Other states have a one-tier system whereby an individual would be certified and licensed at the same time when both the CPA exam is passed and the work experience requirement
has been met.
 To become a CPA in Australia, it also requires a certain amount of education and experience to be eligible working in some specific areas in the accounting field.
 On April 17, 1896, Chapter 312 of the Laws of the State of New York established that the Regents of the University of the State of New York would provide a Certificate
of Public Accountancy to individuals over age 21, of good moral character, and who possessed or intended to declare citizenship in the United States with appropriate accounting education or experience either through examination or previous
 Work experience requirement The experience component varies from state to state: • The two-tier states generally do not require that the individual have work experience
to receive a CPA certificate.
Many states, however, require that the ethics course include a review of that state’s specific rules for professional practice.
At the same time, the state board of accountancy’s ability to discipline is enhanced by being based on a CPA and the CPA firm’s performance of services (either physically,
electronically or otherwise within a state), rather than being based on whether a state license is held.
State licensing requirements vary, but the minimum standard requirements include passing the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination, 150 semester units of college
education, and one year of accounting-related experience.
• Some states, such as Massachusetts, waive the work experience requirement for those with a higher academic qualification compared to the state’s requirement to appear for
the Uniform CPA.
• The majority of states still require work experience to be of a public accounting nature, namely two years audit or tax experience, or a combination of both.
 However, the California Board of Accountancy itself has determined that the terms “accountant” and “accounting” are misleading to members of the public, many of whom
believe that a person who uses these terms must be licensed.
All states would start using the standard CPA exam administered by the organization which would eventually become the AICPA by 1952.
In Texas, only one year of experience in accounting under the supervision of a CPA is required; such experience does not have to be in public accounting.
One specific challenge with regards to adding information technology into accounting curricula is the balance of preparing students for the CPA exam and preparing to work
as a CPA following graduation.
State laws vary widely regarding whether a non-CPA is even allowed to use the title “accountant”.
Some states have a two-tier system whereby an individual would first become certified—usually by passing the Uniform CPA Exam.
 Whether providing services directly to the public or employed by corporations or associations, CPAs can operate in virtually any area of finance including: • Assurance
and attestation services • Corporate finance (merger and acquisition, initial public offerings, share and debt issuings) • Corporate governance • Estate planning • Financial accounting • Governmental accounting • Financial analysis • Financial
planning • Forensic accounting (preventing, detecting, and investigating financial frauds) • Income tax • Information technology, especially as applied to accounting and auditing • Management consulting and performance management • Tax preparation
and planning • Venture capital • Financial reporting • Regulatory compliance • SOC engagements CPA exam To become a CPA in the United States, the candidate must sit for and pass the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination (Uniform
CPA Exam), which is set by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and administered by the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA).
[needs update] A number of states are two-tiered, but require work experience for the CPA certificate, such as Ohio and Pennsylvania.
 In general, state boards accept group live and group internet-based credits for all credit requirements, while some states cap the number of credits obtained through
the self-study format.
To become a full member of AICPA, the applicant must hold a valid CPA certificate or license from at least one of the fifty-five U.S. state/territory boards of accountancy;
some additional requirements apply.
The Regents appointed a Board of Examiners, similar to today’s NASBA, the first members of which were Charles Sprague, Frank Broaker, and C. W. Haskins Many accounting
professionals believed the 150 credit requirement—implemented in several states first in 1988 and then expanded to nearly all states in 2001—would lead to more knowledgeable, experienced CPAs.
In today’s digital age, many organizations require the professional services of CPAs to conduct business on an interstate and international basis and have compliance responsibilities
in multiple jurisdictions.
Practice mobility for CPAs is the general ability of a licensee in good standing from a substantially equivalent state to gain practice privilege outside of the practitioner’s
home state without getting an additional license in the state where the CPA will serve a client or an employer.
 Provinces in Canada also allow non-accounting majors and international candidates to meet the requirements if they get into the CPA Prerequisite Education Program (CPA
 The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) have analyzed the current system for
gaining practice privileges across state lines and have endorsed a uniform mobility system.
 Before 1917, individual states had their own licensing examinations where accountants could earn the CPA credential, but this differed significantly from state to state.
 CPAs who maintain state CPA society memberships are required to follow a society professional code of conduct (in addition to any code enforced by the state regulatory
authority), further reassuring clients that the CPA is an ethical business professional conducting a legitimate business who can be trusted to handle confidential personal and business financial matters.
Examiners saw that employers of new CPAs would require the use of analysis and application of skills instead of basic remembering and understanding.
