• Culinary uses[edit] Yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers of the species C. morifolium are boiled to make a tea in some parts of East Asia.

  • Various cultivars of chrysanthemums created in the Edo period were characterized by a remarkable variety of flower shapes, and were exported to China from the end of the Edo
    period, changing the way Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars were grown and their popularity.

  • [15][16] In addition, from the Meiji period (late 19th to early 20th century), many cultivars with flowers over 20 cm (7.87 in) in diameter, called the Ogiku (lit., great
    chrysanthemum) style were created, which influenced the subsequent trend of chrysanthemums.

  • [17] Economic uses Ornamental uses[edit] C. indicum Different colors of Chrysanthemum x morifolium Example of a Japanese bonsai chrysanthemum Modern cultivated chrysanthemums
    are showier than their wild relatives.

  • The way the flowers were grown and shaped also developed, and chrysanthemum culture flourished.

  • From the Meiji period in the latter half of the 19th century, due to the growing importance of the chrysanthemum, which symbolized the Imperial family, the creation of ogiku
    style cultivars with a diameter of 20 cm or more became popular.

  • • In Chinese culture, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of autumn and the flower of the ninth moon.

  • Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system.

  • [39][40] Oceania[edit] Australia[edit] In Australia, on Mother’s Day, which falls in May when the flower is in season, people traditionally wear a white chrysanthemum, or
    a similar white flower to honour their mothers.

  • [32] Chrysanthemum “dolls”, often depicting fictional characters from both traditional sources like kabuki and contemporary sources like Disney, are displayed throughout the
    fall months, and the city of Nihonmatsu hosts the “Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition” every autumn in historical ruin of Nihonmatsu Castle.

  • [26] • The chrysanthemum is one of the “Four Gentlemen” of China (the others being the plum blossom, the orchid, and bamboo).

  • [35] They are also grown into chrysanthemum bonsai forms.

  • Another method is to use pieces of dead wood and the flower grows over the back along the wood to give the illusion from the front that the miniature tree blooms.

  • A number of festivals and shows take place throughout Japan in autumn when the flowers bloom.

  • [12] History Chrysanthemums (Chinese: pinyin: Júhuā) were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC.

  • [24] The chrysanthemum is also the flower of November.

  • Notable uses of and reference to the Imperial chrysanthemum include: o The Imperial Seal of Japan is used by members of the Japanese imperial family.

  • Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed.

  • The tradition of cultivating different varieties of chrysanthemums stretches back 1600 years, and the scale reached a phenomenal level during the Song dynasty until its loss
    to the Jürchens in 1126.

  • became popular, many cultivars were created and many chrysanthemum exhibitions were held.

  • The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom,
    standard (trees), fans, hanging baskets, topiary, bonsai, and cascades.

  • Species As of February 2020, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species:[9] • Chrysanthemum aphrodite Kitam.

  • It is also one of the four symbolic seasonal flowers.

  • The second category is for bonsai flowers, which are combined with dead pieces of wood to give the illusion of miniature trees.

  • The first category is the exhibition of cultivated flowers.

  • [34] Culinary-grade chrysanthemums are used to decorate food, and they remain a common motif for traditional Japanese arts like porcelain, lacquerware and kimono.

  • The Chinese chrysanthemum meant cheerfulness, whereas the red chrysanthemum stood for “I Love”, while the yellow chrysanthemum symbolized slighted love.

  • This is also known as the favorite flower for the month of November.

  • Chrysanthemum Day (Kiku no Sekku) is one of the five ancient sacred festivals.

  • Despite this, chrysanthemum leaves are still a major host for destructive pests, such as leafminer flies including L.

  • In Japan, a form of bonsai chrysanthemum was developed over the centuries.

  • During the Edo period from the 17th century to the 19th century, due to the development of economy and culture, the cultivation of chrysanthemums, cherry blossoms, Japanese
    iris, morning glory, etc.

  • In Italy (and other European countries) the chrysanthemum is the flower that people traditionally bring to their deceased loved ones at the cemetery and is generally associated
    with mourning.

  • • Chrysanthemum shows have been traditionally held in many Japanese towns.

  • The chrysanthemum has been used as a theme of waka (Japanese traditional poetry) since around the 10th century in the Heian period, and Kokin Wakashū is the most famous of

  • • The founding of the chrysanthemum industry dates back to 1884, when the Enomoto brothers of Redwood City, California grew the first chrysanthemums cultivated in America.

  • In the 12th century, during the Kamakura period, when the Retired Emperor Go-Toba adopted it as the mon (family crest) of the Imperial family, it became a flower that symbolized
    autumn in Japan.

  • In 1869, a two-layered, 16-petal design was designated as the symbol of the emperor.

  • [32] Chrysanthemum growing is still practised actively as a hobby by many Japanese people who enter prize plants in contests.

  • [18] Chrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition.

  • The flower heads occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like or decorative, like pompons or buttons.

  • Korea[edit] Korea has a number of flower shows that exhibit the chrysanthemum, such as the Masan Gagopa Chrysanthemum Festival.


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