chan chan


  • This is believed because of the many ocean-related figures in the building.

  • Although there was no documentation it is possible and a theory that they kept records called Khipus much like the Inca.

  • They also relied very much on their irrigation system, so they believe that worshipping gods related to the ocean is important.

  • [20] This further supports evidence for a hierarchical structure of society in Chan Chan as it was likely that the construction of this architecture was done by the working

  • [28] The work intended to build a 3D Heritage Building Information Model (HBIM) of the Huaca Arco Iris, the largest adobe monumental complex in South America.

  • Additionally, the construction of these massive architectural feats indicates that there was a large labor force available at Chan Chan.

  • The archaeological approach is important for the conservation of sites as it allows the data to exist into the future even as looting occurs and weathering takes place.

  • They designed many beautiful pieces of artwork, some of which is still around today.

  • If you look at a photo of Chan Chan, you will notice how all the buildings are built in a distinct order with space between them.

  • Many canals to the north were destroyed by a catastrophic flood around 1100 CE, which was the key motivation for the Chimú to refocus their economy to one rooted in foreign
    resources rather than in subsistence farming.

  • The time frame of the site’s construction was towards the end of the Middle Horizon in the Central Andes.

  • [13] Chan Chan has been on the world heritage danger list since 1986. since 2000 they have implemented safety measures that include documentation of everything, public management,
    and an emergency and disaster plan.

  • The primary conclusion is that ontology-based Heritage Building Information Models are necessary for the longevity of the physical structures and the collective memory of
    Chan Chan.

  • [7] Chan Chan is the largest mud city in the world, and its fragile material is cause for concern.

  • A Pan-American Course on the Conservation and Management of Earthen Architectural and Archaeological Heritage was funded by many institutes coming together, including ICCROM,
    the Getty Conservation Institute, and the Government of Peru.

  • [10] Methods of conservation include reinforcement and stabilization of structures of main buildings and around the Tschudi Palace, using a blend of traditional and modern
    engineering techniques.

  • Buildings Chan Chan has many different types of buildings many of which have been destroyed.

  • The high reliefs of the walls represent fish, directed towards the north and the south (what can be interpreted as representation of the two currents that mark the Peruvian
    coast: that of Humboldt, cold, that comes from the south and the one of El Niño, hot, that comes from the north), waves, rombito (fishing nets), as well as pelicans and anzumitos (mixture of sea lion and otter).

  • [8] Because the lower classes were often artisans whose role in the empire was to produce crafts, many of these SIARs were used as workshops.

  • This coastal society was governed by the powerful Chimucapac and was united by the force of a social control originated in the necessity of a strict management of the water,
    as well as by the external threats.

  • Something that the Chimu civilians worship very much is the ocean, they are directly next to the Pacific Ocean and get most of their food through it.

  • [8] While no longer a teeming capital city, Chan Chan was still well known for its great riches and was consequently looted by the Spaniards.

  • [5] Chimor, a conquest state,[3] developed from the Chimú culture which established itself along the Peruvian coast around 900 CE.

  • [28] An international conference for the theme of adobe architecture took place in Iran in 1972.

  • [8] the Incas used a system called the “Mitma system of ethnic dispersion” which separated the chimú civilians into places already recently conquered by the Inca.

  • They lived in a classist society where there was a level of important on you, rulers and gods came first and servants can last.

  • These methods also allow archaeologists to have access to the virtual reproductions into the future and foreseeable technological innovations will most likely add to the potential
    for analysis of the site.

  • [22] Irrigation[edit] Water reserve in Chan Chan Originally the city relied on wells that were around 15 meters deep.

  • [15] The city also consisted of 10 citadels yet only 4 have been recovered.

  • It is extremely versatile, especially considering any size bricks can be created and used to build any size structure.

  • [20] Many images seemingly depict structures very similar to audiencias[20] which indicates the cultural importance of architecture to the Chimú people of Chan Chan.

  • There was a pond in the middle of the building that was used for religious ceremonies, fertility, and even worshipping water.

  • Since the canals could run as long as 20 miles down the mountain of the Moche Vally River into Chan Chan, the Incas ended up cutting off their irrigation system which left
    them with dying crops from lack of water.

  • [8] Location: La Libertad Region, Peru; Coordinates: 8°6′21″S 79°4′28″W; History: Founded: 850; Cultures: Chimú culture; UNESCO World Heritage Site: Official name: Chan Chan
    Archaeological Zone; Type: Cultural; Criteria: i, iii; Designated: 1986 (10th session); Reference no.

  • The Italian Mission in Peru has been working alongside local archaeologists and excavators at the Chan Chan site since 2002.

  • The “Nik An” complex had a single entrance and high walls up to twelve meters for a better defense, and was wider at its bases (five meters) than at its summits (one meter),
    in anticipation of possible earthquakes on the seismic coast.

  • In 1963, the Patrona de Arqueologia of Trujillo carried out a project to restore much of the walls at the site.

  • [7] Due to the lack of rain in this area, the major source of nonsalted water for Chan Chan is in the form of rivers carrying surface runoff from the Andes.

  • [8] Housing for the lower classes of Chan Chan’s hierarchical society are known as small, irregular agglutinated rooms (SIARs).

  • [16] Workers and people Chan Chan held many different types of workers and people.

  • [8] In addition to the ciudadelas, other compounds present in Chan Chan include courts, or audiencias,[20] small, irregular agglutinated rooms (SIARs) and mounds called huacas.

  • Different methods of survey can be utilized but any methodology must be both quick enough to maximize access to extant physical material and accurate enough to document the
    site effectively.


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“Legal Documentation of the Peruvian Government taking care of Chan Chan” (.PDF).
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Chimu Occupation of Chan Chan”. Journal of Anthropological Research. 29 (4): 275–295. doi:10.1086/jar.29.4.3629879. JSTOR 3629879. S2CID 163416043.
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Photo credit:’]