christian culture


  • [118] According to the study, Christians in North America, Europe, Middle East, North Africa and Asia-Pacific regions are highly educated since many of the world universities
    were built by the historic Christian Churches,[118] in addition to the historical evidence that “Christian monks built libraries and, in the days before printing presses, preserved important earlier writings produced in Latin, Greek and Arabic”.

  • In the 19th century the leadership in western art moved away from the Catholic Church which, after embracing historical revivalism was increasingly affected by the modernist
    movement, a movement that in its “rebellion” against nature, counters the Church’s emphasis on nature as a good creation of God.

  • Byzantine art became increasingly conservative, as the form of images themselves, many accorded divine origin or thought to have been be painted by Saint Luke or other figures,
    was held to have a status not far off that of a scriptural text.

  • Neither of these attitudes were held in Western Europe, but Byzantine art nonetheless had great influence there until the High Middle Ages, and remained very popular long
    after that, with vast numbers of icons of the Cretan School exported to Europe as late as the Renaissance.

  • Although the influence has often been resisted Catholic art has also affected Orthodox depictions in many respects, especially in countries like Romania, and in the post-Byzantine
    Cretan School, which led Greek Orthodox art under Venetian rule in the 15th and 16th centuries.

  • [103] The medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of enquiry and produced a great variety of fine
    scholars and natural philosophers, including Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation;[104] and Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research[105]
    The Catholic church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe.

  • Most Christian groups use or have used art to some extent, although some have had strong objections to some forms of religious image, and there have been major periods of
    iconoclasm within Christianity.

  • The Protestant Reformation during the 16th century in Europe almost entirely rejected the existing tradition of Catholic art, and very often destroyed as much of it as it
    could reach.

  • Christianity had a significant impact on education and science and medicine as the church created the basis of the Western system of education,[62] and was the sponsor of
    founding universities in the Western world as the university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting.

  • Catholic art has played a leading role in the history and development of Western art since at least the 4th century.

  • The notion of Europe and the Western world has been intimately connected with the concept of Christianity and Christendom, many even consider Christianity to be the link that
    created a unified European identity,[6] although some progress originated elsewhere: Renaissance and Romanticism began with the curiosity and passion of the pagan world of old.

  • The art of Eastern Catholicism has always been rather closer to the Orthodox art of Greece, and in countries near the Orthodox world, notably Poland, Catholic art has many
    Orthodox influences.

  • Art and literature, law, education, and politics were preserved in the teachings of the Church, in an environment that, otherwise, would have probably seen their loss.

  • Many Eastern Orthodox states in Eastern Europe, as well as to some degree the Muslim states of the eastern Mediterranean, preserved many aspects of the empire’s culture and
    art for centuries afterward.

  • The influence of Christianity on poetry has been great in any area that Christianity has taken hold.

  • A new artistic tradition developed, producing far smaller quantities of art that followed Protestant agendas and diverged drastically from the southern European tradition
    and the humanist art produced during the High Renaissance.

  • [64][63][99] Prior to the establishment of universities, European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae
    monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD.

  • [51][52][53] Although Western culture contained several polytheistic religions during its early years under the Greek and Roman Empires, as the centralized Roman power waned,
    the dominance of the Catholic Church was the only consistent force in Western Europe.

  • [28] Cultural influence The Bible has had a profound influence on Western civilization and on cultures around the globe; it has contributed to the formation of Western law,
    art, texts, and education.

  • They also tend to display a higher level of contemporary architectural style and the work of accomplished craftsmen, and occupy a status both ecclesiastical and social that
    an ordinary parish church does not have.

  • [5][50] Western culture, throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture, and much of the population of the Western hemisphere could broadly
    be described as cultural Christians.

  • Different styles of architecture developed and their fashion spread, carried by the establishment of monastic orders, by the posting of bishops from one region to another
    and by the travelling of master stonemasons who served as architects.

  • Christianity played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization, in particular, the Catholic Church and Protestantism.

  • Christianity played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization, in particular, the Catholic Church and Protestantism.

  • Some of these characteristics are so typical of a particular country or region that they appear, regardless of style, in the architecture of churches designed many centuries

  • Education The university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting.

