abiotic stress


  • AQPs are both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by many different factors such as ABA, GA3, pH and Ca2+; and the specific levels of AQPs in certain parts
    of the plant, such as roots or leaves, helps to draw as much water into the plant as possible.

  • [5] Effects Abiotic stress, as a natural part of every ecosystem, will affect organisms in a variety of ways.

  • [18] Prior exposure to tolerable doses of biotic stresses such as phloem-feeding insect infestation have also been shown to increase tolerance to abiotic stresses in plant[19]
    Impact on food production[edit] Abiotic stress mostly affects plants used in agriculture.

  • [28][29] PHR1 also has been shown to regulate extensive remodeling of lipids and metabolites during phosphorus limitation stress[29][30] Drought stress[edit] Drought stress,
    defined as naturally occurring water deficit, is a main cause of crop losses in agriculture.

  • [32] They found that plants which were exposed to drought conditions actually changed the way they regulated their stomata and what they called “hydraulic safety margin” so
    as to decrease the vulnerability of the plant.

  • [2] Whereas a biotic stress would include living disturbances such as fungi or harmful insects, abiotic stress factors, or stressors, are naturally occurring, often intangible
    and inanimate factors such as intense sunlight, temperature or wind that may cause harm to the plants and animals in the area affected.

  • Thus, when the abiotic stress occurs, the plant has already prepared defense mechanisms that can be activated faster and increase tolerance.

  • For more information on the harmful effects of abiotic stress, see the sections below on plants and animals.

  • This is because water is essential for many fundamental processes in plant growth.

  • This could possibly be because the plants need a stronger network to survive in a harsher environment, so their interactions between species, such as cross-pollination or
    mutualistic actions, become more common to cope with the severity of their habitat.

  • Even though it is healthy for an ecosystem, a wildfire can still be considered an abiotic stressor, because it puts an obvious stress on individual organisms within the area.

  • When a group of different plant species was prompted by a variety of different stress signals, such as drought or cold, each plant responded uniquely.

  • [31] Another extremely important factor in dealing with drought stress and regulating the uptake and export of water is aquaporins (AQPs).

  • A study by Tombesi et al., found that plants which had previously been exposed to drought were able to come up with a sort of strategy to minimize water loss and decrease
    water use.

  • Rice plants can undergo different types of abiotic stresses, like drought and high salinity.

  • When there is limited bioavailable P in the soil, plants show extensive symptoms of abiotic stress, such as short primary roots and more lateral roots and root hairs to make
    more surface available for phosphate absorption, exudation of organic acids and phosphatase to release phosphates from complex P–containing molecules and make it available for growing plants’ organs.

  • [1] The non-living variable must influence the environment beyond its normal range of variation to adversely affect the population performance or individual physiology of
    the organism in a significant way.

  • [11] It is also possible to see in animals that a high genetic diversity is beneficial in providing resiliency against harsh abiotic stressors.

  • The two may be living in the same environment, but an increase in temperature of the area would prove stressful only for one of the organisms.

  • They include: poor edaphic conditions like rock content and pH levels, high radiation, compaction, contamination, and other, highly specific conditions like rapid rehydration
    during seed germination.

  • Temperature determines metabolic rates, heart rates, and other very important factors within the bodies of animals, so an extreme temperature change can easily distress the
    animal’s body.

  • [26] Phosphate starvation in plants[edit] Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth and development, but it is present only in limited quantities
    in most of the world’s soil.

  • [10] What also needs to be taken into account when looking for benefits of abiotic stress, is that one phenomenon may not affect an entire ecosystem in the same way.

  • [33] By understanding the mechanisms of both AQPs and the hormone ABA, scientists will be better able to produce drought-resistant plants in the future.

  • [23][24] For example, high soil salinity content can inhibit the process of photosynthesis by limiting a plant’s water uptake; high levels of water-soluble salts in the soil
    can decrease the osmotic potential of the soil and consequently decrease the difference in water potential between the soil and the plant’s roots, thereby limiting electron flow from H2O to P680 in Photosystem II’s reaction center.

  • [5] • Cold[5] • Heat[5] • Nutrient deficiency[8] Lesser-known stressors generally occur on a smaller scale.

  • Ethylene is known for regulating plant growth and development and dealing with stress conditions.

  • [25] Over generations, many plants have mutated and built different mechanisms to counter salinity effects.

  • It is interesting that plants that are consistently exposed to drought have been found to form a sort of “memory”.

  • If abiotic stress does not have a strong presence in an area, the biodiversity will be much higher.

  • [21] Salt stress in plants[edit] Soil salinization, the accumulation of water-soluble salts to levels that negatively impact plant production, is a global phenomenon affecting
    approximately 831 million hectares of land.

  • [32] Plants have come up with many mechanisms and adaptations to try and deal with drought stress.

  • High concentrations of Na+, for example, can decrease the capacity for the plant to take up water and also alter enzyme and transporter functions.

  • So, a taiga or boreal forest is at the mercy of whatever abiotic stress factors may come along, while tropical zones are much less susceptible to such stressors.


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