her apartment and requested that she call him “David”, a privilege reserved only for his closest friends and family.


Works Cited

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Who Changed the World. Quercus. p. 103. ISBN 978-1847240262. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
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d e Kloth, Hans Michael; Kolbe, Corina (26 August 2008). “Modelegende Chanel: Wie Coco fast den Krieg beendet hätte” [Fashion legend Chanel: How Coco almost ended the war]. Spiegel Online (in German). Hamburg.
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(2009). Hitler’s Intelligence Chief: Walter Schellenberg. New York: Enigma Books. pp. 165–66. ISBN 978-1936274130.
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Jump up to:a b c Rhonda, Garelick (2014). Coco Chanel and the Pulse of History. New York: Random House Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 9780679604266.
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The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
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o ^ Garelick, Rhonda K. (2014). Mademoiselle: Coco Chanel and the Pulse of History.
New York: Random House. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8129-8185-8.
o ^ “‘A Girl Should Be Two Things: Classy And Fabulous’: Coco Chanel”. magzter.com. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
o ^ Bartlett, Djurdja (2013), “Coco Chanel and Socialist Fashion Magazines”,
Fashion Media, Bloomsbury Education, pp. 46–57, doi:10.5040/9781350051201.ch-004, ISBN 978-1350051201
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Chanel: The Legend and the Life. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0061963858.
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b c d Wallach, Janet (1998). Chanel: Her Style and Her Life. N. Talese. ISBN 978-0385488723. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
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Le Seuil. p. 57. ISBN 978-2020133678. L’adaptation d’un flacon d’eau de toilette pour hommes datant de l’avant-guerre du chemisier Charvet
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ISBN 978-0061791017.
o ^ “British Diplomat Killed; Arthur Capel, Friend of Lloyd George, Victim of a Motor Accident”. The New York Times. Vol. 69, no. 22615. 25 December 1919.
o ^ The Times, 24 December 1919, p. 10: “Captain Arthur Capel, who
was killed in an automobile crash on Monday, is being buried today”.
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Sutton. p. 773 note (c). ISBN 978-0-904387-82-7.
o ^ “Puget-sur-Argens Coco Chanel: le drame de sa vie au bord d’une route varoise” (in French). varmatin.com. 3 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
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o ^
“Chanel 31 rue Cambon. The History Behind The Facade”, Le Grand Mag, retrieved 10 October 2012
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o ^ Jump
up to:a b c d Thomas, Dana (24 February 2002). “The Power Behind The Cologne”. The New York Times. Vol. 151, no. 52039. p. 62.
o ^ Burr, Chandler (2002). The Emperor of Scent: A true story of perfume and obsession. Random House Inc. p. 43. ISBN
o ^ Jump up to:a b Bretell, Richard R. (1995). The Wendy and Emery Reves Collection. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art.
o ^ “Coco Chanel Biography”. Inoutstar.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
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Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
o ^ Madsen, Axel (1991). Chanel: A Woman of Her Own. p. 194. OCLC 905656172.
o ^ Anderson, Margot (14 July 2009). “Dali Does Dance”. The Australian Ballet. Retrieved 8 November
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o ^ Muir, Kate (4 April 2009). “Chanel and the Nazis: what Coco Avant Chanel and other
films don’t tell you”. The Times. London. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
o ^ Warner, Judith (2 September 2011). “Was Coco Chanel a Nazi Agent?”. The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
o ^ Daussy, Laure (18 August 2011). “Chanel antisémite, tabou
médiatique en France?”. Arrêt sur images.
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o ^ Jump up to:a b c “Was Coco Chanel a Nazi spy?”. USA Today. AP. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
o ^ “Biography claims Coco Chanel
was a Nazi spy”. Reuters. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
o ^ McLoughlin, Marie (2016). “Chanel, Gabrielle Bonheur (Coco) (1883–1971)”. The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design. doi:10.5040/9781472596178-bed-c036. ISBN 978-1472596178.
o ^
Jump up to:a b Chaney, 2012, p. 406.
o ^ “Coco Chanel (1883–1971)”. Cremerie de Paris. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
o ^ Sánchez Vegara, Isabel (24 February 2016). “Top 10 amazing facts you didn’t know about Coco Chanel”. The Guardian. Retrieved
8 November 2018.
o ^ “Chanel, the Couturier, Dead in Paris”. The New York Times. Vol. 120, no. 41260. 11 January 1971. p. A1.
o ^ “Cimetière du Bois-de-Vaux”. Fodor’s Travel Intelligence. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved
11 September 2012.
o ^ Wilson, Scott; Mank, Gregory W (2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons. ISBN 978-0-7864-7992-4. OCLC 948561021.
o ^ “Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel (1883–1971) and the House of Chanel”. Heilbrunn
Timeline of Art History. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
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o ^ “Introduction to 20th Century Fashion, V&A”. Vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
o ^
1922 evening dress embroidered by Kitmir in the Victoria & Albert Museum collections
o ^ Jump up to:a b c The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 63, No. 2 (Fall, 2005) p.39. (for a PDF file showing relevant page, see here [1]).
An image of dress with headscarf in situ may be seen on the Metropolitan database here [2]
o ^ “Introduction of the Chanel suit”. Designer-Vintage. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
o ^ Gautier, Jerome (2011). Chanel: The Vocabulary of Style. New Haven:
Yale University Press. p. 244. OCLC 1010340442.
o ^ Jacobs, Laura (19 November 2011). “The Enduring Coco Chanel”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
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the Collections. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
o ^ Wollen, Peter (1991). “Cinema/Americanism/the Robot”. In Naremore, James; Brantlinger, Patrick (eds.). Modernity and Mass Culture. Indiana University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0253206275.
o ^ English,
Bonnie (2013). A Cultural History of Fashion in the 20th and 21st Centuries: From Catwalk to Sidewalk. A&C Black. p. 36. ISBN 978-0857851369.
o ^ Pendergast, Tom and Sarah (2004). Fashion, Costume and Culture. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale.
p. 792. OCLC 864005829.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Pedersen, Stephanie (2006). Handbags: What Every Woman Should Know. Cincinnati: David & Charles. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7153-2495-0.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d Kpriss. “Short History of The Famous Chanel 2.55
Bag”. Style Frizz. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
o ^ “Festival de Cannes: Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky”. festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rkramer62/14071516088/’]