  • [72][73][74] The cultural influence of Christianity includes social welfare,[75] founding hospitals,[76] economics (as the Protestant work ethic),[77][78] natural law (which
    would later influence the creation of international law),[79] politics,[80] architecture,[81] literature,[82] personal hygiene (ablution),[83][84][85][86] and family life.

  • Medieval Christianity created the first modern universities.

  • Christian culture generally includes all the cultural practices which have developed around the religion of Christianity.

  • [96] As the Western Roman Empire disintegrated and was taken over by “barbarian” peoples, the art of the Byzantine Empire reached levels of sophistication, power and artistry
    not previously seen in Christian art, and set the standards for those parts of the West still in touch with Constantinople.

  • Clarke calls this “the intellectual background of all the sublime works of art of the next century and in fact has remained the basis of our belief of the value of art until

  • Such a cathedral or great church is generally one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride.

  • According to the historian Geoffrey Blainey, the universities benefitted from the use of Latin, the common language of the Church, and its internationalist reach, and their
    role was to “teach, argue and reason within a Christian framework”.

  • 900 (from Preslav, Bulgaria) Christian art began, about two centuries after Christ, by borrowing motifs from Roman Imperial imagery, classical Greek and Roman religion and
    popular art.

  • A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire were culturally influenced by it, without actually being part of it (the “Byzantine commonwealth”).

  • Traditional models evolved for narrative paintings, including large cycles covering the events of the Life of Christ, the Life of the Virgin, parts of the Old Testament, and,
    increasingly, the lives of popular saints.

  • History shows that in evangelized lands, the first people to operate schools were Roman Catholics.

  • The dedication of Constantinople as capital in 330 AD created a great new Christian artistic centre for the Eastern Roman Empire, which soon became a separate political unit.

  • Catholic art[edit] Main article: Roman Catholic art Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Theresa Roman Catholic art consists of all visual works produced in an attempt to illustrate,
    supplement and portray in tangible form the teachings of the Catholic Church.

  • Certain artistic traditions that originated in the Byzantine Empire, particularly in regard to icon painting and church architecture, are maintained in Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria,
    Macedonia, and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day.

  • Protestant art[edit] Further information: Hymnody of continental Europe, Anglican church music, Church architecture § The Reformation and its influence on church architecture,
    and Lutheran art Hans Holbein the Younger’s Noli me tangere a relatively rare Protestant oil painting of Christ from the Reformation period.

  • The principal subject matter of Catholic art has been the life and times of Jesus Christ, along with those of his disciples, the saints, and the events of the Jewish Old Testament.

  • [5] Western culture, throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture.

  • [92] Architecture The architecture of cathedrals, basilicas and abbey churches is characterised by the buildings’ large scale and follows one of several branching traditions
    of form, function and style that all ultimately derive from the Early Christian architectural traditions established in the Constantinian period.

  • A large number of mainline Protestants have played leadership roles in many aspects of American life, including politics, business, science, the arts, and education.

  • [63][64] Many clerics throughout history have made significant contributions to science and Jesuits in particular have made numerous significant contributions to the development
    of science.

  • The Christian Church in Rome was influenced by the Roman style of art and the religious Christian artists of the time.

  • Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church.

  • Art produced by Eastern Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire is often called “post-Byzantine”.

  • [95] In both East and West, numerous iconic types of Christ, Mary and saints and other subjects were developed; the number of named types of icons of Mary, with or without
    the infant Christ, was especially large in the East, whereas Christ Pantocrator was much the commonest image of Christ.

  • As Christianity and the construction of churches and cathedrals spread throughout the world, their manner of building was dependent upon local materials and local techniques.

  • A Pew Center study about religion and education around the world in 2016, found that Christians ranked as the second most educated religious group around in the world after
    Jews with an average of 9.3 years of schooling,[118] and the highest of years of schooling among Christians found in Germany (13.6),[118] New Zealand (13.5) and Estonia (13.1).

  • [42][43] Historian Paul Legutko of Stanford University said the Catholic Church is “at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws, and institutions
    which constitute what we call Western civilization.

  • However, there is also a considerable history of aniconism in Christianity from various periods.

  • [121] The King James Version in particular has long been considered a masterpiece of English prose, whatever may be thought of its religious significance.

