• Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation, and production from any living organisms and
    any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable
    operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment
    and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).

  • Jointly biotechnology and synthetic biology play a crucial role in generating cost-effective products with nature-friendly features by using bio-based production instead of

  • This can be considered as the use of knowledge from working with and manipulating biology to achieve a result that can improve functions in plants and animals.

  • These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food’s genetic structure than previously afforded by methods
    such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.

  • Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals.

  • [27] It is commonly considered as the next phase of green revolution, which can be seen as a platform to eradicate world hunger by using technologies which enable the production
    of more fertile and resistant, towards biotic and abiotic stress, plants and ensures application of environmentally friendly fertilizers and the use of biopesticides, it is mainly focused on the development of agriculture.

  • [1] The term biotechnology was first used by Károly Ereky in 1919,[2] meaning the production of products from raw materials with the aid of living organisms.

  • The application of biotechnology to basic science (for example through the Human Genome Project) has also dramatically improved our understanding of biology and as our scientific
    knowledge of normal and disease biology has increased, our ability to develop new medicines to treat previously untreatable diseases has increased as well.

  • [90] Regulation varies in a given country depending on the intended use of the products of the genetic engineering.

  • [3] The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science
    of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock.

  • Regulation[edit] Main articles: Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms The regulation of genetic engineering concerns
    approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the use of genetic engineering technology, and the development and release of genetically modified organisms (GMO), including genetically modified crops and genetically
    modified fish.

  • [6][7][8] The utilization of biological processes, organisms or systems to produce products that are anticipated to improve human lives is termed biotechnology.

  • Throughout the history of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other
    plants — one of the first forms of biotechnology.

  • [59] There is a scientific consensus[60][61][62][63] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,[64][65][66][67][68]
    but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.

  • A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for example: • Bioinformatics (also called “gold biotechnology”) is an interdisciplinary
    field that addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization as well as analysis of biological data possible.

  • As crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain, it was discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilize, restore
    nitrogen, and control pests.

  • Definition The concept of biotechnology encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals,
    cultivation of the plants, and “improvements” to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization.

  • History Although not normally what first comes to mind, many forms of human-derived agriculture clearly fit the broad definition of “‘utilizing a biotechnological system to
    make products”.

  • [81] In the current decades, significant progress has been done in creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that enhance the diversity of applications and economical
    viability of industrial biotechnology.

  • White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.

  • This includes biotechnology-based approaches for the control of harmful insects, the characterisation and utilisation of active ingredients or genes of insects for research,
    or application in agriculture and medicine and various other approaches.

  • Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching.

  • [4] As per the European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products
    and services.

  • [24] Examples Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non-food (industrial) uses of
    crops and other products (e.g., biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

  • [84] For instance, E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a consortium could be used as industrial microbes to produce precursors of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel
    by applying the metabolic engineering in a co-culture approach to exploit the benefits from the two microbes.

  • An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides.

  • [9] By contrast, bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field that more heavily emphasizes higher systems approaches (not necessarily the altering or using of
    biological materials directly) for interfacing with and utilizing living things.

  • For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of microorganisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products).

  • Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteur’s work in 1857, it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into
    another form.

  • One application is the creation of enhanced seeds that resist extreme environmental conditions of arid regions, which is related to the innovation, creation of agriculture
    techniques and management of resources.

  • [17][18] Biosensor MOSFETs were later developed, and they have since been widely used to measure physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters.

  • [80] However, opponents have objected to GM crops per se on several grounds, including environmental concerns, whether food produced from GM crops is safe, whether GM crops
    are needed to address the world’s food needs, and economic concerns raised by the fact these organisms are subject to intellectual property law.

  • [12] For thousands of years, humans have used selective breeding to improve the production of crops and livestock to use them for food.

  • Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.

  • [85] Another example of synthetic biology applications in industrial biotechnology is the re-engineering of the metabolic pathways of E. coli by CRISPR and CRISPRi systems
    toward the production of a chemical known as 1,4-butanediol, which is used in fiber manufacturing.

  • [76][77][78][79] GM crops also provide a number of ecological benefits, if not used in excess.

  • Vallero and others have argued that the difference between beneficial biotechnology (e.g., bioremediation is to clean up an oil spill or hazard chemical leak) versus the adverse
    effects stemming from biotechnological enterprises (e.g., flow of genetic material from transgenic organisms into wild strains) can be seen as applications and implications, respectively.

  • One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture.

