3d printing


  • [7] 3D printing and additive manufacturing reflect that the technologies share the theme of material addition or joining throughout a 3D work envelope under automated control.

  • The term 3D printing still referred only to the polymer technologies in most minds, and the term AM was more likely to be used in metalworking and end-use part production
    contexts than among polymer, inkjet, or stereolithography enthusiasts.

  • [72] A drawback of many existing 3D printing technologies is that they only allow one material to be printed at a time, limiting many potential applications which require
    the integration of different materials in the same object.

  • [80] Others sometimes use standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype.

  • The challenges of 4D printing include the fact that the microstructures of these printed smart materials must be close to or better than the parts obtained through traditional
    machining processes.

  • There is also a need to design new software for the various technique types of 4D printing.

  • 3:31 Timelapse of an 80-minute video of an object being made out of PLA using molten polymer deposition Construction of a model with contemporary methods can take anywhere
    from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model.

  • [71] Multi-material 3D printing Efforts to achieve multi-material 3D printing range from enhanced FDM-like processes like VoxelJet, to novel voxel-based printing technologies
    like layered assembly.

  • [citation needed] The year 1993 also saw the start of an inkjet 3D printer company initially named Sanders Prototype, Inc and later named Solidscape, introducing a high-precision
    polymer jet fabrication system with soluble support structures, (categorized as a “dot-on-dot” technique).

  • By the early 2010s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing evolved senses in which they were alternate umbrella terms for additive technologies, one being used in
    popular language by consumer-maker communities and the media, and the other used more formally by industrial end-use part producers, machine manufacturers, and global technical standards organizations.

  • But the automated techniques that added metal, which would later be called additive manufacturing, were beginning to challenge that assumption.

  • A US 4323756 patent, method of fabricating articles by sequential deposition, granted on 6 April 1982 to Raytheon Technologies Corp describes using hundreds or thousands of
    ‘layers’ of powdered metal and a laser energy source and represents an early reference to forming “layers” and the fabrication of articles on a substrate.

  • The 4D printing software will need to take into consideration the base smart material, printing technique, and structural and geometric requirements of the design.

  • Finishing Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, greater accuracy can be achieved by printing a slightly oversized version of the desired
    object in standard resolution and then removing material using a higher-resolution subtractive process.

  • [33] 2010s As the various additive processes matured, it became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the only metalworking process done through a tool or head
    moving through a 3D work envelope, transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer.

  • The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, costs of the 3D printer, of the printed prototype, choice and cost of the materials, and color capabilities.

  • However, the method has rapidly evolved to not only print various polymers[66] but also metals[67][68] and ceramics,[69] making 3D printing a versatile option for manufacturing.

  • 4D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which the printed object changes shape with time, temperature, or some other type of stimulation.

  • The technology used by most 3D printers to date—especially hobbyist and consumer-oriented models—is fused deposition modeling, a special application of plastic extrusion,
    developed in 1988 by S. Scott Crump and commercialized by his company Stratasys, which marketed its first FDM machine in 1992.

  • With more and more applications of multi-material 3D printing, the costs of daily life and high technology development will become inevitably lower.

  • The 2010s were the first decade in which metal end use parts such as engine brackets[34] and large nuts[35] would be grown (either before or instead of machining) in job production
    rather than obligately being machined from bar stock or plate.

  • For large OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) like Pratt and Whitney (PW) and General Electric (GE) this means looking towards AM as a way to reduce cost, reduce the number
    of nonconforming parts, reduce weight in the engines to increase fuel efficiency and find new, highly complex shapes that would not be feasible with the antiquated manufacturing methods.

  • “It is therefore an additional object of the invention to minimize use to materials in a process of the indicated class.”

  • The repeatability, precision, and material range for 4D printing must increase to allow the process to become more practical throughout these industries.

  • Multi-material 3D printing solves this problem by allowing objects of complex and heterogeneous arrangements of materials to be manufactured using a single printer.

  • Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, although it varies widely depending on the type of machine used and the size and number of models being produced

  • However less expensive printers can be used to make a mold, which is then used to make metal parts.

  • [3] As of 2019, the precision, repeatability, and material range of 3D printing have increased to the point that some 3D printing processes are considered viable as an industrial-production
    technology, whereby the term additive manufacturing can be used synonymously with 3D printing.

  • Peter Zelinski, the editor-in-chief of Additive Manufacturing magazine, pointed out in 2017 that the terms are still often synonymous in casual usage,[8] but some manufacturing
    industry experts are trying to make a distinction whereby additive manufacturing comprises 3D printing plus other technologies or other aspects of a manufacturing process.

  • [76] 4D printing Using 3D printing and multi-material structures in additive manufacturing has allowed for the design and creation of what is called 4D printing.

  • [4] One of the key advantages of 3D printing is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries that would be otherwise impossible to construct by hand, including
    hollow parts or parts with internal truss structures to reduce weight.

  • For this kind of technology additional vertical support structures d) are needed to sustain overhanging parts The main differences between processes are in the way layers
    are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used.

  • Scott Crump was also working with extruded “melted” plastic filament modeling (FDM) and Drop deposition had been patented by William E Masters a week after Charles Hull’s
    patent in 1984, but he had to discover Thermoplastic Inkjets introduced by Visual Impact Corporation 3D printer in 1992 using inkjets from Howtek, Inc., before he formed BPM to bring out his own 3D printer product in 1994.

  • 3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a digital model based on it.

