Later, the Romans, who saw Venus as a mother goddess, seized on this idea of Eros as Aphrodite’s son and popularized it, making it the predominant portrayal in
works on mythology until the present day.
 In his Theogony, Hesiod describes Eros as one of the four original primeval forces born at the beginning of time, but, after the birth of Aphrodite from the sea
foam, he is joined by Himeros and, together, they become Aphrodite’s constant companions.
 Origins Near Eastern love goddess Late second-millennium BC nude figurine of Ishtar from Susa, showing her wearing a crown and clutching her breasts Early fifth-century
BC statue of Aphrodite from Cyprus, showing her wearing a cylinder crown and holding a dove The cult of Aphrodite in Greece was imported from, or at least influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia, which, in turn, was
influenced by the cult of the Mesopotamian goddess known as “Ishtar” to the East Semitic peoples and as “Inanna” to the Sumerians.
 Attendants Satala Aphrodite, discovered in Satala, Armenia Minor (present-day Gümüşhane Province, Turkey) in 1873, British Museum Aphrodite is almost always
accompanied by Eros, the god of lust and sexual desire.
 Divine favoritism Pygmalion and Galatea (1717) by Jean Raoux, showing Aphrodite bringing the statue to life In Hesiod’s Works and Days, Zeus orders Aphrodite to make
Pandora, the first woman, physically beautiful and sexually attractive, so that she may become “an evil men will love to embrace”.
 In modern times, Eros is often seen as Aphrodite’s son, but this is actually a comparatively late innovation.
 In different versions of the story, the boar was either sent by Ares, who was jealous that Aphrodite was spending so much time with Adonis, or by Artemis, who wanted
revenge against Aphrodite for having killed her devoted follower Hippolytus.
Hesiod’s account of Aphrodite’s birth following Uranus’s castration is probably derived from The Song of Kumarbi, an ancient Hittite epic poem in which the god Kumarbi
overthrows his father Anu, the god of the sky, and bites off his genitals, causing him to become pregnant and give birth to Anu’s children, which include Ishtar and her brother Teshub, the Hittite storm god.
Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad.
 Anchises Venus and Anchises (1889 or 1890) by William Blake Richmond Main article: Anchises The First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite (Hymn 5), which was probably composed
sometime in the mid-seventh century BC, describes how Zeus once became annoyed with Aphrodite for causing deities to fall in love with mortals, so he caused her to fall in love with Anchises, a handsome mortal shepherd who lived
in the foothills beneath Mount Ida near the city of Troy.
 The fertility god Priapus was usually considered to be Aphrodite’s son by Dionysus, but he was sometimes also described as her son by Hermes, Adonis, or even
 Modern scholars note that Aphrodite’s warrior-goddess aspects appear in the oldest strata of her worship and see it as an indication of her Near Eastern
 Mythology Birth Birth of Venus from a shell, c. 50–79 AD, fresco from Pompeii Early fourth-century BC Attic pottery vessel in the shape of Aphrodite inside a shell from
the Phanagoria cemetery in the Taman Peninsula Petra tou Romiou (“The rock of the Greek”), Aphrodite’s legendary birthplace in Paphos, Cyprus Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island
of Cyprus, which is why she is sometimes called “Cyprian”, especially in the poetic works of Sappho.
In the most famous story, Zeus hastily married Aphrodite to Hephaestus in order to prevent the other gods from fighting over her.
 Another common name for Aphrodite was Pandemos (“For All the Folk”).
 Another key similarity between Aphrodite and the Indo-European dawn goddess is her close kinship to the Greek sky deity, since both of the main claimants to her
paternity (Zeus and Uranus) are sky deities.
 Pausanias also records that, in Sparta and on Cythera, a number of extremely ancient cult statues of Aphrodite portrayed her bearing arms.
 She claims to be able to understand the Trojan language because she had a Trojan nurse as a child and says that she found herself on the mountainside after she was snatched
up by Hermes while dancing in a celebration in honor of Artemis, the goddess of virginity.
Plato, in his Symposium, asserts that these two origins actually belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania (a transcendent, “Heavenly” Aphrodite) and Aphrodite Pandemos
(Aphrodite common to “all the people”).