  • An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Orthodox Christianity.

  • [101][102] Many of Western Civilization’s most influential universities were founded by the Catholic Church.

  • Religious images are used to some extent by the Abrahamic Christian faith, and often contain highly complex iconography, which reflects centuries of accumulated tradition.

  • [118] According to the same study “there is a large and pervasive gap in educational attainment between Muslims and Christians in sub-Saharan Africa” as Muslim adults in this
    region are far less educated than their Christian counterparts,[118] with scholars suggesting that this gap is due to the educational facilities that were created by Christian missionaries during the colonial era for fellow believers.

  • [7][8] Christians have made a noted contributions to human progress in a broad and diverse range of fields, both historically and in modern times, including science and technology,
    medicine,[14] fine arts and architecture,[15][16][17] politics, literatures,[17] music,[17] philanthropy, philosophy,[18][19][20]: 15  ethics,[21] humanism,[22][23][24] theatre and business.

  • Abbot Suger of the Abbey of St. Denis is considered an influential early patron of Gothic architecture and believed that love of beauty brought people closer to God: “The
    dull mind rises to truth through that which is material”.

  • [46][47] Protestants have extensively developed a unique culture that has made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order,
    the economy and the arts, and many other fields.

  • The study of these forms part of iconography in Art history.

  • Consequently, different versions of the Christian cultures arose with their own rites and practices, centered around the cities such as Rome (Western Christianity) and Carthage,
    whose communities was called Western or Latin Christendom,[33] and Constantinople (Eastern Christianity), Antioch (Syriac Christianity), Kerala (Indian Christianity) and Alexandria, among others, whose communities were called Eastern or Oriental

  • Especially in the West, a system of attributes developed for identifying individual figures of saints by a standard appearance and symbolic objects held by them; in the East
    they were more likely to identified by text labels.

  • The majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many illuminated manuscripts survive from the 15th-century Renaissance, along with a very limited
    number from Late Antiquity.

  • In their views, not only did the monks save and cultivate the remnants of ancient civilization during the barbarian invasions, but the medieval church promoted learning and
    science through its sponsorship of many universities which, under its leadership, grew rapidly in Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries, St. Thomas Aquinas, the Church’s “model theologian”, not only argued that reason is in harmony with faith,
    he even recognized that reason can contribute to understanding revelation, and so encouraged intellectual development.

  • The “Handmaiden” tradition, which saw secular studies of the universe as a very important and helpful part of arriving at a better understanding of scripture, was adopted
    throughout Christian history from early on.

  • Family life Christian culture puts notable emphasis on the family,[296] and according to the work of scholars Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody and Peter
    Laslett, the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was “fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism, early Christianity, Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation”.

  • Throughout history many of the Roman Catholic clerics have made contributions to science, mostly during periods of Church domination of public life.

  • Despite some opposition to pagan learning, many of the most distinguished classical scholars held high office in the Church.

  • Professor Noah J Efron says that “Generations of historians and sociologists have discovered many ways in which Christians, Christian beliefs, and Christian institutions played
    crucial roles in fashioning the tenets, methods, and institutions of what in time became modern science.

  • [220] The Merton Thesis has two separate parts: Firstly, it presents a theory that science changes due to an accumulation of observations and improvement in experimental techniques
    and methodology; secondly, it puts forward the argument that the popularity of science in 17th-century England and the religious demography of the Royal Society (English scientists of that time were predominantly Puritans or other Protestants)
    can be explained by a correlation between Protestantism and the scientific values.

  • [154] Also the sense that God created the world as a self operating system is what motivated many Christians throughout the Middle Ages to investigate nature.

  • [190] Eastern Christianity[edit] See also: Christian influences in Islam, Byzantine science, List of Christian scientists and scholars of the medieval Islamic world, and Greek
    scholars in the Renaissance Byzantine science was essentially classical science,[191] and played an important and crucial role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy.

  • Thought and work ethic The notion of “Christian finance” refers to banking and financial activities which came into existence several centuries ago.

  • “[209] In 1981 John Paul II, then pope of the Roman Catholic Church, spoke of the relationship this way: “The Bible itself speaks to us of the origin of the universe and its
    make-up, not in order to provide us with a scientific treatise, but in order to state the correct relationships of man with God and with the universe.