  • While AM is still playing a small role in the total number of parts in the jet engine manufacturing process, the return on investment can already be seen by the reduction
    in parts, the rapid production capabilities and the “optimized design in terms of performance and cost”.

  • [40] In 2012, Filabot developed a system for closing the loop[41] with plastic and allows for any FDM or FFF 3D printer to be able to print with a wider range of plastics.

  • At the time, all metalworking was done by processes that are now called non-additive (casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining); although plenty of automation was applied
    to those technologies (such as by robot welding and CNC), the idea of a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape with a toolpath was associated in metalworking only with processes
    that removed metal (rather than adding it), such as CNC milling, CNC EDM, and many others.

  • [53][54] Generally STLs that have been produced from a model obtained through 3D scanning often have more of these errors [55] as 3D scanning is often achieved by point to
    point acquisition/mapping.

  • The price as of 2014 was still high with the cost being over $2,000, yet this still allowed hobbyists an entrance into printing outside of production and industry methods.

  • The range of commercially available ink compositions which could meet the requirements of the invention are not known at the present time.

  • Agile tooling uses a cost-effective and high-quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs, and it can be used in hydro-forming, stamping, injection molding
    and other manufacturing processes.

  • Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why some companies offer a choice of powder and polymer for the material used to build the object.

  • In contrast, the term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large family of machining processes with material removal as their common process.

  • Such application of the adjectives rapid and on-demand to the noun manufacturing was novel in the 2000s reveals the prevailing mental model of the long industrial era in which
    almost all production manufacturing involved long lead times for laborious tooling development.

  • The patent states “As used herein the term printing is not intended in a limited sense but includes writing or other symbols, character or pattern formation with an ink.

  • Layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models is a modern concept that “stems from the ever-growing CAD industry, more specifically the solid modeling side
    of CAD.

  • More recently, the popular vernacular has started using the term to encompass a wider variety of additive-manufacturing techniques such as electron-beam additive manufacturing
    and selective laser melting.

  • [8] Other terms that have been used as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturing, rapid manufacturing (as the logical production-level successor to rapid prototyping),
    and on-demand manufacturing (which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing).

  • One Howtek member, Richard Helinski (patent US5136515A, Method and Means for constructing three-dimensional articles by particle deposition, application 11/07/1989 granted
    8/04/1992) formed a New Hampshire company C.A.D-Cast, Inc, name later changed to Visual Impact Corporation (VIC) on 8/22/1991.

  • Until recently, the term 3D printing has been associated with machines low in price or in capability.

  • Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts.

  • This appears to be the first patent describing 3D printing with rapid prototyping and controlled on-demand manufacturing of patterns.

  • [31] Sacrificial and support materials had also become more common, enabling new object geometries.

  • [56] Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a “slicer”, which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code
    file containing instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer (FDM printers).

  • [5] While FDM technology was invented after the other two most popular technologies, stereolithography (SLA) and selective laser sintering (SLS), FDM is typically the most
    inexpensive of the three by a large margin,[citation needed] which lends to the popularity of the process.

  • The idea of investment casting with Solid-Ink jetted images or patterns in 1984 led to the first patent to form articles from particle deposition in 1989, issued in 1992.

  • [37] A fuel nozzle is the perfect in road for additive manufacturing in a jet engine since it allows for optimized design of the complex internals and it is a low stress,
    non-rotating part.

  • Charles Hull filed the first patent on August 8, 1984, to use a UV-cured acrylic resin using a UV masked light source at UVP Corp to build a simple model.

  • [32] The term 3D printing originally referred to a powder bed process employing standard and custom inkjet print heads, developed at MIT by Emanuel Sachs in 1993 and commercialized
    by Soligen Technologies, Extrude Hone Corporation, and Z Corporation.

  • “According to another aspect of the invention, a combination for writing and the like comprises a carrier for displaying an intelligence pattern and an arrangement for removing
    the pattern from the carrier.”

  • 2020s As of 2020, 3D printers have reached the level of quality and price that allows most people to enter the world of 3D printing.

  • Most CAD applications produce errors in output STL files,[49][50] of the following types: 1. holes 2. faces normals 3. self-intersections 4. noise shells 5. manifold errors[51]
    6. overhang issues [52] A step in the STL generation known as “repair” fixes such problems in the original model.

  • It is still the case that casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining are more prevalent than additive manufacturing in metalworking, but AM is now beginning to make significant
    inroads, and with the advantages of design for additive manufacturing, it is clear to engineers that much more is to come.

  • The term ink as used in is intended to include not only dye or pigment-containing materials, but any flowable substance or composition suited for application to the surface
    for forming symbols, characters, or patterns of intelligence by marking.

  • In 2014, Benjamin S. Cook and Manos M. Tentzeris demonstrate the first multi-material, vertically integrated printed electronics additive manufacturing platform (VIPRE) which
    enabled 3D printing of functional electronics operating up to 40 GHz.

  • [83] The first process where three-dimensional material is deposited to form an object was done with material jetting[24] or as it was originally called particle deposition.

  • This allows for customized printing of shape changing and shape-memory materials.

  • [12] In April 1980, Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute invented two additive methods for fabricating three-dimensional plastic models with photo-hardening
    thermoset polymer, where the UV exposure area is controlled by a mask pattern or a scanning fiber transmitter.

  • In the 1980s, 3D printing techniques were considered suitable only for the production of functional or aesthetic prototypes, and a more appropriate term for it at the time
    was rapid prototyping.


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