• [52] Vomiting can follow ayahuasca ingestion; this is considered by many shamans and experienced users of ayahuasca to be a purging and an essential part of the experience,
    representing the release of negative energy and emotions built up over the course of one’s life.

  • [89] In France, Santo Daime won a court case allowing them to use the tea in early 2005; however, they were not allowed an exception for religious purposes, but rather for
    the simple reason that they did not perform chemical extractions to end up with pure DMT and harmala and the plants used were not scheduled.

  • [3] However, at least in Iquitos, Peru (a center of ayahuasca ceremonies), those from the area describe the experiences more in terms of the actions in the body and understand
    the visions as reflections of their environment, sometimes including the person who they believe caused their illness, as well as interactions with spirits.

  • Similarly, the US and Europe have started to see new religious groups develop in relation to increased ayahuasca use.

  • [38][3] Dietary taboos are often associated with the use of ayahuasca,[39] although these seem to be specific to the culture around Iquitos, Peru, a major center of ayahuasca

  • This brew varies radically from one batch to the next, both in potency and psychoactive effect, based mainly on the skill of the shaman or brewer, as well as other admixtures
    sometimes added and the intent of the ceremony.

  • [45] Ayahuasca analogs[edit] See also: Pharmahuasca Syrian rue seeds can be used to provide an MAOI In modern Europe and North America, ayahuasca analogs are often prepared
    using non-traditional plants which contain the same alkaloids.

  • [3] Some cultures do use it for shamanic purposes, but in other cases, it is consumed socially among friends, in order to learn more about the natural environment, and even
    in order to visit friends and family who are far away.

  • The resolution states: “Practices with Entheogenic Plants have long existed and have been considered to be sacred to human cultures and human interrelationships with nature
    for thousands of years, and continue to be enhanced and improved to this day by religious and spiritual leaders, practicing professionals, mentors, and healers throughout the world, many of whom have been forced underground.

  • [49] Many people also report therapeutic effects, especially around depression and personal traumas.

  • decoctions) made of these plants, including ayahuasca, are not under international control and, therefore, not subject to any of the articles of the 1971 Convention.

  • [19] History Evidence of ayahuasca use dates back at least 1,000 years, as demonstrated by a bundle containing the residue of ayahuasca ingredients and various other preserved
    shamanic substances in a cave in southwestern Bolivia, discovered in 2010.

  • In 1999 they brought a legal challenge to this patent which had granted a private US citizen “ownership” of the knowledge of a plant that is well-known and sacred to many
    indigenous peoples of the Amazon, and used by them in religious and healing ceremonies.

  • [88] Religious use in Brazil was legalized after two official inquiries into the tea in the mid-1980s, which concluded that ayahuasca is not a recreational drug and has valid
    spiritual uses.

  • Dietary restrictions are not used by the highly urban Brazilian ayahuasca church União do Vegetal, suggesting the risk is much lower than perceived and probably non-existent.

  • [51] It is claimed that people may experience profound positive life changes subsequent to consuming ayahuasca, by author Don Jose Campos[40]: 25–28  and others.

  • [90] Four months after the court victory, the common ingredients of ayahuasca as well as harmala were declared stupéfiants, or narcotic schedule I substances, making the tea
    and its ingredients illegal to use or possess.

  • [46] Brews similar to ayahuasca may be prepared using several plants not traditionally used in South America: DMT admixtures: • Acacia maidenii (Maiden’s wattle) – bark *not
    all plants are “active strains”, meaning some plants will have very little DMT and others larger amounts • Acacia phlebophylla, and other Acacias, most commonly employed in Australia – bark • Anadenanthera peregrina, A. colubrina, A. excelsa,
    A. macrocarpa • Desmanthus illinoensis (Illinois bundleflower) – root bark is mixed with a native source of beta-Carbolines (e.g., passion flower in North America) to produce a hallucinogenic drink called prairiehuasca.

  • [47] MAOI admixtures: • Harmal (Peganum harmala, Syrian rue) – seeds • Passion flower[48][citation needed] • synthetic MAOIs, especially RIMAs (due to the dangers presented
    by irreversible MAOIs) Effects People who have consumed ayahuasca report having mystical experiences and spiritual revelations regarding their purpose on earth, the true nature of the universe, and deep insight into how to be the best person
    they possibly can.

  • He brought back samples of the beverage and published the first scientific description of the effects of its active alkaloids.

  • [9] Internationally, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances lists the active ingredient DMT as a schedule 1 drug, but does not control the cultivation of plants from which
    it can be derived, similarly to the “legal grey area” position of psychedelic plants like peyote and other mescaline-containing cacti.

  • Since then groups that are not affiliated to the Santo Daime have used ayahuasca, and a number of different “styles” have been developed, including non-religious approaches.

  • [40]: 67–70  It is often reported that individuals feel they gain access to higher spiritual dimensions and make contact with various spiritual or extra-dimensional beings
    who can act as guides or healers.