new york city


  • [47][48] Dutch rule New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it “New York” A permanent European presence
    near New York Harbor began in 1624—making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States[49]—with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island.

  • [107] New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York
    City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America.

  • [111] Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban
    areas in New Jersey.

  • Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter
    of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.

  • [84] By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia to become the largest city in the United States, but by the end of that year, pursuant to the Residence Act, the national
    capital was moved to Philadelphia.

  • Manhattan’s Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900 New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London.

  • New York is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016.

  • New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790,[21] and has been the largest U.S. city since 1790.

  • Geography Main articles: Geography of New York City and Geography of New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary The core of the New York City metropolitan area, with Manhattan Island
    at its center During the Wisconsin glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City area was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 2,000 feet (610 m) in depth.

  • New York grew in importance as a trading port while as a part of the colony of New York in the early 1700s.

  • If the New York metropolitan area were a sovereign state, it would have the eighth-largest economy in the world.

  • New York, often called New York City (NYC) to distinguish it from the State of New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

  • [19][20] The city was regained by the Dutch in July 1673 and was renamed New Orange for one year and three months; the city has been continuously named New York since November

  • [31] Many of the city’s landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world, as is the city’s fast pace, spawning the term New York minute.

  • [50][51] The colony of New Amsterdam was centered on what would ultimately be known as Lower Manhattan.

  • Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, with water covering 36.4% of its surface area, New York City is composed of five boroughs, each of which is coextensive
    with a respective county of the state of New York.