 On July 28, 1882, the Institute of Accountants and Bookkeepers of the City of New York became the first accounting corporation which supports the need of people in the
accounting field and for educational purposes.
Benefits of membership in a state CPA association range from deep discounts on seminars that qualify for continuing education credits to protecting the public and profession’s
interests by tracking and lobbying legislative issues that affect local state tax and financial planning issues.
Work experience is required, however, to receive a license to practice.
Ethics Over 40 of the state boards now require applicants for CPA status to complete a special examination on ethics, which is effectively a fifth exam in terms of requirements
to become a CPA.
In audit engagements, CPAs are (and have always been) required by professional standards and Federal and State laws to maintain independence (both in fact and in appearance)
from the entity for which they are conducting an attestation (audit and review) engagement.
History of profession In 1660, the first person who would conduct an audit was chosen in order to be able to manage the money that was raised by England in Virginia, United
Requirements may include: • Obtaining 150 credit hours (150 college semester units or the equivalent) with a baccalaureate degree; • Minimum one year of CPA experience; •
Passing the Uniform CPA Examination.
State CPA associations also serve the community by providing information and resources about the CPA profession and welcome inquiries from students, business professionals
and the public-at-large.
The Uniform CPA Exam tests general principles of state law such as the laws of contracts and agency (questions not tailored to the variances of any particular state) and some
federal laws as well.
In order to be qualified for this certificate, candidates who major in accounting will get accepted to enter CPA Professional Education Program (CPA PEP).
In the United States, the CPA is a license to provide accounting services to the public.
 As part of the CPE requirement, most states require their CPAs to take an ethics course at some frequency (such as every or every other renewal period).
• The majority of states require an applicant’s work experience to be verified by someone who is already licensed as a CPA.
The new model will allow candidates to show a deeper knowledge of the content while still testing the foundation of accounting principles.
The research reveals that for candidates with less than 150 credits, only 13% passed the CPA exam on their first try.
One big change was in 2013, when the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) mandated that information technology be included in all accredited accounting
In 1887, the American Association of Public Accountants was created to set moral standards for the practice of accounting.
 Practice mobility: the substantial equivalency rule An accountant is required to meet the legal requirements of any state in which the accountant wishes to practice.
Many states have adopted what is known as the “150 hour rule” (150 college semester units or the equivalent), which usually requires an additional year of education past
a regular 4-year college degree, or a master’s degree.
The system enables consumers to receive timely services from the CPA best suited to the job, regardless of location, and without the hindrances of unnecessary filings, forms
and increased costs that do not protect the public interest.
Uniform adoption of the UAA’s substantial equivalency provision creates a system similar to the nation’s driver’s license program by providing CPAs with mobility while retaining
and strengthening state boards’ ability to protect the public interest.
 With the accountancy and industry growing in the world, the need of looking for services from professional accountants who had higher standards and were recognized had
State CPA association membership CPAs may also choose to become members of their local state association or society (also optional).
The exams were administered to further the cause of professional cohesion among the accounting profession, verified membership to practice accounting, and for individuals
to earn membership in the Institute of Public Accountants (IPA).
It established four sections: Auditing, Commercial Law, Accounting Theory and Practice Part 1, and Accounting Theory and Practice Part 2.
 Since technological proficiency is more important than in prior years, accounting organizations have begun starting to teach technology within the accounting curricula
in colleges and universities.
That individual would then later be eligible to be licensed once a certain amount of work experience is accomplished.
For example, Texas prohibits the use of the designations “accountant” and “auditor” by a person not certified as a Texas CPA, unless that person is a CPA in another state,
is a non-resident of Texas, and otherwise meets the requirements for practice in Texas by out-of-state CPA firms and practitioners.
The first person to receive the CPA through examination and previous experience was Joseph Hardcastle, who would go on to become an accounting theorist and New York University
For example, California allows unlicensed accountants to work as public accountants if they work under the control and supervision of a CPA.
Continuing professional education Like other professionals, CPAs are required to take continuing education courses toward continuing professional development (continuing
professional education [CPE]) to renew their license.
However, some states such as Colorado and Oregon also accept work experience certified by a Chartered Accountant.
Starting in 2024, all CPA candidates will take the same three core sections of Accounting, Auditing, and Taxation.
Many CPAs who live near state borders or who hold CPA status in more than one state may join more than one state CPA society.
Preparing for the CPA exam and preparing to work as a CPA after graduation can be different, making this difficult for professors and schools to figure out what to include
in their curricula.
 CPA in other countries In the United States, “CPA” is an initialism for Certified Public Accountant which is a designation given by a state governing agency, whereas other
countries around the world have their own designations, which may be equivalent to “CPA”.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jfxie/8750288831/’]