albert einstein


  • [114] 1930–1931: Travel to the US In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow at
    the California Institute of Technology.

  • [55] 1921–1922: Travels abroad Einstein with his second wife, Elsa, in 1921 Einstein’s official portrait after receiving the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics Einstein visited New
    York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan, followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions.

  • [note 3][137] Both bills failed, however, and Einstein then accepted an earlier offer from the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, New Jersey, US, to become a resident

  • [135] Resident scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study Portrait of Einstein taken in 1935 at Princeton On 3 October 1933, Einstein delivered a speech on the importance
    of academic freedom before a packed audience at the Royal Albert Hall in London, with The Times reporting he was wildly cheered throughout.

  • Life and career Early life and education See also: Einstein family Einstein at the age of three in 1882 Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14) Albert Einstein was born in Ulm,[7]
    in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879 into a family of secular Ashkenazi Jews.

  • [125] Refugee status Albert Einstein’s landing card (26 May 1933), when he landed in Dover (United Kingdom) from Ostend (Belgium) to visit Oxford In April 1933, Einstein discovered
    that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities.

  • [129] Four days later he returned to the US and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study,[135][138] noted for having become a refuge for scientists fleeing Nazi

  • [68] Patent office Einstein in 1904 (age 25) After graduating in 1900, Einstein spent almost two years searching for a teaching post.

  • [134] Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing
    the crisis brewing in Europe.

  • [28] A family tutor Max Talmud says that after he had given the 12-year-old Einstein a geometry textbook, after a short time “[Einstein] had worked through the whole book.

  • During the days following, he was given the keys to the city by Mayor Jimmy Walker and met the president of Columbia University, who described Einstein as “the ruling monarch
    of the mind”.

  • [87] The New York Times reported confirmation of “the Einstein theory” (specifically, the bending of light by gravitation) based on 29 May 1919 eclipse observations in Príncipe
    (Africa) and Sobral (Brazil), after the findings were presented on 6 November 1919 to a joint meeting in London of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society.

  • [88] (Full text) In the spring of 1913, Einstein was enticed to move to Berlin with an offer that included membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and a linked University
    of Berlin professorship, enabling him to concentrate exclusively on research.

  • [118] Chaplin visited Einstein at his home on a later trip to Berlin and recalled his “modest little flat” and the piano at which he had begun writing his theory.

  • [38] There is eyewitness evidence and several letters over many years that indicate Marić might have collaborated with Einstein prior to his landmark 1905 papers,[37][39][40]
    known as the Annus Mirabilis papers, and that they developed some of the concepts together during their studies, although some historians of physics who have studied the issue disagree that she made any substantive contributions.

  • [14] Olympia Academy founders: Conrad Habicht, Maurice Solovine and Albert Einstein With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group in 1902,
    self-mockingly named “The Olympia Academy”, which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy.

  • [136] In his speech he described Einstein as a “citizen of the world” who should be offered a temporary shelter in the UK.

  • At the end of December 1894, he traveled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor’s note.

  • [98][99] He also published an essay, “My First Impression of the U.S.A.”, in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some characteristics of Americans, much as had
    Alexis de Tocqueville, who published his own impressions in Democracy in America (1835).

  • At the age of eight, he was transferred to the Luitpold-Gymnasium (now known as the Albert-Einstein-Gymnasium), where he received advanced primary and secondary school education
    until he left the German Empire seven years later.

  • [24] During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title “On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field”.

  • Aided by the Academic Assistance Council, founded in April 1933 by British liberal politician William Beveridge to help academics escape Nazi persecution, Einstein was able
    to leave Germany.

  • In late July 1933, he went to England for about six weeks at the personal invitation of British naval officer Commander Oliver Locker-Lampson, who had become friends with
    Einstein in the preceding years.

  • [120] 1933: Emigration to the US Cartoon of Einstein after shedding his “pacifism” wings (Charles R. Macauley, c. 1933) In February 1933, while on a visit to the United States,
    Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany’s new chancellor, Adolf Hitler.

  • His decision to move to Berlin was also influenced by the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa, with whom he had started a romantic affair.

  • [79][80][81] Also in 1905, which has been called Einstein’s annus mirabilis (amazing year), he published four groundbreaking papers, on the photoelectric effect, Brownian
    motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of 26.

  • British historian Martin Gilbert notes that Churchill responded immediately, and sent his friend, physicist Frederick Lindemann, to Germany to seek out Jewish scientists and
    place them in British universities.

  • [55][91] As World War I broke out that year, the plan for Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics was delayed.

  • Those observations were published in the international media, making Einstein world-famous.