  • [87] Over the course of the nineteenth century, New York City’s population grew from 60,000 to 3.43 million.

  • Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban area.

  • [153] Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations
    Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities.

  • [18] New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded on the southern tip of Manhattan Island by Dutch colonists in approximately 1624.

  • Their homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island, Manhattan, the Bronx, the western portion of Long Island (including the areas that would later become the boroughs
    of Brooklyn and Queens), and the Lower Hudson Valley.

  • [45] Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles (240 km) north,[46] past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic
    tributary before the river became too shallow to continue.

  • [140] The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation
    is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.

  • [138] New York City is situated in the northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston.

  • [103] Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.

  • New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America’s place as the world’s dominant economic power.

  • [92][93] In the 19th century, the city was transformed by both commercial and residential development relating to its status as a national and international trading center,
    as well as by European immigration, respectively.

  • [10] Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy,[11][12] an established safe haven for global investors,[13]
    and is sometimes described as the capital of the world.

  • [79] American Revolution The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British
    troops stationed there.

  • [83] In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war.

  • New York city’s population jumped from 123,706 in 1820 to 312,710 by 1840, 16,000 of whom were Black.

  • Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.

  • [91] The draft riots deteriorated into attacks on New York’s elite, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between
    Irish immigrants and Black people for work.

  • [102] The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together.

  • New York City as the U.S. capital hosted several events of national scope in 1789—the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United
    States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time; and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.

  • [127] The area was rebuilt with a new One World Trade Center, a 9/11 memorial and museum, and other new buildings and infrastructure.

  • With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States.

  • The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history.

  • [39] Early history In the pre-Columbian era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape.

  • [80] The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn.

  • [26] In 2019, New York was voted the greatest city in the world per a survey of over 30,000 people from 48 cities worldwide, citing its cultural diversity.

  • [97] There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York’s population
    by 1860.

  • [62] The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.

  • New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world.

  • [128] The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909, as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attacks.

  • [45] He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company.

  • In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx),
    the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.

  • Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the world’s leading financial center and the most powerful city in
    the world,[35] and is home to the world’s two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq.

  • The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York’s global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated
    New York’s displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.

  • The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.

  • Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been
    buried in the area in the colonial period.

  • The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British
    general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776.

  • New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States.

  • Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.

  • It extended from the southern tip of Manhattan to modern day Wall Street, where a 12-foot wooden stockade was built in 1653 to protect against Native American and British

  • [94] The city adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass almost all of Manhattan.

  • [63] English rule Fort George and the City of New York c. 1731.

  • [81] After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America.

  • The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants; more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city’s population.

  • [43] In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company.

  • New York City suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks.

  • [146] Boroughs Main articles: Boroughs of New York City and Neighborhoods in New York City New York City is sometimes referred to collectively as the Five Boroughs.

  • [27] Many districts and monuments in New York City are major landmarks, including three of the world’s ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013.

  • The city has over 120 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, New York University, and the City University of New York system, which is the largest urban
    public university system in the United States.

  • [106] New York’s non-White population was 36,620 in 1890.

  • [75] It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina.

  • [135] In March 2020, the first case of COVID-19 in the city was confirmed in Manhattan.

  • It is home to Central Park and most of the city’s skyscrapers, and is sometimes locally known as The City.

  • [96] The current 5 boroughs of Greater New York as they appeared in 1814.

  • Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall’s Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island
    and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor.

  • [28] A record 66.6 million tourists visited New York City in 2019.


