• In 1910, the Union of South Africa was created as a self-governing dominion, which continued the legislative program: the South Africa Act (1910) enfranchised white people,
    giving them complete political control over all other racial groups while removing the right of black people to sit in parliament;[34] the Native Land Act (1913) prevented blacks, except those in the Cape, from buying land outside “reserves”;[34]
    the Natives in Urban Areas Bill (1918) was designed to force black people into “locations”;[35] the Urban Areas Act (1923) introduced residential segregation and provided cheap labour for industry led by white people; the Colour Bar Act (1926)
    prevented black mine workers from practicing skilled trades; the Native Administration Act (1927) made the British Crown rather than paramount chiefs the supreme head over all African affairs;[36][better source needed] the Native Land and
    Trust Act (1936) complemented the 1913 Native Land Act and, in the same year, the Representation of Natives Act removed previous black voters from the Cape voters’ roll and allowed them to elect three whites to Parliament.

  • [26] In the Cape Colony, which previously had a liberal and multi-racial constitution and a system of Cape Qualified Franchise open to men of all races, the Franchise and
    Ballot Act of 1892 raised the property franchise qualification and added an educational element, disenfranchising a disproportionate number of the Cape’s non-white voters,[27] and the Glen Grey Act of 1894 instigated by the government of Prime
    Minister Cecil Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold.

  • [63] The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 created separate government structures for blacks and whites and was the first piece of legislation to support the government’s plan
    of separate development in the bantustans.

  • A second faction were the “purists”, who believed in “vertical segregation”, in which blacks and whites would be entirely separated, with blacks living in native reserves,
    with separate political and economic structures, which, they believed, would entail severe short-term pain, but would also lead to independence of white South Africa from black labour in the long term.

  • Forced removals [edit] See also: Group Areas Act and Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act, 1991 During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the government implemented
    a policy of “resettlement”, to force people to move to their designated “group areas”.

  • Homeland system Under the homeland system, the government attempted to divide South Africa and South West Africa into a number of separate states, each of which was supposed
    to develop into a separate nation-state for a different ethnic group.

  • [citation needed] Institution Election of 1948[edit] Main article: South African general election, 1948 D. F. Malan, the first apartheid-era prime minister (1948–1954) South
    Africa had allowed social custom and law to govern the consideration of multiracial affairs and of the allocation, in racial terms, of access to economic, social, and political status.

  • [38][39] Post-war, one of the first pieces of segregating legislation enacted by Smuts’ government was the Asiatic Land Tenure Bill (1946), which banned land sales to Indians
    and Indian descendent South Africans.

  • [37][better source needed] The United Party government of Jan Smuts began to move away from the rigid enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II, but faced growing
    opposition from Afrikaner nationalists who wanted stricter segregation.

  • This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived according to race.

  • [24] Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman-Dutch law,[25] and this
    led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy.

  • [90] The South African government attempted to draw an equivalence between their view of black citizens of the homelands and the problems which other countries faced through
    entry of illegal immigrants.

  • Black political organizations and leaders such as Alfred Xuma, James Mpanza, the African National Congress, and the Council of Non-European Trade Unions began demanding political
    rights, land reform, and the right to unionise.

  • The same year, the Native Administration Act 1956 allowed the government to banish blacks.

  • [14] Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to
    appease most activist groups.

  • Nevertheless, internal organisations of many countries, as well as the South African government, lobbied for their recognition.

  • [76] Division among whites[edit] Before South Africa became a republic in 1961, politics among white South Africans was typified by the division between the mainly Afrikaner
    pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican liberal sentiments,[77] with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people.

  • The aim was to ensure a demographic majority of white people within South Africa by having all ten Bantustans achieve full independence.

  • [45] The National Party’s election platform stressed that apartheid would preserve a market for white employment in which nonwhites could not compete.

  • The various South African colonies passed legislation throughout the rest of the 19th century to limit the freedom of unskilled workers, to increase the restrictions on indentured
    workers and to regulate the relations between the races.

  • [8] The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South
    African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.

  • The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the
    rest of the British Empire.

  • Blacks would then be encouraged to create their own political units in land reserved for them.

  • [41] Overcrowding, increasing crime rates, and disillusionment resulted; urban blacks came to support a new generation of leaders influenced by the principles of self-determination
    and popular freedoms enshrined in such statements as the Atlantic Charter.

  • [9] The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural
    lifestyle: “Black”, “White”, “Coloured”, and “Indian”, the last two of which included several sub-classifications.

  • [28] In 1896 the South African Republic brought in two pass laws requiring Africans to carry a badge.

  • The state passed laws that paved the way for “grand apartheid”, which was centred on separating races on a large scale, by compelling people to live in separate places defined
    by race.

  • [86] Under the homelands system, blacks would no longer be citizens of South Africa, becoming citizens of the independent homelands who worked in South Africa as foreign migrant
    labourers on temporary work permits.

  • NP leaders argued that South Africa did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: white, black, Coloured and Indian.

  • [63] After the Defiance Campaign, the government used the act for the mass arrests and banning of leaders of dissent groups such as the African National Congress (ANC), the
    South African Indian Congress (SAIC), and the South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU).

