benjamin netanyahu


  • [53] Netanyahu hired American Republican political operative Arthur Finkelstein to run his campaign,[54] and although the American style of sound bites and sharp attacks elicited
    harsh criticism,[citation needed] Netanyahu won the 1996 election, becoming the youngest person in the history of the position and the first Israeli prime minister to be born in the State of Israel (Yitzhak Rabin was born in Jerusalem, under
    the British Mandate of Palestine, prior to the 1948 founding of the Israeli state).

  • His most recent attempt prior to this was in September 2005 when he had tried to hold early primaries for the position of the head of the Likud party, while the party held
    the office of prime minister – thus effectively pushing Ariel Sharon out of office.

  • [citation needed] Prime minister (1996–1999) First term Further information: Twenty-seventh government of Israel Netanyahu’s first meeting with Palestinian President Yasser
    Arafat at the Erez crossing, 4 September 1996 A spate of suicide bombings reinforced the Likud position for security.

  • [40] In 1978, Netanyahu appeared on Boston local television, under the name “Ben Nitai”, where he argued: “The real core of the conflict is the unfortunate Arab refusal to
    accept the State of Israel … For 20 years the Arabs had both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and if self-determination, as they now say, is the core of the conflict, they could have easily established a Palestinian state.

  • Netanyahu decided eventually not to run for the prime minister position, a move which facilitated the surprising rise to power of Ariel Sharon, who at the time was considered
    less popular than Netanyahu.

  • Sharon and Netanyahu came to an agreement that Netanyahu would have complete freedom as Finance Minister and have Sharon back all of his reforms, in exchange for Netanyahu’s
    silence over Sharon’s management of Israel’s military and foreign affairs.

  • Throughout his term, Netanyahu was opposed by the political left wing in Israel and lost support from the right because of his concessions to the Palestinians in Hebron and
    elsewhere, and due to his negotiations with Arafat generally.

  • [11][12] Prime minister (2009–2021) Second term Further information: Thirty-second government of Israel Netanyahu in a meeting with President Dmitry Medvedev in Russia, 24
    March 2011 Netanyahu with Yohanan Danino, appointed Israel’s Chief of Police in 2011 In 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton voiced support for the establishment of a Palestinian state – a solution not endorsed by prime minister-designate
    Benjamin Netanyahu,[88] with whom she had earlier pledged the United States’ cooperation.

  • Netanyahu, however, claimed victory on the basis that right-wing parties won the majority of the vote, and on 20 February 2009, Netanyahu was designated by Israeli President
    Shimon Peres to succeed Ehud Olmert as prime minister, and began his negotiations to form a coalition government.

  • [90] During President Obama’s Cairo speech on 4 June 2009 in which Obama addressed the Muslim world, Obama stated, among other things, “The United States does not accept the
    legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements.”

  • Netanyahu has faced international criticism over his decades-long policy as prime minister of expanding Israeli settlements in the occupied West Bank, deemed illegal under
    international law.

  • As prime minister, Netanyahu raised many questions about many central premises of the Oslo Accords.

  • [citation needed] In 1996, Netanyahu and Jerusalem’s mayor Ehud Olmert decided to open an exit in the Arab Quarter for the Western Wall Tunnel, which prior prime minister
    Shimon Peres had instructed to be put on hold for the sake of peace.

  • Netanyahu insisted that general elections should be held, claiming that otherwise it would be impossible to have a stable government.

  • [68][69] With the fall of the Barak government in late 2000, Netanyahu expressed his desire to return to politics.

  • [89] Upon the arrival of President Obama administration’s special envoy, George Mitchell, Netanyahu said that any furtherance of negotiations with the Palestinians would be
    conditioned on the Palestinians recognizing Israel as a Jewish state.

  • Following Obama’s Cairo speech Netanyahu immediately called a special government meetin

  • Some pundits speculated that Sharon made the move because he deemed Netanyahu a political threat given his demonstrated effectiveness as Foreign Minister, and that by placing
    him in the Finance Ministry during a time of economic uncertainty, he could diminish Netanyahu’s popularity.

  • After the 2009 election, Netanyahu formed a coalition government with other right-wing parties and was sworn in as prime minister for a second time.

  • Netanyahu made his closeness to Donald Trump, a personal friend since the 1980s, central to his political appeal in Israel from 2016.

  • [44] Following the defeat of the Likud party in the 1992 Israeli legislative elections the Likud party held a party leadership election in 1993, and Netanyahu was victorious,
    defeating Benny Begin, son of the late prime minister Menachem Begin, and veteran politician David Levy[50] (Sharon initially sought Likud party leadership as well, but quickly withdrew when it was evident that he was attracting minimal support).

  • [51] Following the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, his temporary successor Shimon Peres decided to call early elections in order to give the government a mandate to advance
    the peace process.

  • During the campaign, Netanyahu stressed that progress in the peace process would be based on the Palestinian National Authority fulfilling its obligations–mainly fighting
    terrorism—and the Likud campaign slogan was, “Netanyahu – making a safe peace”.

  • On their first meeting, Netanyahu said: “I would like to emphasize that we have to take into account the needs and the requirements of both sides on the basis of reciprocity
    and the assurance of the security and well-being of both Israelis and Palestinian alike.”

  • [52] Netanyahu was the Likud’s candidate for prime minister in the 1996 Israeli legislative election which took place on 29 May 1996 and were the first Israeli elections in
    which Israelis elected their prime minister directly.

  • [75][76][77] However, opponents in the Labor party (and even a few within his own Likud) viewed Netanyahu’s policies as “Thatcherite” attacks on the venerated Israeli social
    safety net.

  • [43] During this period Netanyahu made his first connections with several Israeli politicians, including Minister Moshe Arens.

  • Netanyahu and Likud were heavily defeated in the 1999 election by Ehud Barak’s One Israel party; and Netanyahu chose to retire from politics entirely, entering the private

  • [85][86] Netanyahu was the Likud’s candidate for prime minister in the 2009 Israeli legislative election which took place on 10 February 2009, as Livni, the previous designated
    acting prime minister under the Olmert government, had been unable to form a viable governing coalition.

  • Oslo supporters had claimed that the multi-stage approach would build goodwill among Palestinians and would propel them to seek reconciliation when these major issues were
    raised in later stages.

  • [75] As Finance Minister, Netanyahu undertook an economic plan in order to restore Israel’s economy from its low point during the Second Intifada.

  • He presented Israel’s case to the media during the war and established a highly efficient public relations system in the Israeli embassy.

  • [65] In 1999, Netanyahu faced another scandal when the Israel Police recommended that he be tried for corruption for $100,000 in free services from a government contractor;
    Israel’s attorney general did not prosecute, citing difficulties with evidence.

  • In June 2021, after Naftali Bennett formed a government with Yair Lapid, Netanyahu was removed from the premiership, becoming opposition leader for the third time, before
    returning as Prime Minister again after the 2022 election.

  • In the 1996 election, Netanyahu beat Shimon Peres, becoming the first Israeli prime minister elected directly by popular vote, and its youngest-ever.

  • Arafat said: “We are determined to work with Mr. Netanyahu and with his government.

  • [56] Netanyahu first met Palestinian President Arafat on 4 September 1996.

  • [13] A period of political deadlock ensued after three consecutive elections in 2019 and 2020 failed to produce a government, which was solved after a coalition rotation agreement
    was reached between Netanyahu and centrist Blue and White alliance’s Benny Gantz.

  • By law, Barak’s resignation was supposed to lead to elections for the prime minister position only.

  • Netanyahu sitting with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and Palestinian President Yasser Arafat at the Wye River Memorandum, 1998 Eventually, the lack of progress
    of the peace process led to new negotiations which produced the Wye River Memorandum in 1998 which detailed the steps to be taken by the Israeli government and Palestinian Authority to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 1995.

  • He is also the first prime minister to be born in Israel after its Declaration of Independence.

  • [84] Following Tzipi Livni’s election to head Kadima and Olmert’s resignation from the post of prime minister, Netanyahu declined to join the coalition Livni was trying to
    form and supported new elections, which were held in February 2009.

  • “[74] Minister of Finance (2003–2005) After the 2003 Israeli legislative election, in what many observers regarded as a surprise move, Sharon offered the Foreign Ministry
    to Silvan Shalom and offered Netanyahu the Finance Ministry.

  • Despite his stated differences with the Oslo Accords, Prime Minister Netanyahu continued their implementation, but his Premiership saw a marked slow-down in the peace process.