She was also the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of “sacred prostitution” in Greco-Roman culture, an idea which
is now generally seen as erroneous.
 Adonis Attic red-figure aryballos by Aison (c. 410 BC) showing Aphrodite consorting with Adonis, who is seated and playing the lyre, while Eros stands behind him
Fragment of an Attic red-figure wedding vase (c. 430–420 BC), showing women climbing ladders up to the roofs of their houses carrying “gardens of Adonis” Main article: Adonis The myth of Aphrodite and Adonis is probably derived from the ancient
Sumerian legend of Inanna and Dumuzid.
 The Charites had been worshipped as goddesses in Greece since the beginning of Greek history, long before Aphrodite was introduced to the pantheon.
 In Book Eight of the Odyssey, however, the blind singer Demodocus describes Aphrodite as the wife of Hephaestus and tells how she committed adultery with Ares during
the Trojan War.
 In another version of the myth, Hephaestus gave his mother Hera a golden throne, but when she sat on it, she became trapped and he refused to let her go until she agreed
to give him Aphrodite’s hand in marriage.
 Most scholars reject this etymology as implausible, especially since Aphrodite actually appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru (from Greek Aphrō,
clipped form of Aphrodite).
Aphrodite Pandemos, by contrast, is the younger of the two goddesses: the common Aphrodite, born from the union of Zeus and Dione, and the inspiration of heterosexual desire
and sexual promiscuity, the “lesser” of the two loves.
 Appearances of Aphrodite in Greek literature also vastly proliferated, usually showing Aphrodite in a characteristically Roman manner.
 In a semi-mocking work, the Dialogues of the Gods, the satirical author Lucian comedically relates how a frustrated Aphrodite complains to the moon goddess Selene about
her son Eros making Persephone fall in love with Adonis and now she has to share him with her.
 Scholars in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries believed that the cult of Aphrodite may have involved ritual prostitution, an assumption based on ambiguous
passages in certain ancient texts, particularly a fragment of a skolion by the Boeotian poet Pindar, which mentions prostitutes in Corinth in association with Aphrodite.
 During the Roman era, the cults of Aphrodite in many Greek cities began to emphasize her relationship with Troy and Aeneas.
 In her role as Aphrodite Pandemos, Aphrodite was associated with Peithō, meaning “persuasion”, and could be prayed to for aid in seduction.
 Because Aphrodite was the mother of the Trojan hero Aeneas in Greek mythology and Roman tradition claimed Aeneas as the founder of Rome, Venus became venerated
as Venus Genetrix, the mother of the entire Roman nation.
 Aphrodite had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult.
 Statuettes of Aphrodite for personal devotion became common in Egypt starting in the early Ptolemaic times and extending until long after Egypt became a Roman province.
 Most modern scholars have now rejected the notion of a purely Indo-European Aphrodite, but it is possible that Aphrodite, originally a Semitic deity,
may have been influenced by the Indo-European dawn goddess.
Aphrodite was frequently unfaithful to him and had many lovers; in the Odyssey, she is caught in the act of adultery with Ares, the god of war.
Thus she was also known as Cytherea (Lady of Cythera) and Cypris (Lady of Cyprus), because both locations claimed to be the place of her birth.
 A male version of Aphrodite known as Aphroditus was worshipped in the city of Amathus on Cyprus.
 Early modern scholars of classical mythology attempted to argue that Aphrodite’s name was of Greek or Indo-European origin, but these efforts have now been mostly abandoned.
 Marriage First-century AD Roman fresco of Mars and Venus from Pompeii Aphrodite is consistently portrayed as a nubile, infinitely desirable adult, having had no childhood.
 Indo-European dawn goddess Some early comparative mythologists opposed to the idea of a Near Eastern origin argued that Aphrodite originated as an aspect of the Greek
dawn goddess Eos and that she was therefore ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess *Haéusōs (properly Greek Eos, Latin Aurora, Sanskrit Ushas).
 He also mentions that Aphrodite’s most ancient cult statues in Sparta and on Cythera showed her bearing arms.
 Aphrodite lies and tells him that she is not a goddess, but the daughter of one of the noble families of Phrygia.