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2. ^ Official weather observations for Central
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3. “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
4. ^
“2021 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
5. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. June 23, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2008. Search for feature ID 975772.
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to:a b c “QuickFacts: New York city, New York”. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
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Domestic Product by County, 2020” (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. December 9, 2020. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
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& County QuickFacts—Kings County (Brooklyn Borough), New York”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
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(April 16, 2006). “7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York’s Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
179. ^ Plunz, Richard A. (1990). “Chapters 3 [Rich and Poor] & 4 [Beyond
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207. ^ “All-Time Extremes Central Park, NY Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/2812442552/’]




calypso music


  • Alternatively, the insert for The Rough Guide to Calypso and Soca (published by World Music Network) favours John Cowley’s arguments in Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions
    in the Making, that the word might be a corruption of the French carrouseaux and through the process of patois and Anglicization became caliso and then finally “calypso”; however, Cowley also notes that the first mention of the word “calypso”
    is given in a description of a dance in 1882 by Abbé Masse.

  • [5] Perhaps due to the constraints of the wartime economy, no recordings of note were produced until the late 1920s and early 1930s, when the “golden era” of calypso would
    cement the style, form, and phrasing of the music.

  • 1944’s “Rum and Coca-Cola” by the Andrews Sisters, a cover version of a Lord Invader song, became an American hit despite the song being a very critical commentary on the
    explosion of prostitution, inflation and other negative influences accompanying the American military bases in Trinidad at the time.

  • In March 1934, he sent Roaring Lion and Attila the Hun to New York City to record; they became the first calypsonians to record abroad, bringing the genre out of the West
    Indies and into pop culture.

  • The origins of calypso competitions dates back to the early 19th century post emancipation where formerly enslaved communities would hold calypso wars showcasing their singing
    and dancing.

  • In 1914, the second calypso recordings—including the first sung in English—were done by chantwell Julian Whiterose, better known as the Iron Duke and famous calinda stick-fighter.

  • Popularity[edit] The first major stars of calypso started crossing over to new audiences worldwide in the late 1930s.

  • Modern calypso, however, began in the 19th century, a fusion of disparate elements ranging from the masquerade song lavway, French Creole belair and the calinda stick-fighting

  • Early forms of calypso were also similar to jazz (which came after) such as Sans Humanitae.

  • Several films jumped on the calypso craze in 1957 such as Island in the Sun (20th Century Fox) that featured Belafonte and the low-budget films Calypso Joe (Allied Artists),
    Calypso Heat Wave (Columbia Pictures), and Bop Girl Goes Calypso (United Artists).

  • However, second version found greater popularity amongst Caribbean people themselves as the lyrics conveyed a story of West Indian immigrants facing discrimination and cultural
    alienation while living in Britain.

  • The following year with “Come Leh We Jam”, she won the “Calypso King ” competition, the first time a woman had received the award.

  • [1] Although Kitchener’s alternate version of “Windrush” did not gain as much commercial popularity, the duality of the two versions exemplify how calypso music was used as
    an outlet for social commentary.

  • [citation needed] After Trinidad and Tobago gained independence in 1962, calypso music continued to be used as an outlet for political commentary.

  • Calypso music frequently was used as a form of musical protest.

  • In particular, during the movement to independence, calypso music would include common messages of a desire for independence, opposition to colonial rule and empowerment for
    people of African descent.

  • Soul shouter Gary “US” Bonds released a calypso album Twist up Calypso (1962) on Legrand records, shortly after returning home from his military post in Port of Spain.

  • Calypso had another short burst of commercial interest when Tim Burton’s horror/comedy film Beetlejuice (1988) was released, and used Belafonte’s “Jump In The Line” as the
    soundtrack’s headliner and also “The Banana Boat Song” in the dinner-party scene.

  • In the first track is possible to notice a strong style influence.

  • The first version gained more global popularity as the lyrics expressed gratitude and appreciation for British colonial rule.

  • Calypso continued to play an important role in political expression.

  • Prior to the independence of Trinidad and Tobago, calypsonians would use their music to express the daily struggles of living in Trinidad, critique racial and economic inequalities,
    express opinions on social order, and voice overall concerns for those living on the island.

  • Recordings[edit] The first identifiably calypso genre song was recorded in 1912, by Lovey’s String Band while visiting New York City.

