cell signaling


  • Reception occurs when the target cell (any cell with a receptor protein specific to the signal molecule) detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule,
    via binding to a receptor protein on the cell surface, or once inside the cell, the signaling molecule can bind to intracellular receptors, other elements, or stimulate enzyme activity (e.g.

  • G protein-coupled receptors are a large group of evolutionarily-related proteins that are cell surface receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate cellular

  • The activated receptor must first interact with other proteins inside the cell before the ultimate physiological effect of the ligand on the cell’s behavior is produced.

  • Cell surface receptors usually bind with extracellular signals (or ligands), which causes a conformational change in the receptor that leads it to initiate enzymic activity,
    or to open or close ion channel activity.

  • However, for many cell surface receptors, ligand-receptor interactions are not directly linked to the cell’s response.

  • [26] Cell surface receptors[edit] See also: Ligand (biochemistry) and Receptor–ligand kinetics Cell surface receptors play an essential role in the biological systems of single-
    and multi-cellular organisms and malfunction or damage to these proteins is associated with cancer, heart disease, and asthma.

  • Often, the behavior of a chain of several interacting cell proteins is altered following receptor activation.

  • Animals have a small set of genes that code for signaling proteins that interact specifically with Notch receptors and stimulate a response in cells that express Notch on
    their surface.

  • Signaling molecules can be synthesized from various biosynthetic pathways and released through passive or active transports, or even from cell damage.

  • [40] In addition to nuclear receptors, several G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels act as cell surface receptors for certain steroid hormones.

  • Other intracellular receptors like nuclear receptors have a different mechanism such as changing their DNA binding properties and cellular localization to the nucleus.

  • The entire set of cell changes induced by receptor activation is called a signal transduction mechanism or pathway.

  • One cell will happen to produce more of a cell surface protein that activates the Notch receptor on the adjacent cell.

  • The signaling molecule binds to the receptor on the outside of the cell and causes a conformational change on the catalytic function located on the receptor inside the cell.

  • Cell signaling research involves studying the spatial and temporal dynamics of both receptors and the components of signaling pathways that are activated by receptors in various
    cell types.

  • Each cell is programmed to respond to specific extracellular signal molecules,[5] and is the basis of development, tissue repair, immunity, and homeostasis.

  • Signal transduction pathways When binding to the signaling molecule, the receptor protein changes in some way and starts the process of transduction, which can occur in a
    single step or as a series of changes in a sequence of different molecules (called a signal transduction pathway).

  • [27] These trans-membrane receptors are able to transmit information from outside the cell to the inside because they change conformation when a specific ligand binds to it.

  • Many growth factors bind to receptors at the cell surface and stimulate cells to progress through the cell cycle and divide.

  • They are generally intracellular receptors (typically cytoplasmic or nuclear) and initiate signal transduction for steroid hormones which lead to changes in gene expression
    over a time period of hours to days.

  • [12] In plants and animals, signaling between cells occurs either through release into the extracellular space, divided in paracrine signaling (over short distances) and endocrine
    signaling (over long distances), or by direct contact, known as juxtacrine signaling such as notch signaling.

  • Extracellular signal Synthesis and release[edit] Different types of extracellular signaling Many cell signals are carried by molecules that are released by one cell and move
    to make contact with another cell.

  • A majority of signaling pathways control protein synthesis by turning certain genes on and off in the nucleus.

  • Juxtacrine[edit] Juxtacrine signaling is a type of cell–cell or cell–extracellular matrix signaling in multicellular organisms that requires close contact.

  • Exocytosis and its counterpart, endocytosis, the process that brings substances into the cell, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are
    large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic portion of the cell membrane by passive transport.

  • [23] Receptors Cells receive information from their neighbors through a class of proteins known as receptors.

  • Many cellular proteins are activated downstream of the growth factor receptors (such as EGFR) that initiate this signal transduction pathway.

  • Juxtacrine signalling via direct membrane contacts is also present between neuronal cell bodies and motile processes of microglia both during development,[22] and in the adult

  • Specificity of signaling can be controlled if only some cells can respond to a particular hormone.

  • Ligand receptor interactions such as that of the Notch receptor interaction, are known to be the main interactions responsible for cell signaling mechanisms and communication.

  • Signaling molecules known as paracrine factors diffuse over a relatively short distance (local action), as opposed to cell signaling by endocrine factors, hormones which travel
    considerably longer distances via the circulatory system; juxtacrine interactions; and autocrine signaling.

  • Receptors play a key role in cell signaling as they are able to detect chemical signals or physical stimuli.

  • Part of the Notch protein is released from the cell surface membrane and takes part in gene regulation.

  • Signaling molecules interact with a target cell as a ligand to cell surface receptors, and/or by entering into the cell through its membrane or endocytosis for intracrine

  • [citation needed] Complex multi-component signal transduction pathways provide opportunities for feedback, signal amplification, and interactions inside one cell between multiple
    signals and signaling pathways.

  • There are three major types: Ion channel linked receptors, G protein–coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

  • [57] In notch signaling, direct contact between cells allows for precise control of cell differentiation during embryonic development.

  • The multistep process of the transduction stage is often composed of the activation of proteins by addition or removal of phosphate groups or even the release of other small
    molecules or ions that can act as messengers.

  • The mating factor peptide may bind to a cell surface receptor on other yeast cells and induce them to prepare for mating.

  • Some receptors do not contain enzymatic or channel-like domains but are instead linked to enzymes or transporters.

  • As part of the endocrine system, intracellular estrogen receptors from a variety of cell types can be activated by estrogen produced in the ovaries.

  • [4] Signals that originate from outside a cell (or extracellular signals) can be physical agents like mechanical pressure, voltage, temperature, light, or chemical signals
    (e.g., small molecules, peptides, or gas).

  • While some receptors are cell-surface proteins, others are found inside cells.

  • Notch is a cell surface protein that functions as a receptor.

  • Receptors may bind with some molecules (ligands) or may interact with physical agents like light, mechanical temperature, pressure, etc.

  • [15] Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the human body and has a number of biological signaling functions.

  • [20] Although paracrine signaling elicits a diverse array of responses in the induced cells, most paracrine factors utilize a relatively streamlined set of receptors and pathways.

  • In this context, the signaling molecules are called autoinducers.

  • Signaling molecules binding surface receptors are generally large and hydrophilic (e.g.

  • [41] Key components of a signal transduction pathway (MAPK/ERK pathway shown) A more complex signal transduction pathway is the MAPK/ERK pathway, which involves changes of
    protein–protein interactions inside the cell, induced by an external signal.

  • For example, the neurotransmitter GABA can activate a cell surface receptor that is part of an ion channel.

  • glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones, cholecalciferol, retinoic acid), but important exceptions to both are numerous, and the same molecule can act both via surface receptors
    or in an intracrine manner to different effects.

  • Molecules that activate (or, in some cases, inhibit) receptors can be classified as hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, and growth factors, in general called receptor


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