 According to the Roman historian Livy, Aphrodite and Venus were officially identified in the third century BC when the cult of Venus Erycina was introduced to Rome
from the Greek sanctuary of Aphrodite on Mount Eryx in Sicily.
 Aphrodite appears to Anchises in the form of a tall, beautiful, mortal virgin while he is alone in his home.
 The earliest known Greek reference to Adonis comes from a fragment of a poem by the Lesbian poet Sappho (c. 630 – c. 570 BC), in which a chorus of young girls asks
Aphrodite what they can do to mourn Adonis’s death.
 The character of Pausanias in Plato’s Symposium, takes differing cult-practices associated with different epithets of the goddess to claim that Ourania and Pandemos are,
in fact, separate goddesses.
 Furthermore, she was known as Ourania, which means “heavenly”, a title corresponding to Inanna’s role as the Queen of Heaven.
 In the Iliad, Aphrodite is the apparently unmarried consort of Ares, the god of war, and the wife of Hephaestus is a different goddess named Charis.
 Later stories were invented to explain Aphrodite’s marriage to Hephaestus.
 Hephaestus was overjoyed to be married to the goddess of beauty, and forged her beautiful jewelry, including a strophion known as the kestos himas, a saltire-shaped
undergarment (usually translated as “girdle”), which accentuated her breasts and made her even more irresistible to men.
 Like Inanna-Ishtar, Aphrodite was also a warrior goddess; the second-century AD Greek geographer Pausanias records that, in Sparta, Aphrodite was worshipped
as Aphrodite Areia, which means “warlike”.
 A scholion on Theocritus’s Idylls remarks that the sixth-century BC poet Sappho had described Eros as the son of Aphrodite and Uranus, but the first surviving reference
to Eros as Aphrodite’s son comes from Apollonius of Rhodes’s Argonautica, written in the third century BC, which makes him the son of Aphrodite and Ares.
 Nineteenth century classical scholars had a general aversion to the idea that ancient Greek religion was at all influenced by the cultures of the Near East, but,
even Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, who argued that Near Eastern influence on Greek culture was largely confined to material culture, admitted that Aphrodite was clearly of Phoenician origin.
 The significant influence of Near Eastern culture on early Greek religion in general, and on the cult of Aphrodite in particular, is now widely recognized as dating
to a period of orientalization during the eighth century BC, when archaic Greece was on the fringes of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
 Other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, “Cytherea”.
 Across the Greek world, she was known under epithets such as Melainis “Black One”, Skotia “Dark One”, Androphonos “Killer of Men”, Anosia “Unholy”, and Tymborychos “Gravedigger”,
all of which indicate her darker, more violent nature.
 Monica Cyrino notes that the epithet may relate to the fact that, in many artistic depictions of Aphrodite, she is shown smiling.
 After exposing them, Hephaestus asks Zeus for his wedding gifts and dowry to be returned to him; by the time of the Trojan War, he is married to Charis/Aglaea,
one of the Graces, apparently divorced from Aphrodite.
 In a much later interpolated detail, Ares put the young soldier Alectryon, by their door to warn them of Helios’s arrival as Helios would tell Hephaestus of Aphrodite’s
infidelity if the two were discovered, but Alectryon fell asleep on guard duty.
Aphrodite has been featured in Western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of Western literature.
 Zeus settled the dispute by decreeing that Adonis would spend one third of the year with Aphrodite, one third with Persephone, and one third with whomever he chose.
One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a female demon that appears in Middle Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts.
 In another version, Apollo in fury changed himself into a boar and killed Adonis because Aphrodite had blinded his son Erymanthus when he stumbled upon Aphrodite naked
as she was bathing after intercourse with Adonis.
 Persephone wanted to keep Adonis, resulting in a custody battle between the two goddesses over whom should rightly possess Adonis.
 Hesiod states that the genitals “were carried over the sea a long time, and white foam arose from the immortal flesh; with it a girl grew.”
 Aphrodite’s other set of attendants was the three Horae (the “Hours”), whom Hesiod identifies as the daughters of Zeus and Themis and names as Eunomia (“Good Order”),
Dike (“Justice”), and Eirene (“Peace”).
 Eventually, the popularity of Aphroditus waned as the mainstream, fully feminine version of Aphrodite became more popular, but traces of his cult are preserved in
the later legends of Hermaphroditus.