  • Sá Gomes, a Portuguese immigrant who owned a local music and phonograph equipment shop in Port of Spain, promoted the genre and gave financial support to the local artists.

  • [10] During the colonial era, the Black lower class used calypso music to protest their poor economic situation and the discrimination which they were subjected to.

  • [6] Later in 1953 Calypso competitions held the same showcasing nature, but became politicized as the People’s National Movement (PNM) took over as the main organizer of competitions.

  • Calypsonians pushed the boundaries of free speech as their lyrics spread news of any topic relevant to island life, including speaking out against political corruption.

  • [3] Calypso music has also been used by politicians to promote political agendas through Calypso competitions.

  • Sex, scandal, gossip, politics, local news, and insulting other calypsonians were the order of the day in classic calypso, just as it is today with classic hip-hop.

  • Countless recordings were dumped at sea in the name of censorship, although in truth, rival US companies did this in the spirit of underhanded competition, claiming that the
    rivals’ material was unfit for US consumption.

  • [7] Perhaps the most straightforward way to describe the focus of calypso is that it articulated itself as a form of protest against the authoritarian colonial culture which
    existed at the time.

  • He made his home there along with Wilmoth Houdini, and became one of the great calypsonians of the US.


Works Cited

[‘Richard Allsopp, Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage (Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 131.
2. ^ Mendes (1986), p. 30.
3. ^ Jump up to:a b c John Cowley, Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the Making Archived 2017-01-09 at the Wayback
Machine, Cambridge University Press, p. 98.
4. ^ Calypso Worldwide Retrieved 27 November 2020
5. ^ Richie Unterberger, [http://www.allmusic.com/artist/lionel-belasco-mn0000293367/biography Lionel Belasco Artist Biography] AllMusic. Retrieved 07
June 2022
6. ^ Jump up to:a b Funk, Ray. “Roaring Lion (Raphael Arius Kairiyama De Leon AKA Hubert Raphael Charles, 15.6.08 – 11.7.99)”. Archived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
7. ^ Consuming the Caribbean Archived 2014-04-05 at the Wayback
8. ^ j.poet (1994). Sparrow. In Hot Like Fire, Album liner notes. London: Ice Records.
9. ^ Calypso Christmas – album conducted and arranged by Leonard De Paur in 1956 on archive.org
10. ^ Jump up to:a b Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting
Music Theory: a guide to the practice, p. 28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
11. ^ “Calypso and the birth of British Black Music”.
12. ^ Wardle, Huon; Obermuller, Laura (2018). “The Windrush generation”. Anthropology Today. 34 (4): 3–4. doi:10.1111/1467-8322.12445.
ISSN 1467-8322.
2. Hill, Donald R. Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad (1993). ISBN 0-8130-1221-X. (cloth); ISBN 0-8130-1222-8 (pbk). University Press of Florida. 2nd edition: Temple University Press (2006); ISBN 1-59213-463-7.
3. Mendes,
John (1986). Cote ce Cote la Trinidad and Tobago Dictionary. John Mendes, Arima, Trinidad.
4. Quevedo, Raymond (Atilla the Hun). 1983. Atilla’s Kaiso: a short history of Trinidad calypso (1983). University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
(Includes the words to many old calypsos as well as musical scores for some of Atilla’s calypsos.)
5. Gittens, Sinclair (August 12, 2010). “The origin of calypso”. Nation Newspaper. Retrieved January 2, 2017.




star wars


  • [104] The first “Expanded Universe” story appeared in Marvel Comics’ Star Wars #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues being an adaptation of the film), followed by Foster’s
    sequel novel Splinter of the Mind’s Eye the following month.

  • Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977, and first subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars.

  • A single-player action-adventure game, Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, with an original story and cast of characters, was released in November 2019.

  • [114][115] Steve Perry’s Shadows of the Empire (1996), set between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, was part of a multimedia campaign that included a comic
    book series and video game.

