classificatory disputes about art


  • Proceduralists often suggest that it is the process by which a work of art is created or viewed that makes it, art, not any inherent feature of an object, or how well received
    it is by the institutions of the art world after its introduction to society at large.

  • However it is a point of debate whether the video game as a whole should be considered a piece of art of some kind, perhaps a form of interactive art or participatory art.

  • Another approach is to say that “art” is basically a sociological category, that whatever art schools and museums, and artists get away with is considered art regardless of
    formal definitions.

  • The modern distinction does not work well for older periods, such as medieval art, where the most highly regarded art media at the time were often metalwork, engraved gems,
    textiles and other “applied arts”, and the perceived value of artworks often reflected the cost of the materials and sheer amount of time spent creating the work at least as much as the creative input of the artist.

  • It would be difficult and odd to deny that computer and video games include many kinds of art (bearing in mind, of course, that the concept “art” itself is, as indicated,
    open to a variety of definitions).

  • The second, more narrow, more recent sense of the word “art” is roughly as an abbreviation for creative art or “fine art.” Here we mean that skill is being used to express
    the artist’s creativity, or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities.

  • [2] But how best to define the term “art” today is a subject of much contention; many books and journal articles have been published arguing over even the basics of what we
    mean by the term “art” (Davies, 1991 and Carroll, 2000).

  • One of the first philosophers to discuss art in the framework we understand today was Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who described in his Lectures on Aesthetics a ranking
    of the five major arts from most material to most expressive: 1. architecture 2. sculpture 3. painting 4. music 5. poetry Hegel’s listing of the arts caught on particularly in France, and with continual modifications the list has remained
    relevant and a subject of debate in French culture into the 21st century.

  • Art historians and philosophers of art have long had classificatory disputes about art regarding whether a particular cultural form or piece of work should be classified as

  • More recently, the “Young British Artists” (YBAs), led by Damien Hirst, came to prominence in the 1990s and their work is seen as conceptual, even though it relies very heavily
    on the art object to make its impact.

  • Drawing on Ludwig Wittgenstein, Weitz argued that art is an “open concept” whose constituents and criteria for inclusion could change over time;[6] he also sought to distinguish
    purely “descriptive” from “evaluative” uses of the term art.

  • [5] Generalized definitions of art[edit] The traditional Western classifications since the Renaissance have been variants of the hierarchy of genres based on the degree to
    which the work displays the imaginative input of the artist, using artistic theory that goes back to the ancient world.

  • The epithets given to each discipline by its placement of the list are often used to refer to them through paraphrase, particularly with calling film “the seventh art”.

  • At one stage Lochore states, “if people say it’s art, it’s art”.

  • “les arts médiatiques”, including radio, television, and photography 9. comics 10. video games, or digital art forms more generally[4] The ongoing dispute over what should
    constitute the next form of art has been fought for over a century.

  • The French Ministry of Culture often participates in the decision making for defining a “new” art.

  • Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it will be considered design instead of art.

  • Often, it is said that art is a cluster of related concepts rather than a single concept.

  • The Six Arts were as follows: • Rites • Music • Archery • Charioteering and equestrianism • Calligraphy • Mathematics Later in the history of imperial China, the Six Arts
    were pared down, creating a similar system of four arts for the scholar-official caste to learn and follow: • Qín, an instrument representing music • Qí , a board game representing military strategy • Shū, or Chinese calligraphy, representing
    literacy • Huà, or Chinese painting, representing the visual arts Another attempt to systematically define art as a grouping of disciplines in antiquity is represented by the ancient Greek Muses.

  • Each of the standard nine Muses symbolized and embodied one of nine branches of what the Greeks called techne, a term which roughly means “art” but has also been translated
    as “craft” or “craftsmanship”, and the definition of the word also included more scientific disciplines.

  • For instance, the same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context (carrying wine), and an artistic function in another context (helping us to appreciate the
    beauty of the human figure).

  • Film critic Roger Ebert, for example, went on record claiming that video games are not art, and for structural reasons will always be inferior to cinema, but then admitted
    his lack of knowledge in the area when he affirmed that he “will never play a game when there is a good book to be read or a good movie to be watched”.

  • By its original and broadest definition, art (from the Latin ars, meaning “skill” or “craft”) is the product or process of the effective application of a body of knowledge,
    most often using a set of skills; this meaning is preserved in such phrases as “liberal arts” and “martial arts”.

  • However, in the modern use of the word, which rose to prominence after 1750, “art” is commonly understood to be skill used to produce an aesthetic result (Hatcher, 1999).

  • Many have argued that it is a mistake to even try to define art or beauty, that they have no essence, and so can have no definition.