A representation of Ourania with her foot resting on a tortoise came to be seen as emblematic of discretion in conjugal love; it was the subject of a chryselephantine sculpture
by Phidias for Elis, known only from a parenthetical comment by the geographer Pausanias.
[‘Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Napoli). “so-called Venus in a bikini.” Cir.campania.beniculturali.it.
The statuette portrays Aphrodite on the point of untying the laces of the sandal on her left foot, under which a small Eros squats, touching the sole
of her shoe with his right hand. The Goddess is leaning with her left arm (the hand is missing) against a figure of Priapus standing, naked and bearded, positioned on a small cylindrical altar while, next to her left thigh, there is a tree trunk over
which the garment of the Goddess is folded. Aphrodite, almost completely naked, wears only a sort of costume, consisting of a corset held up by two pairs of straps and two short sleeves on the upper part of her arm, from which a long chain leads to
her hips and forms a star-shaped motif at the level of her navel. The ‘bikini’, for which the statuette is famous, is obtained by the masterly use of the technique of gilding, also employed on her groin, in the pendant necklace and in the armilla
on Aphrodite’s right wrist, as well as on Priapus’ phallus. Traces of the red paint are evident on the tree trunk, on the short curly hair gathered back in a bun and on the lips of the Goddess, as well as on the heads of Priapus and the Eros. Aphrodite’s
eyes are made of glass paste, while the presence of holes at the level of the ear-lobes suggest the existence of precious metal ear-rings which have since been lost. An interesting insight into the female ornaments of Roman times, the statuette, probably
imported from the area of Alexandria, reproduces with a few modifications the statuary type of Aphrodite untying her sandal, known from copies in bronze and terracotta.
For extensive research and a bibliography on the subject, see: de Franciscis
1963, p. 78, tav. XCI; Kraus 1973, nn. 270–71, pp. 194–95; Pompei 1973, n. 132; Pompeji 1973, n. 199, pp. 142 e 144; Pompeji 1974, n. 281, pp. 148–49; Pompeii A.D. 79 1976, p. 83 e n. 218; Pompeii A.D. 79 1978, I, n. 208, pp. 64–65, II, n. 208, p.
189; Döhl, Zanker 1979, p. 202, tav. Va; Pompeii A.D. 79 1980, p. 79 e n. 198; Pompeya 1981, n. 198, p. 107; Pompeii lives 1984, fig. 10, p. 46; Collezioni Museo 1989, I, 2, n. 254, pp. 146–47; PPM II, 1990, n. 7, p. 532; Armitt 1993, p. 240; Vésuve
1995, n. 53, pp. 162–63; Vulkan 1995, n. 53, pp. 162–63; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 210, s.v. Venus, n. 182; LIMC VIII, 2, 1997, p. 144; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 1031, s.v. Priapos, n. 15; LIMC VIII, 2, 1997, p. 680; Romana Pictura 1998, n. 153, p. 317
e tav. a p. 245; Cantarella 1999, p. 128; De Caro 1999, pp. 100–01; De Caro 2000, p. 46 e tav. a p. 62; Pompeii 2000, n. 1, p. 62.
2. ^ Anteros was originally born from the sea alongside Aphrodite; only later became her son.
3. Homer, Iliad 5.370.
Hesiod, Theogony, 188–90.
5. ^ This claim is made at Symposium 180e. It is hard to interpret the role of the various speeches in the dialogue and their relationship to what Plato actually thought; therefore, it is controversial whether Plato, in
fact, believed this claim about Aphrodite. See Frisbee Sheffield, “The Role of the Earlier Speeches in the “Symposium”: Plato’s Endoxic Method?” in J. H. Lesher, Debra Nails & Frisbee C. C. Sheffield (eds.), Plato’s Symposium: Issues in Interpretation
and Reception. Harvard University Press (2006).
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Cyrino 2010, p. 14.
7. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 190–97.
8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d West 2000, pp. 134–38.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Beekes 2009, p. 179.
10. ^ Paul
Kretschmer, “Zum pamphylischen Dialekt”, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiet der Indogermanischen Sprachen 33 (1895): 267.
