cedrus libani


  • This distinct morphology is a habit that is assumed to cope with the competitive environment, since the tree occurs in dense stands mixed with the tall-growing Abies cilicica,
    or in pure stands of young cedar trees.

  • The first-order branches are ascending in young trees; they grow to a massive size and take on a horizontal, wide-spreading disposition.

  • [25][26] When the first cedar of Lebanon was planted in Britain is unknown, but it dates at least to 1664, when it is mentioned in Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and
    the Propagation of Timber.

  • [16][3] C. brevifolia, a closely related species or perhaps a subspecies of C. libani, grows in similar conditions on medium to high mountains in Cyprus from altitudes ranging
    from 900 to 1,525 m (2,953 to 5,003 ft).

  • [8] The specific epithet refers the Lebanon mountain range where the species was first described by French botanist Achille Richard; the tree is commonly known as the Lebanon
    cedar or cedar of Lebanon.

  • [29] Propagation[edit] An eight-month-old seedling In order to germinate Cedrus libani seeds, potting soil is preferred, since it is less likely to contain fungal species
    which may kill the seedling in its early stages.

  • The crown is conical when young, becoming broadly tabular with age with fairly level branches; trees growing in dense forests maintain more pyramidal shapes.

  • Deforestation has been particularly severe in Lebanon and on Cyprus; on Cyprus, only small trees up to 25 m (82 ft) tall survive, though Pliny the Elder recorded cedars 40
    m (130 ft) tall there.

  • [19] The Hebrew prophet Isaiah used the Lebanon cedar (together with “oaks of Bashan”, “all the high mountains” and “every high tower”) as examples of loftiness as a metaphor
    for the pride of the world[20] and in Psalm 92:12 it says “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon”.

  • The leaves are needle-like, arranged in spirals and concentrated at the proximal end of the long shoots, and in clusters of 15–35 on the short shoots; they are 5 to 35 mm
    (0.20 to 1.38 in) long and 1 to 1.5 mm (0.039 to 0.059 in) wide, rhombic in cross-section, and vary from light green to glaucous green with stomatal bands on all four sides.

  • Second-order branches are dense and grow in a horizontal plane.

  • While early versions of the story place the forest in Iran, later Babylonian accounts of the story place the Cedar Forest in the Lebanon.

  • Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic fungus known to cause considerable damage to food crops, attacks the cedar needles, causing them to turn yellow and drop.

  • [37][38][39] Because during the seedling stage, differentiating C. libani from C. atlantica or C. deodara is difficult,[40] the American University of Beirut has developed
    a DNA-based method of identification to ensure that reforestation efforts in Lebanon are of the cedars of Lebanon and not other types.

  • The Lebanon cedar recognized by the state is located inside Hot Springs National Park and is estimated to be over 100 years old.

  • The female seed cones also grow at the terminal ends of short shoots.

  • [22][23] Arkansas, among other US states, has a Champion Tree program that records exceptional tree specimens.

  • [35][36] Lebanese cedar populations are also expanding through an active program combining replanting and protection of natural regeneration from browsing goats, hunting,
    forest fires, and woodworms.

  • Mature cones open from top to bottom, they disintegrate and lose their seed scales, releasing the seeds until only the cone rachis remains attached to the branches.

  • Before sowing it is important to soak the seed at room temperature for a period of 24 hours followed by cold stratification (~ 3–5 °C) for two to four weeks.

  • Armillaria mellea (commonly known as honey fungus) is a basidiomycete that fruits in dense clusters at the base of trunks or stumps and attacks the roots of cedars growing
    in wet soils.

  • Finally, Lebanon is sometimes metonymically referred to as the Land of the Cedars.

  • [33] Attempts have been made at various times throughout history to conserve the Lebanon cedars.

  • The tree grows in well-drained calcareous lithosols on rocky, north- and west-facing slopes and ridges and thrives in rich loam or a sandy clay in full sun.

  • [11][12] Genetic relationship studies, however, did not recognize C. brevifolia as a separate species, the markers being undistinguishable from those of C.

  • In Turkey, it can occur as low as 500 m (1,600 ft).

  • It is the national emblem of Lebanon and is widely used as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens.


Works Cited

[‘1. Gardner, M. (2013). “Cedrus libani”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T46191675A46192926. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T46191675A46192926.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
2. ^ Knight Syn. Conif. 42 1850
3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d
e f g h Farjon 2010, p. 258
4. ^ Jump up to:a b Masri 1995
5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hemery & Simblet 2014, p. 53
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c CABI 2013, p. 116
7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Farjon 2010, p. 259
8. ^ Farjon 2010, p. 254
9. ^ Bory 1823,
p. 299
10. ^ Debazac 1964
11. ^ Jump up to:a b Ladjal 2001
12. ^ Fabre et al. 2001, pp. 88–89
13. ^ Fady et al. 2000
14. ^ Kharrat 2006, p. 282
15. ^ “Cedrus libani Cedar of Lebanon PFAF Plant Database”. pfaf.org. Plants for a Future.
Retrieved 6 January 2017.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b Gardner, M. (2013). “Cedrus libani var. libani”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42305A2970821. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42305A2970821.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
17. ^ Sherratt,
Susan; Bennet, John (2017). Archaeology and Homeric epic. Oxford: Oxbow Books. p. 127. ISBN 9781785702969. OCLC 959610992.
18. ^ Leviticus 14:1–4
19. ^ “Welcome to Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Church’s Homepage”. Archived from the original on
2 June 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
20. ^ Isaiah 2:13
21. ^ Psalm 92:12 – “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon”
22. ^ Erman 1927, p. 261
23. ^ Cromer 2004, p. 58
24. ^ “Cedar Lebanon (Cedrus
libani)”. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b Hemery & Simblet 2014, p. 55
26. ^ Howard 1955, p. 168
27. ^ Hemery & Simblet 2014, p. 54
28. ^ “Cedrus libani”. www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural
Society. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
29. ^ “AGM Plants – Ornamental” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
30. ^ Tree Seed Online LTD
31. ^ Jump up to:a b CABI 2013, p. 117
32. ^ Coxe 1808, p. CED
33. ^
Willan, R. G. N. (1990). The Cyprus Cedar. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Yearbk. 1990: 115–118.
34. ^ Shackley, pp. 420–421
35. ^ Anon. History of Turkish Forestry. Turkish Ministry of Forestry.
36. ^ Jump up to:a b Khuri, S. & Talhouk, S. N. (1999). Cedar
of Lebanon. pp. 108–111. in: Farjon, A. & Page, C. N. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Conifers. IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group. ISBN 2-8317-0465-0.
37. ^ Talhouk & Zurayk 2004, pp. 411–414
38. ^ Semaan, M. & Haber, R. (2003). In
situ conservation on Cedrus libani in Lebanon. Acta Hort. 615: 415–417.
39. ^ Cedars of Lebanon Nature Reserve Archived 19 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
40. ^ Barnard, Anne. “Climate Change Is Killing the Cedars of Lebanon”. Retrieved 19 July
41. ^ Farjon, Aljos. Conifers: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 1999, p. 110
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/3510294699/’]