  • Thus different schools of opinion exist as to the role and influence of the Church in relation to western letters and learning.

  • They found that some forms of Christianity provided the motivation to study nature systematically…”[164] Virtually all modern scholars and historians agree that Christianity
    moved many early-modern intellectuals to study nature systematically.

  • While refined and clarified over the centuries, the Roman Catholic position on the relationship between science and religion is one of harmony, and has maintained the teaching
    of natural law as set forth by Thomas Aquinas.

  • One school of thought attributes Calvinism with setting the stage for the later development of capitalism in northern Europe.

  • [151][152] Christian philosophers Augustine of Hippo (354–430) and Thomas Aquinas[153] held that scriptures can have multiple interpretations on certain areas where the matters
    were far beyond their reach, therefore one should leave room for future findings to shed light on the meanings.

  • [251] Pauli Kettunen presents the Nordic model as the outcome of a sort of mythical “Lutheran peasant enlightenment”, portraying the Nordic model as the result of a sort of
    “secularized Lutheranism”;[252] however, mainstream academic discourse on the subject focuses on “historical specificity”, with the centralized structure of the Lutheran church being but one aspect of the cultural values and state structures
    that led to the development of the welfare state in Scandinavia.

  • According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: “Many modern scholars also agree that the exodus of Greeks to Italy as a result of this event marked the end of the Middle Ages and
    the beginning of the Renaissance”.

  • [222] Protestant values encouraged scientific research by allowing science to study God’s influence on the world and thus providing a religious justification for scientific

  • In time, the Cathedral schools developed into Europe’s earliest universities and the church has established thousands of primary, secondary and tertiary institutions throughout
    the world in the centuries since.

  • [224] Francisco de Vitoria, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas and a Catholic thinker who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the
    United Nations as a father of international law, and now also by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West’s democracy and rapid economic development.

  • Merton explained that the connection between religious affiliation and interest in science was the result of a significant synergy between the ascetic Protestant values and
    those of modern science.

  • [192][193] Many of the most distinguished classical scholars held high office in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

  • [195] The writings of antiquity never ceased to be cultivated in the Byzantine empire due to the impetus given to classical studies by the Academy of Athens in the 4th and
    5th centuries, the vigor of the philosophical academy of Alexandria, and to the services of the University of Constantinople, which concerned itself entirely with secular subjects, to the exclusion of theology,[196] which was taught in the
    Patriarchical Academy.

  • [234] In the book The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It from Itself Lawrence E. Harrison argues that Protestantism along with Confucianism,
    and Judaism have been more successful in promoting progress, culture and society.

  • [165] Individual scientists’ beliefs[edit] See also: List of Christians in science and technology, List of Catholic scientists, and List of Christian Nobel laureates Set of
    pictures for a number of notable Christian scientists and Inventors.

  • Catholic schools have included all manners of scientific study in their curriculum for many centuries.

  • [211][212] According to one modern Cistercian, “enterprise and entrepreneurial spirit” have always been a part of the order’s identity, and the Cistercians “were catalysts
    for development of a market economy” in 12th-century Europe.

  • Communist states have made similar arguments in their education in order to inculcate a negative view of Catholicism (and religion in general) in their citizens.

  • [210] The influence of the Church on Western letters and learning has been formidable.

  • The Protestant concept of God and man allows believers to use all their God-given faculties, including the power of reason.

  • [159] Some of today’s scholars, such as Stanley Jaki, have claimed that Christianity with its particular worldview, was a crucial factor for the emergence of modern science.

  • “[219] Protestant[edit] See also: Merton Thesis and Quakers in science Columbia University was established by the Church of England[114] Protestantism had an important influence
    on science.

  • [207] Catholic Church[edit] Main article: Catholic Church and science See also: List of Catholic scientists and List of Roman Catholic cleric-scientists Jesuit scholars in

  • In the early church, Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship.

  • [257][258] Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world’s nations,[259][260][261] is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians,[262] as well as culturally
    by many non-Christians,[263] and forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it.