  • [33][27] Medicine[edit] In medicine, modern biotechnology has many applications in areas such as pharmaceutical drug discoveries and production, pharmacogenomics, and genetic
    testing (or genetic screening).

  • Through early biotechnology, the earliest farmers selected and bred the best-suited crops (e.g., those with the highest yields) to produce enough food to support a growing

  • Biotechnology is the integration of natural sciences and engineering sciences in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues
    for products and services.

  • [11] These processes were introduced in early Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India, and still use the same basic biological methods.

  • [27] On the other hand, some of the uses of green biotechnology involve microorganisms to clean and reduce waste.

  • [13] In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products.

  • [49] Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents,[50] biofuels,[51] and other industrially useful goods,[52] as well as for bioremediation.

  • [37][38] Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding
    Biotechnology has contributed to the discovery and manufacturing of traditional small molecule pharmaceutical drugs as well as drugs that are the product of biotechnology – biopharmaceutics.

  • For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety.

  • Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

  • [82] Synthetic biology is considered one of the essential cornerstones in industrial biotechnology due to its financial and sustainable contribution to the manufacturing sector.

  • The genetically engineered bacteria are able to produce large quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost.

  • [55] Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA with the methods of genetic engineering.

  • Indeed, the cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise.


Works Cited

[‘1. “Biotechnology”. IUPAC Goldbook. 2014. doi:10.1351/goldbook.B00666.
2. ^ Ereky, Karl. (June 8, 1919). Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett-, und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe: für naturwissenschaftlich gebildete Landwirte
verfasst. P. Parey – via Hathi Trust.
3. ^ “Pharma IQ”. Pharma IQ. November 3, 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
4. ^ Biotechnology Archived November 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.
& PROCESSES” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
6. ^ What is biotechnology?. Europabio. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.
7. ^ Key Biotechnology Indicators (December 2011).
8. ^ Biotechnology
policies – Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.
9. ^ Goli, Divakar; Bhatia, Saurabh (2018). History, scope and development of biotechnology. doi:10.1088/978-0-7503-1299-8ch1.
ISBN 978-0-7503-1299-8. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
10. ^ What Is Bioengineering? Archived January 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.
11. ^ See Arnold JP (2005). Origin and History of Beer and Brewing:
From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. Cleveland, Ohio: BeerBooks. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-9662084-1-2. OCLC 71834130..
12. ^ Cole-Turner R (2003). “Biotechnology”. Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Retrieved December
7, 2014.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b Thieman WJ, Palladino MA (2008). Introduction to Biotechnology. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-49145-9.
14. ^ Springham D, Springham G, Moses V, Cape RE (1999). Biotechnology: The Science and the Business.
CRC Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-90-5702-407-8.
15. ^ “Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980). No. 79-139.” United States Supreme Court. June 16, 1980. Retrieved on May 4, 2007.
16. ^ “1960: Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated”.
The Silicon Engine: A Timeline of Semiconductors in Computers. Computer History Museum. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
17. ^ Park, Jeho; Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Woubit, Abdela; Kim, Moonil (2014). “Applications of Field-Effect Transistor (FET)–Type Biosensors”.
Applied Science and Convergence Technology. 23 (2): 61–71. doi:10.5757/ASCT.2014.23.2.61. ISSN 2288-6559. S2CID 55557610.
18. ^ Clark, Leland C.; Lyons, Champ (1962). “Electrode Systems for Continuous Monitoring in Cardiovascular Surgery”. Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences. 102 (1): 29–45. Bibcode:1962NYASA.102…29C. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1962.tb13623.x. ISSN 1749-6632. PMID 14021529. S2CID 33342483.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Bergveld, Piet (October 1985). “The impact of MOSFET-based
sensors” (PDF). Sensors and Actuators. 8 (2): 109–127. Bibcode:1985SeAc….8..109B. doi:10.1016/0250-6874(85)87009-8. ISSN 0250-6874. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
20. ^ Chris Toumazou; Pantelis Georgiou (December 2011). “40
years of ISFET technology:From neuronal sensing to DNA sequencing”. Electronics Letters. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
21. ^ Bergveld, P. (January 1970). “Development of an Ion-Sensitive Solid-State Device for Neurophysiological Measurements”. IEEE Transactions
on Biomedical Engineering. BME-17 (1): 70–71. doi:10.1109/TBME.1970.4502688. PMID 5441220.
22. ^ Jump up to:a b c Schöning, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak (September 10, 2002). “Recent advances in biologically sensitive field-effect transistors
(BioFETs)” (PDF). Analyst. 127 (9): 1137–1151. Bibcode:2002Ana…127.1137S. doi:10.1039/B204444G. ISSN 1364-5528. PMID 12375833. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
23. ^ VoIP Providers And Corn Farmers Can Expect To Have Bumper
Years In 2008 And Beyond, According To The Latest Research Released By Business Information Analysts At IBISWorld. Los Angeles (March 19, 2008)
24. ^ “The Recession List – Top 10 Industries to Fly and Flop in 2008”. March 19, 2008.
Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
25. ^ Gerstein, M. “Bioinformatics Introduction Archived 2007-06-16 at the Wayback Machine.” Yale University. Retrieved on May 8, 2007.
26. ^ Siam, R. (2009). Biotechnology Research
and Development in Academia: providing the foundation for Egypt’s Biotechnology spectrum of colors. Sixteenth Annual American University in Cairo Research Conference, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. BMC Proceedings, 31–35.