  • Disputes about classifying art Philosopher David Novitz has argued that disagreements about the definition of art are rarely the heart of the problem, rather that “the passionate
    concerns and interests that humans vest in their social life” are “so much a part of all classificatory disputes about art” (Novitz, 1996).

  • Often, if the skill is being used to create objects with a practical use, rather than paintings or sculpture with no practical function other than as an artwork, it will be
    considered as falling under classifications such as the decorative arts, applied art and craft rather than fine art.

  • One particularly popular contender for the 11th is multimedia, which is intended to bring together the ten arts just as Canudo argued that cinema was the culmination of the
    first six arts.

  • Some thinkers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference
    (Novitz, 1992).

  • [18] In October 2004, the Saatchi Gallery told the media that “painting continues to be the most relevant and vital way that artists choose to communicate.

  • Currently, there are a variety of contenders for le onzième art, many of which are older disciplines whose practitioners feel that their medium is underappreciated as art.

  • Most people did not consider a store-bought urinal or a sculptural depiction of a Brillo Box to be art until Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol (respectively) placed them in the
    context of art (i.e., the art gallery), which then provided the association of these objects with the values that define art.

  • [12] Controversy in the UK[edit] A Dead Shark Isn’t Art, Stuckism International Gallery, 2003 The Stuckist group of artists, founded in 1999, proclaimed themselves “pro-contemporary
    figurative painting with ideas and anti-conceptual art, mainly because of its lack of concepts.”

  • The term is used in relation to them on the basis that the object is not the artwork, or is often a found object, which has not needed artistic skill in its production.

  • Computer and video games[edit] Main article: Video games as an art form Computer games date back as far as 1947, although they did not reach much of an audience until the

  • Functionalists, like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether a piece counts as art depends on what function it plays in a particular context.


Works Cited

[‘1. Semiotics of the Media By Winfried Nöth [1]
2. ^ Britannica Online
3. ^ Crampton, Thomas. “For France, Video Games Are as Artful as Cinema”, The New York Times, November 6, 2006.
4. ^ “Connaissez-vous le 10eme art ? L’art numérique.”, 2007.
5. ^
Mas, Jean. Manifeste de la Performance, AICA-France/Villa Arson, 2012.
6. ^ Weitz, Morris (1956). “The Role of Theory in Aesthetics”. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 15 (1): 30–33. doi:10.2307/427491. ISSN 0021-8529. JSTOR 427491.
7. ^
Weitz, Morris (1956). “The Role of Theory in Aesthetics”. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 15 (1): 33–35. doi:10.2307/427491. ISSN 0021-8529. JSTOR 427491.
8. ^ Tolstoy, Leo, graf, 1828-1910. (1996). What is art?. Maude, Aylmer, 1858-1938.
Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co. ISBN 087220295X. OCLC 36716419.
9. ^ Thierry de Duve, Kant After Duchamp. 1996
10. ^ BBC Online
11. ^ Mirapaul, Matthew (4 March 2002). “ARTS ONLINE; If You Can’t Join ‘Em, You Can Always Tweak ‘Em”. The New
York Times.
12. ^ The Times
13. ^ Cripps, Charlotte. “Visual arts: Saying knickers to Sir Nicholas, The Independent, 7 September 2004. Retrieved from, 7 April 2008. Archived 5 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
14. ^ “White
Cube demo 2002” Retrieved 25 May 2008.
15. ^ Alberge, Dalya. “Traditionalists mark shark attack on Hirst”, The Times, 10 April 2003. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
16. ^ Milner, Frank, ed. The Stuckists Punk Victorian, pp.32-48, National
Museums Liverpool 2004, ISBN 1-902700-27-9.
17. ^ The Guardian
18. ^ The Daily Telegraph
19. ^ Reynolds, Nigel 2004 “Saatchi’s latest shock for the art world is – painting” The Daily Telegraph 10 February 2004. Accessed April 15, 2006
20. ^
“Why did the chicken cross the genders?”. Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 2010-06-19.
21. ^ “Official PlayStation Magazine (US)”. Feb 2006. 2006.
22. ^ “Kojima Says “Games Are Not Art””. Archived from the original on 2012-10-17.
Retrieved 2011-08-01.
23. ^ A videogame is not art!
24. ^ Chris Crawford, The Art of Computer Game Design 1982 mirrored with permission at [2] Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
25. ^ Chuck Klosterman “The Lester Bangs of Video Games”
Esquire July 2006 at [3]
26. ^ “What are NFTs and why are some worth millions?”. BBC News. 2021-09-23.
27. ^ “Wikipedia Editors Vote Against Classifying NFTs as Art, Shelve Issue Citing ‘Lack of Reliable Information'”. Gadgets 360. 2022-01-13.

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