  • Christian Scholars and Scientists have made noted contributions to science and technology fields,[9][10][11] as well as Medicine,[14] Many well-known historical figures who
    influenced Western science considered themselves Christian such as Nicolaus Copernicus,[166] Galileo Galilei,[167] Johannes Kepler,[168] Isaac Newton[169] and Robert Boyle.

  • [235][239] The Boston Brahmins, who were regarded as the nation’s social and cultural elites, were often associated with the American upper class, Harvard University;[240]
    and the Episcopal Church.

  • [198][199] Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background;[200] the House of Wisdom was a library, translation institute, and academy established in Abbasid-era
    Baghdad, Iraq.

  • For example, regarding scientific study such as that of evolution, the church’s unofficial position is an example of theistic evolution, stating that faith and scientific
    findings regarding human evolution are not in conflict, though humans are regarded as a special creation, and that the existence of God is required to explain both monogenism and the spiritual component of human origins.

  • [215] The English science historian James Burke examines the impact of Cistercian waterpower, derived from Roman watermill technology such as that of Barbegal aqueduct and
    mill near Arles in the fourth of his ten-part Connections TV series, called “Faith in Numbers”.

  • [297] Historically, extended families were the basic family unit in the Catholic culture and countries.

  • [204][205] The migration waves of Byzantine scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople in 1204 and the end of the Byzantine Empire
    in 1453, is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism,[206] and science.

  • According to the Merton Thesis there was a positive correlation between the rise of Puritanism and Protestant Pietism on the one hand and early experimental science on the

  • These émigrés brought to Western Europe the relatively well-preserved remnants and accumulated knowledge of their own (Greek) civilization, which had mostly not survived the
    Early Middle Ages in the West.

  • The Church and clergymen have also sought at different times to censor texts and scholars.

  • Sacred Scripture wishes simply to declare that the world was created by God, and in order to teach this truth it expresses itself in the terms of the cosmology in use at the
    time of the writer”.

  • [197] Byzantine scientists preserved and continued the legacy of the great Ancient Greek mathematicians and put mathematics in practice.

  • Whether the activities of the Knights Templar (12th century), Mounts of Piety (appeared in 1462) or the Apostolic Chamber attached directly to the Vatican, a number of operations
    of a banking nature (money loan, guarantee, etc.)

  • Jesuit in science[edit] Main article: List of Jesuit scientists The Jesuits have made numerous significant contributions to the development of science.

  • [281][282][283] Even though most Christian denominations does not require male circumcision,[284] male circumcision is widely in many predominantly Christian countries and
    many Christian communities.

  • [194] Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient-pagan philosophy, and metaphysics.

  • The Cistercians made major contributions to culture and technology in medieval Europe: Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture;[216]
    and the Cistercians were the main force of technological diffusion in fields such as agriculture and hydraulic engineering.

  • This idea is also known as the “Protestant ethic thesis”.

  • [243] These families were influential in the development and leadership of arts, culture, science, medicine, law, politics, industry and trade in the United States.

  • In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching.

  • [186][187] Prominent modern scientists advocating Christian belief include Nobel Prize–winning physicists Charles Townes (United Church of Christ member) and William Daniel
    Phillips (United Methodist Church member), evangelical Christian and past head of the Human Genome Project Francis Collins, and climatologist John T.

  • Such children’s worship is often called Sunday school or Sabbath school (Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services).

  • In the late 18th century, Protestant merchant families began to move into banking to an increasing degree, especially in trading countries such as the United Kingdom (Barings),
    Germany (Schroders, Berenbergs)[244] and the Netherlands (Hope & Co., Gülcher & Mulder) At the same time, new types of financial activities broadened the scope of banking far beyond its origins.

  • In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing
    gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore.

  • During the early period of capitalism, the rise of a large, commercial middle class, mainly in the Protestant countri

  • That means that they are allowed to explore God’s creation and, according to Genesis 2:15, make use of it in a responsible and sustainable way.

  • During that process, the church lost some of its most important social responsibilities (health care, education, and social work) as these tasks were assumed by the secular
    Finnish state.

  • He was not unlike other medieval theologians who sought out reason in the effort to defend his faith.

  • [241][242] The Old Philadelphianss were often associated with the American upper class and the Episcopal Church and Quakerism.


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