27. ^ Jump
up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kafarski, P. (2012). Rainbow Code of Biotechnology Archived February 14, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. CHEMIK. Wroclaw University
28. ^ Biotech: true colours. (2009). TCE: The Chemical Engineer, (816), 26–31.
29. ^
Aldridge, S. (2009). The four colours of biotechnology: the biotechnology sector is occasionally described as a rainbow, with each sub sector having its own colour. But what do the different colours of biotechnology have to offer the pharmaceutical
industry. Pharmaceutical Technology Europe, (1). 12.
30. ^ Frazzetto G (September 2003). “White biotechnology”. EMBO Reports. 4 (9): 835–7. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.embor928. PMC 1326365. PMID 12949582.
31. ^ Frazzetto, G. (2003). White biotechnology
Archived November 11, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. March 21, 2017, de EMBOpress Sitio
32. ^ Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Volume 135 2013, Yellow Biotechnology I
33. ^ Edgar, J.D. (2004). The Colours of Biotechnology: Science,
Development and Humankind. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, (3), 01
34. ^ Ermak G. (2013) Modern Science & Future Medicine (second edition)
35. ^ Wang L (2010). “Pharmacogenomics: a systems approach”. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems
Biology and Medicine. 2 (1): 3–22. doi:10.1002/wsbm.42. PMC 3894835. PMID 20836007.
36. ^ Becquemont L (June 2009). “Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions: practical applications and perspectives”. Pharmacogenomics. 10 (6): 961–9. doi:10.2217/pgs.09.37.
PMID 19530963.
37. ^ “Guidance for Industry Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions” (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. March 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
38. ^ Squassina A, Manchia M, Manolopoulos
VG, Artac M, Lappa-Manakou C, Karkabouna S, Mitropoulos K, Del Zompo M, Patrinos GP (August 2010). “Realities and expectations of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine: impact of translating genetic knowledge into clinical practice”. Pharmacogenomics.
11 (8): 1149–67. doi:10.2217/pgs.10.97. PMID 20712531.
39. ^ Bains W (1987). Genetic Engineering For Almost Everybody: What Does It Do? What Will It Do?. Penguin. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-14-013501-5.
40. ^ Jump up to:a b U.S. Department of State International
Information Programs, “Frequently Asked Questions About Biotechnology”, USIS Online; available from Archived September 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, accessed September 13, 2007. Cf. Feldbaum C (February 2002). “Biotechnology.
Some history should be repeated”. Science. 295 (5557): 975. doi:10.1126/science.1069614. PMID 11834802. S2CID 32595222.
41. ^ “What is genetic testing? – Genetics Home Reference”. May 30, 2011. Archived from the original on May
29, 2006. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
42. ^ “Genetic Testing: MedlinePlus”. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
43. ^ “Definitions of Genetic Testing”. Definitions of Genetic Testing (Jorge Sequeiros and Bárbara Guimarães). EuroGentest Network of
Excellence Project. September 11, 2008. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
44. ^ Genetically Altered Potato Ok’d For Crops Lawrence Journal-World – May 6, 1995
45. ^ National Academy of Sciences (2001).
Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture. Washington: National Academy Press.
46. ^ Paarlburg R (January 2011). “Drought Tolerant GMO Maize in Africa, Anticipating Regulatory Hurdles” (PDF). International Life Sciences Institute. Archived from the
original (PDF) on December 22, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
47. ^ Carpenter J. & Gianessi L. (1999). Herbicide tolerant soybeans: Why growers are adopting Roundup Ready varieties Archived November 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. AgBioForum,
2(2), 65–72.
48. ^ Haroldsen VM, Paulino G, Chi-ham C, Bennett AB (2012). “Research and adoption of biotechnology strategies could improve California fruit and nut crops”. California Agriculture. 66 (2): 62–69. doi:10.3733/ca.v066n02p62.
49. ^
About Golden Rice Archived November 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.
50. ^ Gali Weinreb and Koby Yeshayahou for Globes May 2, 2012. FDA approves Protalix Gaucher treatment Archived May 29, 2013, at the Wayback
51. ^ Carrington, Damien (January 19, 2012) GM microbe breakthrough paves way for large-scale seaweed farming for biofuels The Guardian. Retrieved March 12, 2012
52. ^ van Beilen JB, Poirier Y (May 2008). “Production of renewable polymers
from crop plants”. The Plant Journal. 54 (4): 684–701. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03431.x. PMID 18476872. S2CID 25954199.
53. ^ Strange, Amy (September 20, 2011) Scientists engineer plants to eat toxic pollution The Irish Times. Retrieved September
20, 2011
54. ^ Diaz E, ed. (2008). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2.
55. ^ Jump up to:a b c James C (2011). “ISAAA Brief 43, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops:
2011”. ISAAA Briefs. Ithaca, New York: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). Retrieved June 2, 2012.
56. ^ GM Science Review First Report Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Prepared by the
UK GM Science Review panel (July 2003). Chairman Professor Sir David King, Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government, P 9
57. ^ James C (1996). “Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995” (PDF).
The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved July 17, 2010.
58. ^ “Consumer Q&A”. March 6, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
59. ^ “AquAdvantage
Salmon”. FDA. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
60. ^ Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele (2013). “An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research” (PDF). Critical Reviews in Biotechnology.
34 (1): 77–88. doi:10.3109/07388551.2013.823595. PMID 24041244. S2CID 9836802. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety for the last 10 years that catches the scientific consensus
matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide, and we can conclude that the scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazard directly connected with the use of GM crops.