  • Focused on how the Rebels obtained the Death Star plans introduced in the 1977 film, the first anthology film, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, was released on December 16, 2016,
    to favorable reviews and box office success.

  • [92] Series Main article: List of Star Wars television series Many Star Wars series have been produced, both animated and live-action, the first being Droids in 1985.

  • [59][74] However, after beginning work on the prequel trilogy, Lucas insisted that Star Wars was meant to be a six-part series and that there would be no sequel trilogy.

  • [122][123][124] Del Rey took over Star Wars book publishing in 1999, releasing what would become a 19-installment novel series called The New Jedi Order (1999–2003).

  • Lucasfilm and Kennedy have stated that the standalone films would be referred to as the Star Wars anthology series[43] (though the word anthology has not been used in any
    of the titles, instead carrying the promotional “A Star Wars Story” subtitle).

  • The Mandalorian, the first live-action series to take place in the Star Wars universe, has spawned multiple spinoffs and inspired other live-action series to be created.

  • [131] Although Thrawn had been designated a Legends character in 2014, he was reintroduced into the canon in 2016 for the third season of the Rebels animated series, with
    Zahn returning to write more novels based on the character and set in the new canon.

  • [165][166] In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first Star Wars video game for the Atari 2600, Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back,[167] followed soon the year later by Star
    Wars: Jedi Arena, the first video game to depict lightsaber combat.

  • Eight live-action Star Wars series will be released on Disney+.

  • [2] Other media From 1976 to 2014, the term Expanded Universe (EU) was an umbrella term for all officially licensed Star Wars storytelling material set outside the events
    depicted within the theatrical films, including novels, comics, and video games.

  • The original film (Star Wars), retroactively subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope (1977), was followed by the sequels Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Episode VI:
    Return of the Jedi (1983), forming the original Star Wars trilogy.

  • The 1977 installments were the first original Star Wars stories not directly adapted from the films to appear in print form, as they preceded those of the Star Wars comic

  • [157] Audio novels Further information: The Story of Star Wars and List of Star Wars books The first Star Wars audio work is The Story of Star Wars, an LP using audio samples
    from the original film and a new narration to retell the story, released in 1977.

  • Further animated series began to be released in the 2000s, the first two of which focused on the Clone Wars.

  • [81][82] The sequel trilogy also meant the end of the existing Star Wars Expanded Universe, which was discarded from canon to give “maximum creative freedom to the filmmakers
    and also preserve an element of surprise and discovery for the audience.

  • Star Wars is an American epic space-opera[1] multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film[b] and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture

  • An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy,[41] described by Disney chief financial officer
    Jay Rasulo as origin stories.

  • In 1993, LucasArts released Star Wars: X-Wing, the first self-published Star Wars video game and the first space flight simulator based on the franchise.

  • [144] In the late 1980s, Marvel dropped a new Star Wars comic it had in development, which was picked up by Dark Horse Comics and published as the popular Dark Empire series

  • [57] The 1977 movie’s success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial.

  • The Star Wars canon was subsequently restructured to only include the existing six feature films, the animated film The Clone Wars (2008), and its companion animated series.

  • [89] Disney+ later released the Ewoks movies and animated series, along with the animated first appearance of Boba Fett from the Star Wars Holiday Special, and the Clone Wars
    animated micro-series in a section called “Star Wars Vintage”, which also includes the Droids animated series.

  • [98][99] It includes the animated Star Wars Rebels, Andor, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, and the original trilogy films.

  • [18] Films The Star Wars film series centers around three sets of trilogies, the nine films of which are collectively referred to as the “Skywalker Saga”.

  • Print media Star Wars in print predates the release of the first film, with the November 1976 novelization of Star Wars, initially subtitled “From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker”.

  • Involving the majority of the current officially licensed publishers, a new era set 200 years before the Skywalker Saga will be explored in various books and comics.

