• ‘D’ for Desire (the stage where the consumer audience have a passion towards the brand or product after getting information about the brand or additional information regarding
    the advertising message), ‘A’ for Action (stage at which the consumer audience take action in form of purchase of products or the election of a brand to satisfy his/ her desire), ‘L’ for Like/ dislike (the stage where after experiencing a
    product or brand, the consumer audience will like or dislike towards that product).

  • That is why advertisers should not focus only on short-term effects of advertising, which raises purchase action, but also consider long-term effect, namely loyalty to the
    brand which came from good experience on brand and good image about the brand product.

  • Share (S) In an age where the world is becoming increasingly borderless by the late development of information technology, consumers have the power to perform radical actions
    that may cause impact to the brand image of a product.

  • The advertising effects are no longer as simple as Attention, Interest, Desire and Action or added with Satisfaction as developed by Strong (1925).

  • Apart from the development in stages by adding ‘S’ (Search) element, ‘L’ (Like/dislike), ‘S’ (Share) and ‘Love’ (Love/hate), in the AISDALSLove model, Wijaya carried out grouping
    of advertising effect to short-term effect and long-term effect, especially related to development of the advertised brand.

  • AISDALSLove (standing for Attention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate), is a hierarchy of effects model in advertising[1] adapted from
    AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model (Lewis, 1900; Strong, 1925) which has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners, to measure the effect of an advertisement.

  • A consumer, who has already interested to purchase a product after being influenced by the ad’s messages (visual or verbal), and feel satisfied after a ‘simple confirmation’
    or even ‘positive disconfirmation’, then share the experience and express his/her satisfaction towards the products he has been tried, eventually will create a deep feeling to the brand, that is called ‘Love’ for good feeling or ‘Hate’ for
    bad feeling.

  • [4] The hierarchy of effects model AISDALSLove can be described as ‘A’ for Attention (the stage where the consumer audience firstly pay attention to the ad), ‘I’ for Interest
    (stage at which the consumer audience then become interested in that ad), ‘S’ for Search (the stage where the consumer audience will seek for information about the message or the advertised brand, both internally and externally).

  • A love can also arise due to connection between consumers with story or creative advertising concept.

  • New ideas and elements As mentioned in his paper,[5] Wijaya put special attention on concept of AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action) model, considering this model is
    the most popular, widely used in studies to measure the effect of advertising, as well as inspiring the birth of new hierarchy of effect models.

  • Like/Dislike (L) This element is closely related to consumers’ experience after purchasing and using the product due to being tempted by the advertisement.

  • The consumer’s experience may cause the next snowball effect, which is sharing the experience with others about the advertised product.

  • Thus, an unpleasant experience, not consistent with the promise delivered by the ads will lead to resentment with the product and usually the consumer decides not to try it

  • In short, consumers evaluate product or service performance through their experience by comparing what they expected and imagined versus what they perceive they received from
    a particular supplier.

  • Meanwhile, the law of small numbers in the consumer’s decision-making process, whereby people expect information obtained from a small sample to be typical of the larger population
    (Tversky and Kahneman, 1971; Hoyer and Macinnis, 2010) more strengthening the assumption of the role of consumer experience sharing in influencing other consumers.

  • This is based on like and dislike experience toward the product they have used.

  • ‘S’ for Share (this stage is a continuation from the previous stage, in which the consumer audience will express feelings of likes or dislikes by sharing their experience
    to other consumers directly or through media), and the last is ‘Love’ for Love/hate (the stage when after feeling satisfied or not satisfied, the consumer audience share their experiences with others, and generate long-term feelings towards
    the product or brand, these feelings can be either love or hate).

  • Moreover, with the growing users of digital social media today, make the consumers become freer in expressing their experience to the world.

  • This is due to more critical public or potential customers who can no longer be dictated to by advertising information.

  • Information obtained from an advertisement is not accepted instantly to become a belief or directly create a desire to purchase, no matter how interesting the displayed stimulus
    by the advertising message.

  • Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in response to the latest developments in the respect of the public power as a consumer audience.

  • [12] On the contrary, if the consumer experience towards the advertised product has a negative disconfirmation, the consumer will spread rumor to other consumers or society
    at large with the intention that impact to a bad perception of a product.


Works Cited

2. ^ As mentioned in Barry, Thomas E. & Daniel J. Howard (1990). A Review and Critique of The Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 9 (2),
3. ^ Wijaya, Bambang Sukma (2015-08-24). “The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising”. International Research Journal of Business Studies. 5 (1). ISSN 2338-4565.
4. ^ Perbanaslib: “Katalog Online”. Archived from the original
on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
5. ^ Wijaya, Bambang Sukma (2012). “The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising”, International Research Journal of Business Studies (IRJBS), 5 (1), April–July 2012, p. 73-85 (ISSN
6. ^ Barry, Thomas E. & Daniel J. Howard (1990). A Review and Critique of The Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 9 (2), 98-111
7. ^ See: Kotler, Philip, Hermawan Kartajaya & Iwan Setiawan (2010).
Marketing 3.0.
8. ^ Solomon, Michael R. (2011). Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being. New Jersey: Pearson
9. ^ Lovelock, Christopher and Jochen Wirtz (2011). Service Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy. New Jersey: Pearson
10. ^
Hoyer, Wayne D. and Deborah J. Macinnis (2010). Consumer Behavior. Singapore: Cengage
11. ^ Wijaya, Bambang Sukma (2011). New Model of Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising. Proceeding International Seminar on Scientific Issues and Trends, d5-15
12. ^
Wijaya, Bambang Sukma (2009, May–June). Brand & Me. ADOI Magazine
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