  • He moved back to Israel in 1978 to found the Yonatan Netanyahu Anti-Terror Institute.

  • [49] Leader of the Opposition (1993–1996) Prior to the 1988 Israeli legislative election, Netanyahu returned to Israel and joined the Likud party.

  • During the latter position, he initiated reforms of the Israeli economy that led to significant growth,[7][8] before ultimately resigning over disagreements regarding the
    Gaza disengagement plan.

  • Netanyahu did manage to entice a smaller rival, the Labour party, chaired by Ehud Barak, to join his government, giving him a certain amount of centrist tone.

  • [14][15] The coalition collapsed In December 2020, before the rotation could take place, and a new election was held in March 2021.

  • One of his main points was disagreement with the Oslo premise that the negotiations should proceed in stages, meaning that concessions should be made to Palestinians before
    any resolution was reached on major issues, such as the status of Jerusalem, and the amending of the Palestinian National Charter.

  • However, although Netanyahu won the election for prime minister, Peres’s Israeli Labor Party received more seats in the Knesset elections.

  • [38] Years later, in an interview with the media, Netanyahu clarified that he decided to do so to make it easier for Americans to pronounce his name.

  • 1988); Sara Ben-Artzi, (m. 1991); Children: 3, including Yair; Parent: Benzion Netanyahu; Relatives: Nathan Mileikowsky (grandfather), Yonatan Netanyahu (brother), Iddo Netanyahu
    (brother), Elisha Netanyahu (uncle), Nathan Netanyahu (cousin); Alma mater: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (BS, MS), Harvard University (PhD, dropped out); Occupation: Diplomat, Politician, writer, Profession: Management consultant,
    marketing executive, Cabinet; Nickname: Bibi[2]; Military service: Branch/service: Israel Defense Forces; Years of service: 1967–1973; Rank: Séren (Captain); Unit: Sayeret Matkal; Battles/wars: War of Attrition, Yom Kippur War Early life and
    military career Netanyahu was born in 1949 in Tel Aviv.

  • This time it was Livni’s turn to decline to join, with a difference of opinion on how to pursue the peace process being the stumbling block.

  • Netanyahu returned to the leadership of Likud in December 2005 after Sharon stepped down to form a new party, Kadima.

  • He later modified the ultimatum and voted for the program in the Knesset, indicating immediately thereafter that he would resign unless a referendum was held within 14 days.

  • [9] In the March 2006 Knesset elections, Likud took the third place behind Kadima and Labor and Netanyahu served as Leader of the Opposition.

  • [17] In 2019, Netanyahu was indicted on charges of breach of trust, bribery and fraud, following a three year investigation,[18] due to which he relinquished all his ministry
    posts other than the prime minister position.

  • [44] During the 1982 Lebanon War, he was called up for reserve duty in Sayeret Matkal and requested to be released from service, preferring to remain in the US and serve as
    a spokesperson for Israel in the wake of harsh international criticism of the war.

  • In a nod to the 1967 Khartoum conference, Prime Minister Netanyahu emphasized a policy of “three no(s)”: no withdrawal from the Golan Heights, no discussion of the case of
    Jerusalem, no negotiations under any preconditions.

  • Netanyahu is the longest-tenured prime minister in the country’s history, having served for a total of over 15 years.

  • During the Gulf War in early 1991, the English-fluent Netanyahu emerged as the principal spokesman for Israel in media interviews on CNN and other news outlets.

  • [80] Leader of the Opposition (2006–2009) Following the withdrawal of Sharon from the Likud, Netanyahu was one of several candidates who vied for the Likud leadership.

  • [62] Netanyahu relented to the demands after pressure by US President Bill Clinton and ordered the release of 61 Jordanian and Palestinian prisoners including Sheikh Ahmad

  • In his penultimate government, Netanyahu led Israel’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis.

  • This fact has been used by his political rivals to accuse him indirectly of a lack of Israeli national identity and loyalty.

  • In 2002, after the Israeli Labor Party left the coalition and vacated the position of foreign minister, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon appointed Netanyahu as Foreign Minister.

  • Netanyahu lost favor with the Israeli public after a long chain of scandals involving his marriage and corruption charges.

  • [82] He opposed the 2008 Israel–Hamas ceasefire, like others in the Knesset opposition.


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