  • [93] The Expanded Universe of spin-off media depicts different levels of continuity, which were deemed non-canonical and rebranded as Legends on April 25, 2014, to make most
    subsequent works align to the episodic films, The Clone Wars film, and television series.

  • [171] The Rogue Squadron series was released between 1998 and 2003, also focusing on space battles set during the films.

  • LucasArts and modern self-published games (1993–2014) Main article: LucasArts Lucasfilm founded its own video game company in 1982, becoming best known for adventure games
    and World War II flight combat games, but as George Lucas took more interest in the increasing success of the video game market, he wanted to have more creative control over the games and founded his own development company, LucasArts.

  • Lucasfilm has a number of Star Wars films in development, two of which were confirmed during Disney Investor Day 2020.

  • [145] Dark Horse subsequently launched dozens of series set after the original film trilogy, including Tales of the Jedi (1993–1998), X-wing Rogue Squadron (1995–1998), Star
    Wars: Republic (1998–2006), Star Wars Tales (1999–2005), Star Wars: Empire (2002–2006), and Knights of the Old Republic (2006–2010).

  • [88] Television The Star Wars franchise has been spun off to various television productions, including two animated series released in the mid-1980s.

  • Written by multiple authors, the series was set 25 to 30 years after the original films and introduced the Yuuzhan Vong, a powerful alien race attempting to invade and conquer
    the entire galaxy.

  • According to producer Gary Kurtz, loose plans for a prequel trilogy were developed during the outlining of the original two films.

  • Prior to releasing the original film, and made possible by its success, Lucas planned “three trilogies of nine films.

  • The television series Obi-Wan Kenobi was originally going to be a film instead but changed to a limited series due to Solo underperforming.

  • The second, Solo: A Star Wars Story, centered on a young Han Solo with Chewbacca and Lando as supporting characters, was released on May 25, 2018, to generally favorable reviews
    and underperformance at the box office.

  • Together with the original trilogy, Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as “the tragedy of Darth Vader”.

  • [61] In 1980, Lucas confirmed that he had the nine-film series plotted,[62] but due to the stress of producing the original trilogy, he had decided to cancel further sequels
    by 1981.

  • [47][48] In September 2019, it was announced that Kathleen Kennedy and Kevin Feige would collaborate to develop a Star Wars film,[49] however the film was no longer in active
    development as of 2022.

  • [116][117] The novel introduced the crime lord Prince Xizor, another popular character who would appear in multiple other works.

  • In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but could not obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera.

  • Together with the theatrical live action “anthology” films Rogue One (2016) and Solo (2018), the combined box office revenue of the films equated to over US$10 billion, which
    makes it the second-highest-grossing film franchise of all time.

  • [51] In May 2022, the Waititi film was expected to be the next Star Wars film to be produced, ahead of the previously announced Rogue Squadron, with Kennedy stating that they
    were aiming for a late 2023 release date but had not yet officially scheduled one.

  • Dark Forces (1995), a hybrid adventure game incorporating puzzles and strategy,[172] was the first Star Wars first-person shooter.

  • [108][109][110][111] The first novel, Heir to the Empire, reached #1 on the New York Times Best Seller list,[112] and the series finds Luke, Leia, and Han facing off against
    tactical genius Thrawn, who is plotting to retake the galaxy for the Empire.

  • Existing works would no longer be considered canon to the franchise and subsequent reprints would be rebranded under the Star Wars Legends label,[103] with downloadable content
    for the massively multiplayer online game The Old Republic the only Legends material to still be produced.

  • Games made during this era are considered canonical, and feature more influence from the Star Wars filmmakers.

  • Super Star Wars (1992) was released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, with two sequels over the next two years.

  • [42] The first entry, Rogue One (2016), tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans just before Episode IV.

  • [150][151][152] First announced as Project Luminous at Star Wars Celebration in April 2019, full details of a publishing initiative called Star Wars: The High Republic were
    revealed in a press conference in February 2020.