  • The government justified its plans on the ostensible basis that “(the) government’s policy is, therefore, not a policy of discrimination on the grounds of race or colour,
    but a policy of differentiation on the ground of nationhood, of different nations, granting to each self-determination within the borders of their homelands – hence this policy of separate development”.

  • Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent voting illustrated only a minor swell of support,[83] indicating that a great many English speakers remained
    apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the white population.

  • Segregation had thus far been pursued only in major matters, such as separate schools, and local society rather than law had been depended upon to enforce most separation;
    it should now be extended to everything.

  • [41] The commission’s goal was to completely remove blacks from areas designated for whites, including cities, with the exception of temporary migrant labor.

  • [44] Afrikaner nationalists proclaimed that they offered the voters a new policy to ensure continued white domination.

  • [9] The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans.

  • This strategy was in part adopted from “left-over” British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war.

  • [9] Racial discrimination and inequality against blacks in South Africa dates to the beginning of large-scale European colonization of South Africa with the Dutch East India
    Company’s establishment of a trading post in the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, which eventually expanded into the Dutch Cape Colony.

  • However, this escalated rate of black urbanisation went unrecognised by the South African government, which failed to accommodate the influx with parallel expansion in housing
    or social services.

  • Amid fears integration would eventually lead to racial assimilation, the Opposition Herenigde Nasionale Party (HNP) established the Sauer Commission to investigate the effects
    of the United Party’s policies.

  • [15] Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement,
    for ending segregation and introducing majority rule.

  • [43] Smuts, as a strong advocate of the United Nations, lost domestic support when South Africa was criticised for its colour bar and the continued mandate of South West Africa
    by other UN member states.

  • In 1958 the Promotion of Black Self-Government Act was passed, and border industries and the Bantu Investment Corporation were established to promote economic development
    and the provision of employment in or near the homelands.

  • [11] Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black population to ten designated “tribal homelands”, also known as bantustans, four of which became nominally
    independent states.

  • The “baasskap” (white domination or supremacist) faction, which was the dominant faction in the NP, and state institutions, favoured systematic segregation, but also favoured
    the participation of black Africans in the economy with black labour controlled to advance the economic gains of Afrikaners.

  • The commission concluded that integration would bring about a “loss of personality” for all racial groups.

  • [30] In 1905 the General Pass Regulations Act denied blacks the vote and limited them to fixed areas,[31] and in 1906 the Asiatic Registration Act of the Transvaal Colony
    required all Indians to register and carry passes.

  • [64] The Promotion of Black Self-Government Act of 1959 entrenched the NP policy of nominally independent “homelands” for blacks.

  • For example, upon the foundation of Transkei, the Swiss-South African Association encouraged the Swiss government to recognise the new state.

  • Until 1956 women were for the most part excluded from these pass requirements, as attempts to introduce pass laws for women were met with fierce resistance.

  • [23] This was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from
    their master or a local official.

  • Legislation of 1967 allowed the government to stop industrial development in “white” cities and redirect such development to the “homelands”.

  • [54] Official teams or boards were established to come to a conclusion on those people whose race was unclear.

  • [4] According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Indians and Coloureds, then black Africans.

  • The vision of a South Africa divided into multiple ethnostates appealed to the reform-minded Afrikaner intelligentsia, and it provided a more coherent philosophical and moral
    framework for the National Party’s policies, while also providing a veneer of intellectual respectability to the controversial policy of so-called baasskap.

  • [65] Disenfranchisement of Coloured voters[edit] Main article: Coloured vote constitutional crisis Cape Coloured children in Bonteheuwel Annual per capita personal income
    by race group in South Africa relative to white levels.

  • The Tomlinson Commission of 1954 justified apartheid and the homeland system, but stated that additional land ought to be given to the homelands, a recommendation that was
    not carried out.

  • [9] Between 1960 and 1983, 3.5 million black Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods as a result of apartheid legislation, in some
    of the largest mass evictions in modern history.

  • [91] Each TBVC state extended recognition to the other independent Bantustans while South Africa showed its commitment to the notion of TBVC sovereignty by building embassies
    in the TBVC capitals.

  • Citizens of the nominally autonomous homelands also had their South African citizenship circumscribed, meaning they were no longer legally considered South African.

  • It changed the status of blacks to citizens of one of the ten autonomous territories.

  • [59] The Native Laws Amendment Act, 1952 centralised and tightened pass laws so that blacks could not stay in urban areas longer than 72 hours without a permit.

  • Since the law specifically stated that Communism aimed to disrupt racial harmony, it was frequently used to gag opposition to apartheid.

  • On the issues of black urbanisation, the regulation of nonwhite labour, influx control, social security, farm tariffs and nonwhite taxation, the United Party’s policy remained
    contradictory and confused.

  • [5][6][7][better source needed] Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and
    grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race.

  • [42] Whites reacted negatively to the changes, allowing the Herenigde Nasionale Party (or simply the National Party) to convince a large segment of the voting bloc that the
    impotence of the United Party in curtailing the evolving position of nonwhites indicated that the organisation had fallen under the influence of Western liberals.

  • [79] Later, some of them recognised the perceived need for white unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonisation elsewhere in Africa, which concerned them.


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