• [37][4][48] A clear distinction between handwriting and more elaborate forms of lettering and script began to make its way into manuscripts and books at the beginning of the
    16th century.

  • [citation needed] Technique[edit] Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study:[22] ink brushes known as máobǐ, Chinese ink, paper, and inkstones to
    write Chinese characters.

  • [12] World traditions East Asia[edit] Chinese calligraphy is locally called shūfǎ or fǎshū (in traditional Chinese, literally “the method or law of writing”);[a] Japanese
    calligraphy is shodō (literally “the way or principle of writing”);[13] and Korean calligraphy is called seoye (Korean: literally “the art of writing”);[14] The calligraphy of East Asian characters continues to form an important and appreciated
    constituent of contemporary traditional East Asian culture.

  • [1][page needed] Classical calligraphy differs from type design and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both.

  • [23] Korea[edit] Main article: Korean calligraphy The modern Korean alphabet and its use of the circle required the creation of a new technique not used in traditional Chinese

  • Sacred Western calligraphy has some unique features, such as the illumination of the first letter of each book or chapter in medieval times.

  • Calligraphy is particularly evident on their prayer wheels, although this calligraphy was forged rather than scribed, much like Arab and Roman calligraphy is often found on

  • [citation needed] Since late 1980s, a few Chinese artists have branched out traditional Chinese calligraphy to a new territory by mingling Chinese characters with English
    letters; notable new forms of calligraphy are Xu Bing’s square calligraphy and DanNie’s coolligraphy or cooligraphy.

  • [18] Despite the fact that the main writing implement of the time was already the brush, few papers survive from this period, and the main examples of this style are on steles.

  • [53] He first referred to this hand as “Foundational Hand” in his 1909 publication, Manuscript & Inscription Letters for Schools and Classes and for the Use of Craftsmen.

  • [45] Many of the themes and variations of today’s contemporary Western calligraphy are found in the pages of The Saint John’s Bible.

  • [1][4][61] Selected images • Banknote motif: number 5 against a circular panel of lace-like lathe work with a scalloped edge • Chinese soldier in calligraphy competition •
    Edward Johnston, a famous British calligrapher, at work in 1902

  • In Imperial China, the graphs on old steles – some dating from 200 BCE, and in Small Seal script (xiǎo zhuàn) style – have been preserved and can be viewed even today.

  • • The Georgian calligraphy is centuries-old tradition of an artistic writing of the Georgian language with its three scripts • Modern Western calligraphy Calligraphy in Europe
    recognizable in the use of the Latin script in Western Europe, and in the use of the Greek, Armenian, and Georgian, and Cyrillic scripts in Eastern Europe.

  • Because German-speaking countries had not abandoned the Gothic hand in printing, Gothic also had a powerful effect on their styles.

  • [citation needed] But small changes have been made, for example in the shape of which is not absolutely the same in the Kangxi Dictionary of 1716 as in modern books.

  • Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including ink and wash painting, a style of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean painting based entirely on calligraphy.

  • This calligraphy style has been based on such a strong structure that it has changed very little since Mir Ali Tabrizi had found the optimum composition of the letters and
    graphical rules.

  • Instead of recalling something related to the spoken word, calligraphy for Muslims is a visible expression of the highest art of all, the art of the spiritual world.

  • They are descended from Clerical script, in the same time as Regular script (Han Dynasty), but xíngshū and cǎoshū were used for personal notes only, and never used as a standard.

  • Contemporary artists in the Islamic world may draw on the heritage of calligraphy to create modern calligraphic inscriptions, like corporate logos, or abstractions.

  • Koch’s books, type designs, and teaching made him one of the most influential calligraphers of the 20th century in northern Europe and later in the U.S. Larisch and Koch taught
    and inspired many European calligraphers, notably Karlgeorg Hoefer, and Hermann Zapf.

  • This does not provide for a large body of secular pieces, although they do exist (but are usually related in some way to Tibetan Buddhism).

  • However the term “Islamic calligraphy” is a more appropriate term as it comprises all works of calligraphy by Muslim calligraphers of different national cultures, like Persian
    or Ottoman calligraphy, from Al-Andalus in medieval Spain to China.

  • The Kaishu shape of characters 1000 years ago was mostly similar to that at the end of Imperial China.

  • [20] Traditional regular script, still in use today, and attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361) and his followers, is even more regularized.

  • [1]: 18  Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable.

  • [25][26][27] Due to the diversity of suyat scripts, all calligraphy written in suyat scripts are collectively called as Filipino suyat calligraphy, although each are distinct
    from each other.