  • [92] In 1916, Einstein was elected president of the German Physical Society (1916–1918).

  • Albert Einstein (/ˈaɪnstaɪn/ EYEN-styne;[6] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist,[7] widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest
    and most influential physicists of all time.

  • [133] Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey’s Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü, to whom he wrote in September 1933 requesting placement of unemployed
    German-Jewish scientists.

  • [123] He and his wife Elsa returned to Europe in March, and during the trip, they learned that the German Reichstag had passed the Enabling Act on 23 March, transforming Hitler’s
    government into a de facto legal dictatorship, and that they would not be able to proceed to Berlin.

  • Einstein was born in the German Empire, but moved to Switzerland in 1895, forsaking his German citizenship (as a subject of the Kingdom of Württemberg)[note 1] the following

  • [124] Historian Gerald Holton describes how, with “virtually no audible protest being raised by their colleagues”, thousands of Jewish scientists were suddenly forced to give
    up their university positions and their names were removed from the rolls of institutions where they were employed.

  • Kant became his favorite philosopher, his tutor stating: “At the time he was still a child, only thirteen years old, yet Kant’s works, incomprehensible to ordinary mortals,
    seemed to be clear to him.

  • In 1917, Einstein became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics; he also became a German citizen again, this time Prussian.

  • In Einstein’s talk to the audience, he expressed happiness that the Jewish people were beginning to be recognized as a force in the world.

  • [9] His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.

  • However, for much of the later part of his career, he worked on two ultimately unsuccessful endeavors.

  • [133] Churchill later observed that as a result of Germany having driven the Jews out, they had lowered their “technical standards” and put the Allies’ technology ahead of

  • On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane in London, where he met several renowned scientific, intellectual, and political
    figures, and delivered a lecture at King’s College London.

  • Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the Kaiser Wilhelm
    Institute for Physics, which was soon to be established.

  • [74] Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems
    that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.

  • [121][122] While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  • In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and a few months later to Pavia.

  • [128] Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany.

  • [34] Einstein’s future wife, a 20-year-old Serbian named Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the polytechnic school that year.

  • [34] In January 1896, with his father’s approval, Einstein renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Württemberg to avoid military service.

  • “[29] His passion for geometry and algebra led the 12-year-old to become convinced that nature could be understood as a “mathematical structure”.

  • Over the next few years, Einstein’s and Marić’s friendship developed into a romance, and they spent countless hours debating and reading books together on extra-curricular
    physics in which they were both interested.

  • [124][127] In a subsequent letter to physicist and friend Max Born, who had already emigrated from Germany to England, Einstein wrote, “…

  • [86] When the “Manifesto of the Ninety-Three” was published in October 1914—a document signed by a host of prominent German intellectuals that justified Germany’s militarism
    and position during the First World War—Einstein was one of the few German intellectuals to rebut its contents and sign the pacifistic “Manifesto to the Europeans”.

  • The couple moved to Berlin in April 1914, but Marić returned to Zürich with their sons after learning that, despite their close relationship before,[37] Einstein’s chief romantic
    attraction was now his cousin Elsa Löwenthal;[47] she was his first cousin maternally and second cousin paternally.

  • [103][104] Because of Einstein’s travels to the Far East, he was unable to personally accept the Nobel Prize for Physics at the Stockholm award ceremony in December 1922.

  • Einstein, of Jewish origin, objected to the policies of the newly elected Nazi government;[18] he settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940.

  • [12] While the general theory of relativity was still considered somewhat controversial, the citation also does not treat even the cited photoelectric work as an explanation
    but merely as a discovery of the law, as the idea of photons was considered outlandish and did not receive universal acceptance until the 1924 derivation of the Planck spectrum by S. N. Bose.

  • [19] On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential German nuclear weapons program and recommending that
    the US begin similar research.

  • [116] Harry Emerson Fosdick, pastor at New York’s Riverside Church, gave Einstein a tour of the church and showed him a full-size statue that the church made of Einstein,
    standing at the entrance.

  • [106] Einstein visited Spain for two weeks in 1923, where he briefly met Santiago Ramón y Cajal and also received a diploma from King Alfonso XIII naming him a member of the
    Spanish Academy of Sciences.

  • [132] Einstein asked them to help bring Jewish scientists out of Germany.

  • In his place, the banquet speech was made by a German diplomat, who praised Einstein not only as a scientist but also as an international peacemaker and activist.

  • [73] In 1903, his position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he “fully mastered machine technology”.

  • Einstein assumed his position with the academy, and Berlin University,[90] after moving into his Dahlem apartment on 1 April 1914.

  • [35] In September 1896 he passed the Swiss Matura with mostly good grades, including a top grade of 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale of 1–6.