The literature about Biodiversity
and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of
the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns.
61. ^ “State of Food and Agriculture 2003–2004. Agricultural Biotechnology:
Meeting the Needs of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Currently available transgenic crops and foods derived from them have been judged
safe to eat and the methods used to test their safety have been deemed appropriate. These conclusions represent the consensus of the scientific evidence surveyed by the ICSU (2003) and they are consistent with the views of the World Health Organization
(WHO, 2002). These foods have been assessed for increased risks to human health by several national regulatory authorities (inter alia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, the United Kingdom and the United States) using their national food safety procedures
(ICSU). To date no verifiable untoward toxic or nutritionally deleterious effects resulting from the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified crops have been discovered anywhere in the world (GM Science Review Panel). Many millions of
people have consumed foods derived from GM plants – mainly maize, soybean and oilseed rape – without any observed adverse effects (ICSU).
62. ^ Ronald, Pamela (May 1, 2011). “Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security”. Genetics.
188 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.128553. PMC 3120150. PMID 21546547. There is broad scientific consensus that genetically engineered crops currently on the market are safe to eat. After 14 years of cultivation and a cumulative total of 2 billion
acres planted, no adverse health or environmental effects have resulted from commercialization of genetically engineered crops (Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Environmental Impacts Associated with Commercialization of Transgenic
Plants, National Research Council and Division on Earth and Life Studies 2002). Both the U.S. National Research Council and the Joint Research Centre (the European Union’s scientific and technical research laboratory and an integral part of the European
Commission) have concluded that there is a comprehensive body of knowledge that adequately addresses the food safety issue of genetically engineered crops (Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on
Human Health and National Research Council 2004; European Commission Joint Research Centre 2008). These and other recent reports conclude that the processes of genetic engineering and conventional breeding are no different in terms of unintended consequences
to human health and the environment (European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation 2010).
63. ^
But see also:
Domingo, José L.; Bordonaba, Jordi Giné (2011). “A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified
plants” (PDF). Environment International. 37 (4): 734–742. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. PMID 21296423. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM
plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans)
are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those
obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants. Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published
in recent years in scientific journals by those companies.
Krimsky, Sheldon (2015). “An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment”. Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40 (6): 883–914. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. S2CID 40855100. I began
this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.
And contrast:
Panchin, Alexander
Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I. (January 14, 2016). “Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 37 (2): 213–217. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684. ISSN 0738-8551. PMID 26767435.
S2CID 11786594. Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation
of the data. Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm.