  • Johnston also devised the crafted round calligraphic handwriting style, written with a broad pen, known today as the Foundational hand.

  • Many different parameters influence the final result of a calligrapher’s work.

  • The 17th century saw the Batarde script from France, and the 18th century saw the English script spread across Europe and world through their books.

  • These are not considered traditional styles, and are normally not written.

  • Style[edit] Unlike a typeface, handwritten calligraphy is characterised by irregularity in the characters which vary in size, shape, style, and color, producing a distinct
    aesthetic value, although it may also make the content illegible to readers.

  • Tibet has been a center of Buddhism for several centuries, and that religion places a great deal of significance on written word.

  • The Ge’ez script is read from left to right and has been adapted to write other languages, usually ones that are also Semitic.

  • [43]: 72  The Gothic calligraphy styles became dominant throughout Europe; and in 1454, when Johannes Gutenberg developed the first printing press in Mainz, Germany, he adopted
    the Gothic style, making it the first typeface.

  • [citation needed] Modern calligraphy Revival[edit] After printing became ubiquitous from the 15th century onward, the production of illuminated manuscripts began to decline.

  • [28][29] Calligraphy using the Western alphabet and the Arabic alphabet are also prevalent in the Philippines due to its colonial past, but the Western alphabet and the Arabic
    alphabet are not considered as suyat, and therefore Western-alphabet and Arabic calligraphy are not considered as suyat calligraphy.

  • As with Chinese or Islamic calligraphy, Western calligraphic script employed the use of strict rules and shapes.

  • [54] Subsequent developments[edit] Graily Hewitt taught at the Central School of Arts and Crafts and published together with Johnston throughout the early part of the century.

  • It is also used for props and moving images for film and television, and also for testimonials, birth and death certificates, maps, and other written works.

  • Various ethno-linguistic groups in the Philippines prior to Spanish colonization in the 16th century up to the independence era in the 21st century have used the scripts with
    various mediums.

  • Western Europe[edit] Roman Antiquity[edit] The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BCE in ancient Rome, and by the first century CE it had developed into Roman imperial capitals
    carved on stones, rustic capitals painted on walls, and Roman cursive for daily use.

  • [19] Between clerical script and traditional regular script, there is another transitional type of calligraphic work called Wei Bei.

  • [2][3][4][5] Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious
    art, announcements, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, and memorial documents.

  • [32] South Asia[edit] India[edit] Main article: Indian calligraphy Religious texts are the most frequent purpose for Indian calligraphy.

  • This is the case with litterea unciales (hence the name), and college-ruled paper often acts as a guideline well.

  • However, works have also been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines.

  • Some of these unorthodox variants, in addition to some newly created characters, compose the simplified Chinese character set.

  • [21] Styles which did not survive include bāfēnshū, a mix of 80% Small Seal script and 20% Clerical script.

  • [clarification needed] It has very strict rules for graphical shape of the letters and for combination of the letters, words, and composition of the whole calligraphy piece.

  • [30][31] Vietnam[edit] Main article: Vietnamese calligraphy Vietnamese calligraphy is called thư pháp (literally “the way of letters or words”) and is based on Chữ Nôm and
    Chữ Hán, an old Vietnamese writing system based on Chinese characters and replaced it with the Latin alphabet.

  • [clarification needed][17] Moreover, each archaic kingdom of current China had its own set of characters.

  • [42] In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the blackletter (“Gothic”) script, which was more compact and made it possible to fit more text on a page.

  • Calligraphy has also influenced ink and wash painting, which is accomplished using similar tools and techniques.

  • The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while stroke order is still the same, according to the old style.

  • By the end of colonialism, only four of the suyat scripts survived and continue to be used by certain communities in everyday life.

  • The Office of the Financier thereupon restricted all legal documents to three hands, namely the Coulee, the Rhonde, (known as Round hand in English) and a Speed Hand sometimes
    called the Bastarda.

  • [citation needed] Africa[edit] Egypt[edit] Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.

  • [15][full citation needed] With the development of Bronzeware script and Large Seal script [16] “cursive” signs continued.

  • Hewitt was central to the revival of gilding in calligraphy, and his prolific output on type design also appeared between 1915 and 1943.


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2. ^ Calligraphy in Arabic is khatt ul-yad (خط اليد) and in Persian is Khosh-Nevisi (خوشنویسی.
3. ^ Such as the Ramsey Psalter,
BL, Harley MS 2904
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Photo credit:’]