  • He was greeted as if he were a head of state, rather than a physicist, which included a cannon salute upon arriving at the home of the British high commissioner, Sir Herbert

  • [117] During an address to Caltech’s students, Einstein noted that science was often inclined to do more harm than good.

  • “[124] One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of the German regime with the phrase, “not yet hanged”, offering a $5,000 bounty on his head.

  • [97] He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University, and in Washington, he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Sciences
    on a visit to the White House.

  • [49][50] As part of the divorce settlement, Einstein agreed to give Marić any future (in the event, 1921) Nobel Prize money.


Works Cited

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• Einstein, Albert (1905a) [Manuscript received: 18 March 1905]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. “Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung
des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt” [On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light] (PDF). Annalen der Physik (in German). Hoboken, New Jersey (published 10 March 2006). 322 (6): 132–148. Bibcode:1905AnP…322..132E.
• Einstein, Albert (1905b) [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July 1905]. Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei. Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen [A new determination of molecular
dimensions] (PDF). Dissertationen Universität Zürich (PhD Thesis) (in German). Zurich, Switzerland: ETH Zürich (published 2008). doi:10.3929/ethz-a-000565688. hdl:20.500.11850/139872 – via ETH Bibliothek.
• Einstein, Albert (1905c) [Manuscript received:
11 May 1905]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. “Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen” [On the Motion – Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – of
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• Einstein, Albert (1905d)
[Manuscript received: 30 June 1905]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper” [On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies]. Annalen der Physik (Submitted manuscript) (in German). Hoboken, New Jersey (published 10 March 2006).
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• Einstein, Albert (1905e) [Manuscript received: 27 September 1905]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. “Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt
abhängig?” [Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?]. Annalen der Physik (in German). Hoboken, New Jersey (published 10 March 2006). 323 (13): 639–641. Bibcode:1905AnP…323..639E. doi:10.1002/andp.19053231314.
• Einstein, Albert
(1915) [Published 25 November 1915]. “Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation” [The Field Equations of Gravitation] (Online page images). Sitzungsberichte 1915 (in German). Berlin, Germany: Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847 –
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Albert (1917a). “Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie” [Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity] (Online page images). Sitzungsberichte 1917 (in German). Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften,
• Einstein, Albert (1917b). “Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung” [On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation]. Physikalische Zeitschrift (in German). 18: 121–128. Bibcode:1917PhyZ…18..121E.
• Einstein, Albert (31 January 1918). “Über Gravitationswellen”
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• Einstein, Albert (1923) [First published 1923, in English 1967]. Written
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• Einstein, Albert (12 March 1926) [Cover Date 1 March 1926]. Written at Berlin. “Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flußläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen
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• Einstein, Albert
(1926b). Written at Berne, Switzerland. Fürth, R. (ed.). Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement (PDF). Translated by Cowper, A. D. US: Dover Publications (published 1956). ISBN 978-1-60796-285-4. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
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(1950). “On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation”. Scientific American. CLXXXII (4): 13–17. Bibcode:1950SciAm.182d..13E. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0450-13.
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Albert (May 1949). Sweezy, Paul; Huberman, Leo (eds.). “Why Socialism?”. Monthly Review. 1 (1): 9–15. doi:10.14452/MR-001-01-1949-05_3.
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o In the German Empire, citizens were exclusively subjects of one of the 27 Bundesstaaten.
o ^ Einstein’s scores on his Matura certificate: German 5; French 3; Italian 5; History 6;
Geography 4; Algebra 6; Geometry 6; Descriptive Geometry 6; Physics 6; Chemistry 5; Natural History 5; Art Drawing 4; Technical Drawing 4.
Scale: 6 = very good, 5 = good, 4 = sufficient, 3 = insufficient, 2 = poor, 1 = very poor.
o ^ “Their leaders
in Germany have not driven out her cut-throats and her blackguards. She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual…The
man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home. How proud we must be to offer him temporary shelter.”
o ^ In his paper, Einstein wrote: “The introduction of a ‘luminiferous æther’ will be proved to be superfluous
in so far, as according to the conceptions which will be developed, we shall introduce neither a ‘space absolutely at rest’ endowed with special properties, nor shall we associate a velocity-vector with a point in which electro-magnetic processes
take place.”
o ^ For a discussion of the reception of relativity theory around the world, and the different controversies it encountered, see the articles in Glick (1987).
o ^ In September 2008 it was reported that Malcolm McCulloch of Oxford
University was heading a three-year project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity, and that his team had completed a prototype Einstein refrigerator. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and
changing the types of gases used might allow the design’s efficiency to be quadrupled.[274]
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