The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention.
However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them
should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.
Yang, Y.T.; Chen, B. (2016). “Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health”. Journal of the Science of
Food and Agriculture. 96 (4): 1851–1855. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523. PMID 26536836. It is therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011). Overall,
a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food… Major national and international science and medical associations have stated that no adverse human health effects related to GMO food
have been reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.

Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many independent international science organizations
agree that GMOs are just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome.
64. ^ “Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors
On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods” (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science. October 20, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2019. The EU, for example, has invested more than €300
million in research on the biosafety of GMOs. Its recent report states: “The main conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of more than 25 years of research and involving more than 500 independent
research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies.” The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences,
the British Royal Society, and every other respected organization that has examined the evidence has come to the same conclusion: consuming foods containing ingredients derived from GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients
from crop plants modified by conventional plant improvement techniques.

Pinholster, Ginger (October 25, 2012). “AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could “Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers”” (PDF). American Association for
the Advancement of Science. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
65. ^ European Commission. Directorate-General for Research (2010). A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010) (PDF). Directorate-General
for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food. European Commission, European Union. doi:10.2777/97784. ISBN 978-92-79-16344-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
66. ^ “AMA Report on
Genetically Modified Crops and Foods”. American Medical Association. January 2001. Retrieved August 30, 2019 – via International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications.”REPORT 2 OF THE COUNCIL ON SCIENCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (A-12):
Labeling of Bioengineered Foods” (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
67. ^ “Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States. Public and Scholarly
Opinion”. Library of Congress. June 30, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Several scientific organizations in the US have issued studies or statements regarding the safety of GMOs indicating that there is no evidence that GMOs present unique safety
risks compared to conventionally bred products. These include the National Research Council, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Medical Association. Groups in the US opposed to GMOs include some environmental
organizations, organic farming organizations, and consumer organizations. A substantial number of legal academics have criticized the US’s approach to regulating GMOs.
68. ^ National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering; Division on Earth Life Studies;
Board on Agriculture Natural Resources; Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience Future Prospects (2016). Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (US).
p. 149. doi:10.17226/23395. ISBN 978-0-309-43738-7. PMID 28230933. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Overall finding on purported adverse effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis of detailed examination of comparisons of currently
commercialized GE with non-GE foods in compositional analysis, acute and chronic animal toxicity tests, long-term data on health of livestock fed GE foods, and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences that implicate a higher
risk to human health from GE foods than from their non-GE counterparts.
69. ^ “Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods”. World Health Organization. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Different GM organisms include different genes inserted
in different ways. This means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general statements on the safety of all GM foods.

GM foods currently available on the international
market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they
have been approved. Continuous application of safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods.
70. ^ Haslberger, Alexander
G. (2003). “Codex guidelines for GM foods include the analysis of unintended effects”. Nature Biotechnology. 21 (7): 739–741. doi:10.1038/nbt0703-739. PMID 12833088. S2CID 2533628. These principles dictate a case-by-case premarket assessment that
includes an evaluation of both direct and unintended effects.
71. ^ Some medical organizations, including the British Medical Association, advocate further caution based upon the precautionary principle:

“Genetically modified foods and health:
a second interim statement” (PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2019. In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health effects is very small and many
of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available.

When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits
and risks, it is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks to human health and the environment.
As with all novel foods, safety assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case basis.

Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the relevant
subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM foods currently available should be halted and the moratorium on commercial growth of GM crops should be continued. These conclusions were based on the precautionary principle and lack
of evidence of any benefit. The Jury expressed concern over the impact of GM crops on farming, the environment, food safety and other potential health effects.