  • [170] Platform games were made for the Nintendo Entertainment System, including the Japan-exclusive Star Wars (1987), an international Star Wars (1991), and Star Wars: The
    Empire Strikes Back (1992).

  • [159][163] Video games Further information: Star Wars video games and List of Star Wars video games The Star Wars franchise has spawned over one hundred[164] computer, video,
    and board games, dating back to some of the earliest home consoles.

  • [59] Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm.

  • [75][76] Lucas decided to leave the franchise in the hands of other filmmakers, announcing in January 2012 that he would make no more Star Wars films.

  • The first will be an unspecified film from Taika Waititi, who in May 2020 was announced to be directing a Star Wars film he was co-writing with Krysty Wilson-Cairns.

  • Star Wars games have gone through three significant development eras, marked by a change in leadership among the developers: the early licensed games, those developed after
    the creation of LucasArts, and those created after the closure of the Lucasfilm division by Disney and the transfer of the license to Electronic Arts.

  • [12] One result of that is a mystical power known as the Force which is described in the original film as “an energy field created by all living things … [that] binds the
    galaxy together”.

  • [160][163] In the 1990s, Time Warner Audio Publishing adapted several Star Wars series from Dark Horse Comics into audio dramas: the three-part Dark Empire saga, Tales of
    the Jedi, Dark Lords of the Sith, the Dark Forces trilogy, and Crimson Empire (1998).

  • [153] Audio Soundtracks and singles Further information: Music of Star Wars John Williams composed the soundtracks for the nine episodic films; he has stated that he will
    retire from the franchise with The Rise of Skywalker.

  • [149] Launched in 2015, the first three publications were titled Star Wars, Darth Vader, and the limited series Princess Leia.

  • Some are based directly on the movie material, while others rely heavily on the non-canonical Expanded Universe (rebranded as Star Wars Legends and removed from the canon
    in 2014).

  • Early licensed games (1979–1993) The first officially licensed electronic Star Wars game was Kenner’s 1979 table-top Star Wars Electronic Battle Command.

  • [60] Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980, also achieving wide financial and critical success.

  • [184] EA Star Wars (2014–present) Following its acquisition of the franchise, Disney reassigned video game rights to Electronic Arts.

  • Premise The Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters “A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away”,[5] in which humans and many species of aliens (often humanoid)
    co-exist with robots (typically referred to in the films as ‘droids’), who may assist them in their daily routines; space travel between planets is common due to lightspeed hyperspace technology.

  • [171] It was one of the best-selling video games of 1993 and established its own series of games.


Works Cited

[‘The film’s release was preceded by its novelization in November 1976.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Later titled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope
3. ^ Most existing spin-off media was made non-canon and rebranded as ‘Legends’ in April 2014.[2]
4. ^
Lucas started by researching the inspiration behind Alex Raymond’s Flash Gordon comic, leading him to the works of author Edgar Rice Burroughs—the John Carter of Mars series in particular.[54]
5. ^ Played by Jake Lloyd as a child in Episode I
6. ^
Each film was released two days later in the U.S.
7. ^ The prequels feature a relatively sleek and new design aesthetic in comparison to the original trilogy.[94]
8. ^ The original trilogy depicts the galaxy as dirty and grimy in George Lucas’s
depiction of a “used universe”.[97]
9. ^ The sequel trilogy made a return to what J. J. Abrams called “the wonderful preposterousness” of practical effects that were used to create the original trilogy.[100]
10. ^ Not to be confused with the board
game with the same name published in 1990[200]
11. ^ In his early drafts, Lucas used the plot point of a dictator staying in power with the support of the military. In his comment (made in the prequel trilogy era) Lucas attributed this to Nixon’s
supposed intention to defy the 22nd Amendment,[227] but the president resigned and never ran for a third term.
12. Booker, M. Keith (2020). Historical Dictionary of Science Fiction Cinema. Historical dictionaries of literature and the arts. Rowman
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