  • Ayahuasca[note 1] is a South American[1] psychoactive and entheogenic brewed drink traditionally used both socially and as a ceremonial or shamanic spiritual medicine among
    the indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin, and more recently in North America and Europe.

  • [42] The ceremony is usually accompanied with purging which include vomiting and diarrhea, which is believed to release built-up emotions and negative energy.

  • The traditional making of ayahuasca follows a ritual process that requires the user to pick the lower Chacruna leaf at sunrise, then say a prayer.

  • [33] Preparation Sections of Banisteriopsis caapi vine are macerated and boiled alone or with leaves from any of a number of other plants, including Psychotria viridis (chacruna),
    Diplopterys cabrerana (also known as chaliponga and chacropanga),[34] and Mimosa tenuiflora, among other ingredients which can vary greatly from one shaman to the next.

  • [12] It is also referred to as “la purge” due to the belief that it cures the soul, offering a deep introspective journey that allows the user to examine their emotions and
    ways of thinking.

  • In the control group, the cortex was activated when looking at the photos, and less active when the participant closed his eyes; however, under the influence of ayahuasca
    and DMT, even with closed eyes, the cortex was just as active as when looking at the photographs.

  • [75] Some natural tolerance to habitual use of ayahuasca (roughly once weekly) may develop through upregulation of the serotonergic system.

  • [36][37] The actual preparation of the brew takes several hours, often taking place over the course of more than one day.

  • [26] Some Westerners have teamed up with shamans in the Amazon forest regions, forming ayahuasca healing retreats that claim to be able to cure mental and physical illness
    and allow communication with the spirit world.

  • [67] Ayahuasca has also been studied for the treatment of addictions and shown to be effective, with lower Addiction Severity Index scores seen in users of ayahuasca compared
    to controls.

  • Shamans believe one of the purposes for this is to steal one’s energy and/or power, of which they believe every person has a limited stockpile.

  • In this usage, the DMT is generally considered the main psychoactive active ingredient, while the MAOI merely preserves the psychoactivity of orally ingested DMT, which would
    otherwise be destroyed in the gut before it could be absorbed in the body.

  • Traditional use The uses of ayahuasca in traditional societies in South America vary greatly.

  • [85] Under American federal law, DMT is a Schedule I drug that is illegal to possess or consume; however, certain religious groups have been legally permitted to consume ayahuasca.

  • Long-term negative effects are not known.

  • Non-traditional usage In the late 20th century, the practice of ayahuasca drinking began spreading to Europe, North America and elsewhere.

  • It allowed this patent based on the assumption that ayahuasca’s properties had not been previously described in writing.

  • Natural variations in plant alkaloid content and profiles also affect the final concentration of alkaloids in the brew, and the physical act of cooking may also serve to modify
    the alkaloid profile of harmala alkaloids.

  • Excessive use could possibly lead to serotonin syndrome (although serotonin syndrome has never been specifically caused by ayahuasca except in conjunction with certain anti-depressants
    like SSRIs).

  • [72] Murine test subjects performed better on memory tasks compared to a control group.

  • [2][3][4] The infusion causes altered states of consciousness often known as “psychedelic experiences” which include visual hallucinations and altered perceptions of reality.

  • [68][69][70][64] Ayahuasca users have also been seen to consume less alcohol.

  • [66][unreliable medical source] Other placebo-controlled research has provided evidence that ayahuasca can help improve self-perceptions in those with social anxiety disorder.

  • [4] This is viewed by many as a spiritual awakening and what is often described as a near-death experience or rebirth.

  • [60][61][62][63][64] For example, in 2018 it was reported that a single dose of ayahuasca significantly reduced symptoms of treatment-resistant depression in a small placebo-controlled

  • [22] In 1905, the active chemical constituent of B. caapi was named telepathine, but in 1927, it was found to be identical to a chemical already isolated from Peganum harmala
    and was given the name harmine.

  • [40] The shamans lead the ceremonial consumption of the ayahuasca beverage,[41] in a rite that typically takes place over the entire night.

  • Bogers and Fijneman were charged with distributing a controlled substance (DMT); however, the prosecution was unable to prove that the use of ayahuasca by members of the Santo
    Daime constituted a sufficient threat to public health and order such that it warranted denying their rights to religious freedom under ECHR Article 9.

  • [86] A court case allowing the União do Vegetal to import and use the tea for religious purposes in the United States, Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal,
    was heard by the U.S. Supreme Court on November 1, 2005; the decision, released February 21, 2006, allows the UDV to use the tea in its ceremonies pursuant to the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.

  • The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes, however, that the plants containing it are not subject to international control:[83] The cultivation of
    plants from which psychotropic substances are obtained is not controlled by the Vienna Convention…

  • [97] Later that year the PTO issued a decision rejecting the patent, on the basis that the petitioners’ arguments that the plant was not “distinctive or novel” were valid;
    however, the decision did not acknowledge the argument that the plant’s religious or cultural values prohibited a patent.

  • [20][21] In the 16th century, Christian missionaries from Spain first encountered indigenous western Amazonian basin South Americans using ayahuasca; their earliest reports
    described it as “the work of the devil”.


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