11. ^ Ernst Maaß, “Aphrodite und die hl. Pelagia”, Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum 27
12. ^ Vittore Pisani, “Akmon e Dieus”, Archivio glottologico italiano 24 (1930): 65–73.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b Janda 2005, pp. 349–60.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Janda 2010, p. 65.
15. ^ Witczak 1993, pp. 115–23.
16. ^ Kölligan,
Daniel (2007). “Aphrodite of the Dawn: Indo-European Heritage in Greek Divine Epithets and Theonyms”. Letras Clássicas. 11 (11): 105–34. doi:10.11606/issn.2358-3150.v0i11p105-134.
17. ^ Penglase 1994, p. 164.
18. ^ Jump up to:a b Boedeker 1974,
19. ^ Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 111.
20. ^ M. Hammarström, “Griechisch-etruskische Wortgleichungen”, Glotta: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache 11 (1921): 215–16.
21. ^ Jump up to:a b c Frisk 1960, p.
22. ^ Jump up to:a b West 2000, p. 134.
23. ^ Etymologicum Magnum, Ἀφροδίτη.
24. ^ Breitenberger 2007, pp. 8–12.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 49–52.
26. ^ Jump up to:a b Puhvel 1987, p. 27.
27. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcovich
1996, pp. 43–59.
28. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 152–53.
29. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, I. XIV.7
30. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Breitenberger 2007, p. 8.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b Breitenberger 2007, pp. 10–11.
32. ^ Penglase 1994, p. 162.
Penglase 1994, p. 163.
34. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Cyrino 2010, pp. 51–52.
35. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Budin 2010, pp. 85–86, 96, 100, 102–03, 112, 123, 125.
36. ^ Jump up to:a b Graz 1984, p. 250.
37. ^ Jump up to:a b Iossif & Lorber 2007,
38. ^ Penglase 1994, pp. 162–63.
39. ^ Jump up to:a b c Konaris 2016, p. 169.
40. ^ Jump up to:a b Burkert 1998, pp. 1–6.
41. ^ Burkert 1998, pp. 1–41.
42. ^ Jump up to:a b Dumézil 1934.
43. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Cyrino 2010, p.
44. ^ Penglase 1994, pp. 162–64.
45. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 24–25.
46. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 25.
47. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Bullough & Bullough 1993, p. 29.
48. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Clark 2015, p. 381.
49. ^ Jump up
to:a b c d Kerényi 1951, p. 81.
50. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 28.
51. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 80.
52. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 28–29.
53. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 35.
54. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 35–38.
55. ^ Plato, Symposium
56. ^ Richard L. Hunter, Plato’s Symposium, Oxford University Press: 2004, pp. 44–47
57. ^ “Suda, π, 825”.
58. ^ Pausanias, Periegesis vi.25.1; Aphrodite Pandemos was represented in the same temple riding on a goat, symbol of purely
carnal rut: “The meaning of the tortoise and of the he-goat I leave to those who care to guess,” Pausanias remarks. The image was taken up again after the Renaissance: see Andrea Alciato, Emblemata / Les emblemes (1584).
59. ^ Jump up to:a b c d
Cyrino 2010, p. 39.
60. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 39–40.
61. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 27.
62. ^ Lewis Richard Farnell (1896). The Cults of the Greek States. Clarendon Press. p. 666.
63. ^ Jump up to:a b Koloski-Ostrow & Lyons
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64. ^ Rosenzweig 2004, pp. 15–16.
65. ^ Simon 1983, pp. 49–50.
66. ^ Jump up to:a b Simon 1983, p. 48.
67. ^ Simon 1983, pp. 48–49.
68. ^ Simon 1983, pp. 47–48.
69. ^ Simon 1983, p. 49.
70. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 40.
Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 40–41.
72. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Cyrino 2010, pp. 41–42.
73. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marcovich 1996, p. 49.
74. ^ Black & Green 1992, p. 109.
75. ^ Jump up to:a b Burkert 1985, p. 153.
76. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino
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77. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 43.
78. ^ Witt 1997, p. 125.
79. ^ Dunand 2007, p. 258.
80. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
81. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Dunand 2007, p. 257.
Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 127–28.
83. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Cyrino 2010, p. 128.
84. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 128–29.
85. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Cyrino 2010, p. 130.
86. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 130–31.
87. ^  Archived 11
May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
88. ^ Homer, Odyssey viii. 288; Herodotus i. 105; Pausanias iii. 23. § 1; Anacreon v. 9; Horace, Carmina i. 4. 5.
89. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 21.
90. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 20–21.
91. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 191–192.
Jump up to:a b c Kerényi 1951, p. 69.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b Graves 1960, p. 37.
94. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 13–14.
95. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 29.
96. ^ Jump up to:a b Puhvel 1987, p. 25.
97. ^ Homer, Iliad 5.370 and xx. 105
98. ^ Cyrino
2010, pp. 14–15.
99. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.3
100. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 53–61.
101. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 73–78.
102. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 50, 72.
103. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Cyrino 2010, p. 72.
104. ^ Jump up to:a b Kerényi 1951, p. 279.
Jump up to:a b c Kerényi 1951, p. 72.
106. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 72–73.
107. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 73–74.
108. ^ Jump up to:a b Kerényi 1951, p. 74.
109. ^ Anderson 2000, pp. 131–32.
110. ^ Gallagher, David (2009-01-01). Avian and Serpentine.
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111. ^ Lucian, Gallus 3, see also scholiast on Aristophanes, Birds 835; Eustathius, Ad Odysseam 1.300; Ausonius, 26.2.27; Libanius, Progymnasmata 2.26.
112. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.267 ff
113. ^ Homer, Iliad
114. ^ Hard, p. 202
115. ^ Stuttard 2016, p. 86.
116. ^ Slater 1968, pp. 199–200.
117. ^ Bonner 1949, p. 1.
118. ^ Jump up to:a b c Bonner 1949, pp. 1–6.
119. ^ Bonner 1949, pp. 1–2.
120. ^ “The Satala Aphrodite”. British Museum.
Archived from the original on 11 April 2020.
121. ^ Nersessian, Vrej (2001). “Bronze Head of Aphrodite/Anahit”. Treasures from the Ark: 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Art. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. pp. 114–115. ISBN 9780892366392.
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123. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 44–45.
124. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 45.
125. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 45–46.
126. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 47.
127. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 47–48.
128. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 48.
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130. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 71–72.
131. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 72–73.
132. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 73.
133. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 176.
134. ^ Powell 2012, p. 214.
Kerényi 1951, p. 283.
136. ^ Jump up to:a b “Priapus.” Suda On Line. Tr. Ross Scaife. 10 August 2014. Entry.
137. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 89.
138. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 90.
139. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 90–91.
140. ^ Jump up to:a b c d
e f Cyrino 2010, p. 91.
141. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 92.
142. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 92–93.
143. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 93.
144. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 1008–10; Homer, Iliad 2.819–21.
145. ^ West 1997, p. 57.
Kerényi 1951, p. 67.
147. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Cyrino 2010, p. 97.
148. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 176–77.
149. ^ Jump up to:a b West 1997, pp. 530–31.
150. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 95.
151. ^ Jump up to:a b Kerényi 1951, p. 75.
152. ^ Jump up to:a
b Kerényi 1951, pp. 75–76.
153. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Kerényi 1951, p. 76.
154. ^ Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods Aphrodite and the Moon
155. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Cyrino 2010, p. 96.
156. ^ Cameron 2004, p. 152: Some translations erroneously
add Apollo as one of the men Aphrodite had sex with before Erymanthus saw her.
157. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 97–98.
158. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 98.
159. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 81.
160. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 80.
161. ^ Cyrino 2010,
162. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 82–83.
163. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Ruck & Staples 2001, pp. 64–70.
164. ^ Jump up to:a b McKinley 2001, p. 43.
165. ^ Jump up to:a b Wasson 1968, p. 128.
166. ^ Jump up to:a b McKinley 2001, pp. 43–44.
Jump up to:a b Clark 2015, pp. 90–91.
168. ^ Clement, Exhortation to the Greeks, 4
169. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Clark 2015, p. 91.
170. ^ Powell 2012, p. 215.
171. ^ Powell 2012, pp. 215–17.
172. ^ Jump up to:a b c Powell 2012, p. 217.
174. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 98–103.
175. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 98–99.
176. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Cyrino 2010, p. 99.
177. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 100.
178. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 100–01.
179. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 101.
Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 102.
181. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 102–03.
182. ^ Vergil, Georgics 3.266–88, with Servius’s note to line 268; Hand, The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, pp. 432, 663.
183. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 250.3, 273.11; Pausanias,
Guide to Greece 6.20.19
184. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 21
185. ^ Apollodorus, 1.4.4.
186. ^ “Ovid’s Metamorphoses, book 10, English Translation”.
187. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.55.4–7
188. ^ Parthenius, Erotica
189. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 10.298–518
190. ^ Hansen 2004, pp. 289–90.
191. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, 3.14.3; 3.9.1 for Laodice.
192. ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.3.3.
193. ^ Scholia on Iliad 5.411
194. ^ Jump up to:a b Tzetzes
on Lycophron 610.
195. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 14.476
196. ^ “APHRODITE MYTHS 7 WRATH – Greek Mythology”.
197. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 40
198. ^ Seneca, Phaedra 124
199. ^ Scholia on Euripides’ Hippolytus 47.
200. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.192–270;
Hard, p. 45
201. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 14
202. ^ Hyginus, Astronomica 2.7.4
203. ^ Jump up to:a b Walcot 1977, p. 31.
204. ^ Jump up to:a b Walcot 1977, pp. 31–32.
205. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Walcot 1977, p. 32.
206. ^ Jump
up to:a b Bull 2005, pp. 346–47.
207. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Walcot 1977, pp. 32–33.
208. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 85.
209. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 85–86.
210. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 35–36, 86–87.
211. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 36, 86–87.
212. ^ Cyrino 2010, p.
213. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 87–88.
214. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 88.
215. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 49.
216. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 49–50.
217. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Cyrino 2010, p. 50.
218. ^ Burkert 2005, p. 300.
219. ^ Burkert
2005, pp. 299–300.
220. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 36.
221. ^ Homer, Iliad 21.416–17.
222. ^ Bremmer, Jan N. (1996). “mythology”. In Hornblower & Spawforth (ed.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1018–1020.
223. ^ Reeve, Michael D. (1996). “scholia”. In Hornblower & Spawforth (ed.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 1368. ISBN 019866172X.
224. ^ Smith, William (1861). Dictionary of Greek
and Roman biography and mythology. Walton and Maberly. p. 168.
225. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Kerényi 1951, p. 71.
226. ^ Eros is usually mentioned as the son of Aphrodite but in other versions he is a parentless primordial.
227. ^ Diodorus Siculus,
4.6.5: “… Hermaphroditus, as he has been called, who was born of Hermes and Aphrodite and received a name which is a combination of those of both his parents.”
228. ^ Pindar, Olympian 7.14 makes her the daughter of Aphrodite, but does not mention
any father. Herodorus, fr. 62 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 253), apud schol. Pindar Olympian 7.24–5; Fowler 2013, p. 591 make her the daughter of Aphrodite and Poseidon.
229. ^ Graves, Robert (1960). The Greek Myths. London: Penguin Books. pp. 70. ISBN
230. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 4.23.2
231. ^ Hesychius of Alexandria s. v. Μελιγουνίς: “Meligounis: this is what the island Lipara was called. Also one of the daughters of Aphrodite.”
232. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.25.
233. ^ Servius on
Aeneid, 1.574, 5.24
234. ^ Apollodorus, 3.14.3.
235. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 986–90; Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.3.1 (using the name “Hemera” for Eos)
236. ^ Gantz 1996, p. 104.
237. ^ West 2008, p. 36.
238. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino
2010, pp. 121–122.
239. ^ Jump up to:a b Lewis & Llewellyn-Jones 2018, p. 335.
240. ^ Jump up to:a b Botterweck & Ringgren 1990, p. 35.
241. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 122.
242. ^ Pepin, Ronald E. (2008). The Vatican Mythographers.
New York City: Fordham University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8232-2892-8.
243. ^ De Gubernatis, Angelo (1872). Zoological Mythology: Or, The Legends of Animals. Vol. 2. Trübner & Company. p. 305.
244. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 120–123.
Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Tinkle 1996, p. 81.
246. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 63, 96.
247. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 64.
248. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 63.
249. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 63–64.
250. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 123–124.
251. ^ Jump up to:a b c
d e f Havelock 2007, p. 86.
252. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 76–77.
253. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 106.
254. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 106–107.
255. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, p. 124.
256. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Grant
1989, p. 224.
257. ^ Grant 1989, p. 225.
258. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 77.
259. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 76.
260. ^ Jump up to:a b Grant 1989, pp. 224–225.
261. ^ Jump up to:a b Palagia & Pollitt 1996, p. 98.
Jump up to:a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 77–78.
263. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Cyrino 2010, p. 78.
264. ^ Taylor 1993, pp. 96–97.
265. ^ Jump up to:a b c Tinkle 1996, p. 80.
266. ^ Link 1995, pp. 43–45.
267. ^ Jump up to:a b Taylor 1993, p. 97.
Jump up to:a b Tinkle 1996, pp. 80–81.
269. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Tinkle 1996, p. 82.
270. ^ Tinkle 1996, pp. 106–08.
271. ^ Tinkle 1996, pp. 107–08.
272. ^ Tinkle 1996, p. 108.
273. ^ Fossi 1998, p. 5.
274. ^ Cunningham & Reich 2009, p.
275. ^ Ames-Lewis 2000, pp. 193–95.
276. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Ames-Lewis 2000, p. 193.
277. ^ Jump up to:a b Tinagli 1997, p. 148.
278. ^ Ames-Lewis 2000, p. 194.
279. ^ Jump up to:a b Bordes 2005, p. 189.
280. ^ Jump up to:a b
Hill 2007, p. 155.
281. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Tinterow 1999, p. 358.
282. ^ McPhee 1986, pp. 66–67.
283. ^ Gay 1998, p. 128.
284. ^ Jump up to:a b c McPhee 1986, p. 66.
285. ^ Gay 1998, p. 129.
286. ^ Jump up to:a b c Smith 1996, pp.
287. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1996, p. 146.
288. ^ Lákta 2017, pp. 56–58.
289. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 131.
290. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Lákta 2017, p. 58.
291. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Hiscock 2017, p. unpaginated.
292. ^ Clark 2015, pp.
293. ^ Clark 2015, p. 355.
294. ^ Clark 2015, p. 364.
295. ^ Jump up to:a b Clark 2015, pp. 361–62.
296. ^ Clark 2015, p. 363.
297. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 363–64.
298. ^ Jump up to:a b c Brooks & Alden 1980, pp. 836–44.
299. ^ Jump
up to:a b Clark 2015, p. 369.
300. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 369–71.
301. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 372–74.
302. ^ Jump up to:a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 134–35.
303. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 135.
304. ^ Clifton 2006, p. 139.
305. ^ Pizza & Lewis 2009, pp. 327–28.
Jump up to:a b c d e Clifton 2006, p. 141.
307. ^ Jump up to:a b Gallagher 2005, pp. 109–10.
308. ^ Jump up to:a b Sabin 2010, p. 125.
309. ^ Sabin 2010, pp. 3–4.
310. ^ Gallagher 2005, p. 110.
311. ^ Sabin 2010, p. 124.
312. ^ World,
Matthew Brunwasser PRI’s The; Olympus, Mount (20 June 2013). “The Greeks who worship the ancient gods”. BBC News.
313. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Alexander 2007, p. 23.
314. ^ Alexander 2007, p. 9.
315. ^ Alexander 2007, pp. 22–23.
316. ^ This
chart is based upon Hesiod’s Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
317. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
318. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929,
Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
319. ^ According to Hesiod’s Theogony 886–890, of Zeus’ children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis
then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena “from his head”, see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
320. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus’ severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
321. ^ According
to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
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d. Evelyn-White, Hugh, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Homeric Hymns. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard
University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914.
e. Pindar, Odes, Diane Arnson Svarlien. 1990. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
f. Euripides, The Complete Greek Drama’, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O’Neill, Jr. in
two volumes. 2. The Phoenissae, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. 1938.
g. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica translated by Robert Cooper Seaton (1853–1915), R. C. Loeb Classical Library Volume 001. London, William Heinemann Ltd,
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