• Description The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such
    as leaf shape.

  • [citation needed] Cultivation[edit] The beech most commonly grown as an ornamental tree is the European beech (Fagus sylvatica), widely cultivated in North America and its
    native Europe.

  • [3][1] The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, and is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees, often made up of
    several major trunks with yellowish bark.

  • American beech is rarely encountered in developed areas except as a remnant of a forest that was cut down for land development.

  • [14] The primeval beech forests of the Carpathians are also an example of a singular, complete, and comprehensive forest dominated by a single tree species – the beech tree.

  • It most commonly occurs as an overstory component in the northern part of its range with sugar maple, transitioning to other forest types further south such as beech-magnolia.

  • Nowadays, they are amongst the last pure beech forests in Europe to document the undisturbed postglacial repopulation of the species, which also includes the unbroken existence
    of typical animals and plants.

  • The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, distinctive for their low branches, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark.

  • Continental Europe[edit] Fagus sylvatica is one of the most common hardwood trees in north central Europe, in France constituting alone about 15% of all nonconifers.

  • [12] Beech is not native to Ireland; however, it was widely planted from the 18th century, and can become a problem shading out the native woodland understory.

  • Other areas which have a long history of cultivation, Bulgaria for example, do not exhibit this pattern, so how much human activity has influenced the spread of beech trees
    is as yet unclear.

  • [27] In antiquity, the bark of beech tree were used by Indo-European people for writing-related purposes, especially in religious context.

  • The fruit of the beech tree, known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn.

  • Beech litter raking as a replacement for straw in animal husbandry was an old non-timber practice in forest management that once occurred in parts of Switzerland in the 17th

  • [33][34][35][36] Beech has been listed as one of the 38 plants whose flowers are used to prepare Bach flower remedies.

  • [25] The edible fruit of the beech tree,[2] known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn.

  • As a naturally growing forest tree, beech marks the important border between the European deciduous forest zone and the northern pine forest zone.

  • The dead brown leaves of the American beech remain on the branches until well into the following spring, when the new buds finally push them off.

  • The most northern known naturally growing (not planted) beech trees are found in a small grove north of Bergen on the west coast of Norway.

  • Asia[edit] East Asia is home to five species of Fagus, only one of which (F. crenata) is occasionally planted in Western countries.

  • Some research suggests that early agriculture patterns supported the spread of beech in continental Europe.

  • Today, beech is widely planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, and mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain at elevations below about 650 m (2,100

  • Smaller than F. sylvatica and F. grandifolia, this beech is one of the most common hardwoods in its native range.

  • [28] Beech wood tablets were a common writing material in Germanic societies before the development of paper.

  • Uses[edit] Beech Tree photographed by Eugène Atget, circa 1910–1915 Beech wood is an excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames.

  • [10] The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is often removed from ‘native’ woods.

  • Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, carvings, such as lovers’ initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.

  • Beech wood also makes excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames.

  • [6] The southern beeches (genus Nothofagus) previously thought closely related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae (which remains
    a member of the order Fagales).

  • Beech wood is used for the stocks of military rifles when traditionally preferred woods such as walnut are scarce or unavailable or as a lower-cost alternative.

  • These virgin beech forests, along with similar forests across 12 countries in continental Europe, were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2007.

  • Research has linked the establishment of beech stands in Scandinavia and Germany with cultivation and fire disturbance, i.e.

  • Distribution and habitat Britain and Ireland[edit] Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, and may have been restricted to basic soils
    in the south of England.

  • [11] Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora.


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Photo credit:’]