classical philosophy


  • At the beginning, it was considered a sort of Taoist sect, and there was even a theory about Laozi, founder of Taoism, who went to India and taught his philosophy to Buddha.

  • Cārvāka (Sanskrit: चार्वाक) (atheist) philosophy, also known as Lokāyata, it is a system of Hindu philosophy that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious

  • • Asanga (c. 300), exponent of the Yogacara • Bhartrihari (c 450–510 CE), early figure in Indic linguistic theory • Bodhidharma (c. 440–528 CE), founder of the Zen school
    of Buddhism • Siddhasena Divākara (5th century CE), Jain logician and author of important works in Sanskrit and Prakrit, such as, Nyāyāvatāra (on Logic) and Sanmatisūtra (dealing with the seven Jaina standpoints, knowledge and the objects
    of knowledge) • Vasubandhu (c. 300 CE), one of the main founders of the Indian Yogacara school.

  • Schools of thought Ideas and tenets of Zoroastrian schools of Early Persian philosophy are part of many works written in Middle Persian and of the extant scriptures of the
    zoroastrian religion in Avestan language.

  • Vedic philosophy Indian philosophy begins with the Vedas wherein questions pertaining to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked.

  • He also was a promoter of the New Text school, which considered Confucius as a divine figure and a spiritual ruler of China, who foresaw and started the evolution of the world
    towards the Universal Peace.

  • In contrast, there was an Old Text school that advocated the use of Confucian works written in ancient language (from this comes the denomination Old Text) that were so much
    more reliable.

  • Confucianism was particularly strong during the Han Dynasty, whose greatest thinker was Dong Zhongshu, who integrated Confucianism with the thoughts of the Zhongshu School
    and the theory of the Five Elements.

  • Schools of thought Hundred Schools of Thought The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BCE,[1] an era of great
    cultural and intellectual expansion in China.

  • These latter two became the determining forces of Chinese thought until the introduction of Buddhism.

  • The first charter of human rights by Cyrus the Great as understood in the Cyrus cylinder is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zarathustra
    and developed in Zoroastrian schools of thought of the Achaemenid Era of Iranian history.

  • • Taoism (also called Daoism), a philosophy which emphasizes the Three Jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, and humility, while Taoist thought generally focuses on nature,
    the relationship between humanity and the cosmos; health and longevity; and wu wei (action through inaction).

  • Ancient Iranian philosophy While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions
    were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being’s position in society and their view of man’s role in the universe.

  • Harmony with the Universe, or the source thereof (Tao), is the intended result of many Taoist rules and practices.

  • The Book of Han lists ten major schools, they are: • Confucianism, which teaches that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal
    endeavour especially including self-cultivation and self-creation.

  • Karl Jaspers termed the intense period of philosophical development beginning around the 7th century and concluding around the 3rd century BCE an Axial Age in human thought.

  • • Kundakunda (2nd century CE), exponent of Jain mysticism and Jain nayas dealing with the nature of the soul and its contamination by matter, author of Pañcāstikāyasāra (Essence
    of the Five Existents), the Pravacanasāra (Essence of the Scripture) and the Samayasāra (Essence of the Doctrine) • Nagarjuna (c. 150 – 250 CE), the founder of the Madhyamaka (Middle Path) school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

  • Classical Indian philosophy In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy.

  • In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of medieval philosophy, whereas
    in the Middle East, the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy.

  • • Yajnavalkya – one of the Vedic sages, greatly influenced Buddhistic thought.

  • Mahayana Buddhism was far more successful in China than its rival Hinayana, and both Indian schools and local Chinese sects arose from the 5th century.

  • • Umāsvāti or Umasvami (2nd century CE), author of first Jain work in Sanskrit, Tattvārthasūtra, expounding the Jain philosophy in a most systematized form acceptable to all
    sects of Jainism.

  • • The Miscellaneous School, which integrated teachings from different schools; for instance, Lü Buwei found scholars from different schools to write a book called Lüshi Chunqiu

  • The 3rd and 4th centuries saw the rise of the Xuanxue (mysterious learning), also called Neo-Taoism.

  • • The School of “Minor-talks”, which was not a unique school of thought, but a philosophy constructed of all the thoughts which were discussed by and originated from normal
    people on the street.

  • Ancient Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy is the dominant philosophical thought in China and other countries within the East Asian cultural sphere that share a common
    language, including Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

  • Even though this period – known in its earlier part as the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period – in its latter part was fraught with chaos and bloody battles,
    it is also known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because a broad range of thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely.

  • Two chiefly important monk philosophers were Sengzhao and Daosheng.

  • Genuine philosophical thought, depending upon original individual insights, arose in many cultures roughly contemporaneously.

  • [4] The Agrarians believed that Chinese society should be modeled around that of the early sage king Shen Nong, a folk hero which was portrayed in Chinese literature as “working
    in the fields, along with everyone else, and consulting with everyone else when any decision had to be reached.

  • A main idea of Confucianism is the cultivation of virtue and the development of moral perfection.

  • But probably the most influential and original of these schools was the Chan sect, which had an even stronger impact in Japan as the Zen sect.

  • The thoughts and ideas discussed and refined during this period have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries.

  • His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that human cognition ought to be based on one’s perceptions – one’s sensory experiences,
    such as sight and hearing – instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on the human capacity for abstraction.

  • In particular, they refuted the assumption of Confucius as a godlike figure and considered him as the greatest sage, but simply a human and mortal.

  • Philosophers of Golden Age (184 BCE – 600 CE)[edit] • Valluvar (c. 31 BCE), wrote the Kural text, a treatise on secular ethics.

  • The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant scholars, who were often employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war,
    and diplomacy.


Works Cited

[‘o “Chinese philosophy”, Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 4/6/2014
o ^ Lo, Ping-cheung (1999), Confucian Ethic of Death with Dignity and Its Contemporary Relevance (PDF), Society of Christian Ethics, archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011
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“Zou Yan”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Deutsch, Eliot; Ronald Bontekoei (1999). A companion to world philosophies. Wiley Blackwell. p. 183.
o ^ The significance of Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations Archived
3 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine by Swami Krishnananda
o ^ P. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary By S. Devadas Pillai
o ^ Philip G. Kreyenbroek: “Morals and Society in Zoroastrian Philosophy” in “Persian Philosophy”. Companion
Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
o ^ Mary Boyce: “The Origins of Zoroastrian Philosophy” in “Persian Philosophy”. Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge,
o ^ An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. From Zoroaster to ‘Umar Khayyam. S. H. Nasr & M. Aminrazavi. I. B. Tauris Publishers, London & New York, 2008. ISBN 978-1845115418.
o ^ Zurvan. A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Robert Charles Zaehner. Biblo
and Tannen, 1972. ISBN 0-8196-0280-9.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Sasanian Iran – intellectual life. A. Tafazzoli and A. L. Khromov in: History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Crossroads of Civilization. B. A. Litvinsky, Zhang Guand-Da, R. Shabani
Samghabadi. Unesco, 1996. ISBN 9231032119.
o ^ Mansour Shaki. Falsafa. Philosophy in the pre-Islamic period. Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume IX. 1999. ISBN 0-933273-35-5.
o ^ Prods Oktor Skjaervo. Bardesanes. Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume III. Fasc.
7–8. ISBN 0-7100-9121-4.
o ^ David A. Scott. Manichaean Views of Buddhism in: History of Religions. Vol. 25, No. 2, Nov. 1985. University of Chicago Press.
o ^ Yarshater, Ehsan. 1983. The Cambridge history of Iran, volume 2. pp. 995–997
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