The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated
with the use of specific viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, and while calling for caution in the introduction of potential allergens into food crops, stressed the absence of evidence that commercially available GM foods cause clinical
allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that there is no robust evidence to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the call for further research and surveillance to provide convincing evidence of safety and benefit.
72. ^ Funk, Cary;
Rainie, Lee (January 29, 2015). “Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society”. Pew Research Center. Retrieved August 30, 2019. The largest differences between the public and the AAAS scientists are found in beliefs about the safety of eating
genetically modified (GM) foods. Nearly nine-in-ten (88%) scientists say it is generally safe to eat GM foods compared with 37% of the general public, a difference of 51 percentage points.
73. ^ Marris, Claire (2001). “Public views on GMOs: deconstructing
the myths”. EMBO Reports. 2 (7): 545–548. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve142. PMC 1083956. PMID 11463731.
74. ^ Final Report of the PABE research project (December 2001). “Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe”. Commission of
European Communities. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
75. ^ Scott, Sydney E.; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul (2016). “Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States” (PDF).
Perspectives on Psychological Science. 11 (3): 315–324. doi:10.1177/1745691615621275. PMID 27217243. S2CID 261060. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
76. ^ “Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms”. Library of Congress.
June 9, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
77. ^ Bashshur, Ramona (February 2013). “FDA and Regulation of GMOs”. American Bar Association. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
78. ^ Sifferlin, Alexandra (October
3, 2015). “Over Half of E.U. Countries Are Opting Out of GMOs”. Time. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
79. ^ Lynch, Diahanna; Vogel, David (April 5, 2001). “The Regulation of GMOs in Europe and the United States: A Case-Study of Contemporary European
Regulatory Politics”. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
80. ^ Pollack A (April 13, 2010). “Study Says Overuse Threatens Gains From Modified Crops”. The New York Times.
81. ^ Industrial Biotechnology and Biomass Utilisation
Archived April 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
82. ^ “Industrial biotechnology, A powerful, innovative technology to mitigate climate change”. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
83. ^ Clarke, Lionel; Kitney,
Richard (February 28, 2020). “Developing synthetic biology for industrial biotechnology applications”. Biochemical Society Transactions. 48 (1): 113–122. doi:10.1042/BST20190349. ISSN 0300-5127. PMC 7054743. PMID 32077472.
84. ^ McCarty, Nicholas
S.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo (February 2019). “Synthetic Biology Tools to Engineer Microbial Communities for Biotechnology”. Trends in Biotechnology. 37 (2): 181–197. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2018.11.002. ISSN 0167-7799. PMC 6340809. PMID 30497870.
85. ^
Zhou, Kang; Qiao, Kangjian; Edgar, Steven; Stephanopoulos, Gregory (April 2015). “Distributing a metabolic pathway among a microbial consortium enhances production of natural products”. Nature Biotechnology. 33 (4): 377–383. doi:10.1038/nbt.3095.
ISSN 1087-0156. PMC 4867547. PMID 25558867.
86. ^ Wu, Meng-Ying; Sung, Li-Yu; Li, Hung; Huang, Chun-Hung; Hu, Yu-Chen (December 15, 2017). “Combining CRISPR and CRISPRi Systems for Metabolic Engineering of E. coli and 1,4-BDO Biosynthesis”. ACS
Synthetic Biology. 6 (12): 2350–2361. doi:10.1021/acssynbio.7b00251. ISSN 2161-5063. PMID 28854333.
87. ^ Pakshirajan, Kannan; Rene, Eldon R.; Ramesh, Aiyagari (2014). “Biotechnology in environmental monitoring and pollution abatement”. BioMed Research
International. 2014: 235472. doi:10.1155/2014/235472. ISSN 2314-6141. PMC 4017724. PMID 24864232.
88. ^ Danso, Dominik; Chow, Jennifer; Streit, Wolfgang R. (October 1, 2019). “Plastics: Environmental and Biotechnological Perspectives on Microbial
Degradation”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 85 (19). Bibcode:2019ApEnM..85E1095D. doi:10.1128/AEM.01095-19. ISSN 1098-5336. PMC 6752018. PMID 31324632.
89. ^ Daniel A. Vallero, Environmental Biotechnology: A Biosystems Approach, Academic
Press, Amsterdam, NV; ISBN 978-0-12-375089-1; 2010.
90. ^ Gaskell G, Bauer MW, Durant J, Allum NC (July 1999). “Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the U.S”. Science. 285 (5426): 384–7. doi:10.1126/science.285.5426.384.
PMID 10411496. S2CID 5131870.
91. ^ “The History and Future of GM Potatoes”. Potato Pro. March 10, 2010. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
92. ^ Wesseler J, Kalaitzandonakes N (2011). “Present and Future
EU GMO policy”. In Oskam A, Meesters G, Silvis H (eds.). EU Policy for Agriculture, Food and Rural Areas (2nd ed.). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 23–332.
93. ^ Beckmann VC, Soregaroli J, Wesseler J (2011). “Coexistence of genetically
modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent with respect to the coexistence value?”. In Carter C, Moschini G, Sheldon I (eds.). Genetically modified food and global welfare. Frontiers of Economics
and Globalization Series. Vol. 10. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing. pp. 201–224.
94. ^ “Biotechnology Predoctoral Training Program”. National Institute of General Medical Sciences. December 18, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
Photo credit: