Description The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such
as leaf shape.
 Cultivation The beech most commonly grown as an ornamental tree is the European beech (Fagus sylvatica), widely cultivated in North America and its
 The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, and is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees, often made up of
several major trunks with yellowish bark.
American beech is rarely encountered in developed areas except as a remnant of a forest that was cut down for land development.
 The primeval beech forests of the Carpathians are also an example of a singular, complete, and comprehensive forest dominated by a single tree species – the beech tree.
It most commonly occurs as an overstory component in the northern part of its range with sugar maple, transitioning to other forest types further south such as beech-magnolia.
Nowadays, they are amongst the last pure beech forests in Europe to document the undisturbed postglacial repopulation of the species, which also includes the unbroken existence
of typical animals and plants.
The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, distinctive for their low branches, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark.
Continental Europe Fagus sylvatica is one of the most common hardwood trees in north central Europe, in France constituting alone about 15% of all nonconifers.
 Beech is not native to Ireland; however, it was widely planted from the 18th century, and can become a problem shading out the native woodland understory.
Other areas which have a long history of cultivation, Bulgaria for example, do not exhibit this pattern, so how much human activity has influenced the spread of beech trees
is as yet unclear.
 In antiquity, the bark of beech tree were used by Indo-European people for writing-related purposes, especially in religious context.
The fruit of the beech tree, known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn.
Beech litter raking as a replacement for straw in animal husbandry was an old non-timber practice in forest management that once occurred in parts of Switzerland in the 17th
 Beech has been listed as one of the 38 plants whose flowers are used to prepare Bach flower remedies.
 The edible fruit of the beech tree, known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn.
As a naturally growing forest tree, beech marks the important border between the European deciduous forest zone and the northern pine forest zone.
The dead brown leaves of the American beech remain on the branches until well into the following spring, when the new buds finally push them off.
The most northern known naturally growing (not planted) beech trees are found in a small grove north of Bergen on the west coast of Norway.
Asia East Asia is home to five species of Fagus, only one of which (F. crenata) is occasionally planted in Western countries.
Some research suggests that early agriculture patterns supported the spread of beech in continental Europe.
Today, beech is widely planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, and mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain at elevations below about 650 m (2,100
Smaller than F. sylvatica and F. grandifolia, this beech is one of the most common hardwoods in its native range.
 Beech wood tablets were a common writing material in Germanic societies before the development of paper.
Uses Beech Tree photographed by Eugène Atget, circa 1910–1915 Beech wood is an excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames.
 The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is often removed from ‘native’ woods.
Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, carvings, such as lovers’ initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.
Beech wood also makes excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames.
 The southern beeches (genus Nothofagus) previously thought closely related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae (which remains
a member of the order Fagales).
Beech wood is used for the stocks of military rifles when traditionally preferred woods such as walnut are scarce or unavailable or as a lower-cost alternative.
These virgin beech forests, along with similar forests across 12 countries in continental Europe, were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2007.
Research has linked the establishment of beech stands in Scandinavia and Germany with cultivation and fire disturbance, i.e.
Distribution and habitat Britain and Ireland Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, and may have been restricted to basic soils
in the south of England.
 Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/livetocreate_photography/10172379554/’]