• The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called “reproductive cloning”), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially
    treat disease.

  • Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues.

  • These successes provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species.

  • [34] Species cloned and applications[edit] Further information: List of animals that have been cloned Further information: Commercial animal cloning The modern cloning techniques
    involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species.

  • [19] Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind
    of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.

  • [81] Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe[82] and that it could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans
    from whom organs and tissues would be harvested),[83][84] as well as concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large.

  • Cloning is the process of producing individual organisms with identical or virtually identical DNA, either by natural or artificial means.

  • The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research.

  • Natural cloning Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for hundreds of millions of years.

  • [30] Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that genetic material from a specific adult cell, designed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can
    be redesigned to grow an entirely new organism.

  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissues.

  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere
    in the world, as of 2021.

  • [90][91][92] Contemporary work on this topic is concerned with the ethics, adequate regulation and issues of any cloning carried out by humans, not potentially by extraterrestrials
    (including in the future), and largely also not replication – also described as mind cloning[93][94][95][96] – of potential whole brain emulations.

  • However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media.

  • [13] However, stresses placed on both the egg cell and the introduced nucleus can be enormous, which led to a high loss in resulting cells in early research.

  • First steps[edit] Hans Spemann, a German embryologist was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1935 for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction,
    exercised by various parts of the embryo, that directs the development of groups of cells into particular tissues and organs.

  • [13] The process of cloning a particular farm animal using SCNT is relatively the same for all animals.

  • [69][70][71][72] In January 2019, scientists in China reported the creation of five identical cloned gene-edited monkeys, using the same cloning technique that was used with
    Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua and Dolly the sheep, and the gene-editing Crispr-Cas9 technique allegedly used by He Jiankui in creating the first ever gene-modified human babies Lulu and Nana.

  • Their analyses “show that even when the extremely high-quality Norway brown rat (R. norvegicus) is used as a reference, nearly 5% of the genome sequence is unrecoverable,
    with 1,661 genes recovered at lower than 90% completeness, and 26 completely absent”, complicated further by that “distribution of regions affected is not random, but for example, if 90% completeness is used as the cutoff, genes related to
    immune response and olfaction are excessively affected” due to which “a reconstructed Christmas Island rat would lack attributes likely critical to surviving in its natural or natural-like environment”.

  • In 1924 he and his student, Hilde Mangold, were the first to perform somatic-cell nuclear transfer using amphibian embryos – one of the first steps towards cloning.

  • [66] • Goat: (2001) Scientists of Northwest A&F University successfully cloned the first goat which use the adult female cell.

  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that
    allow protein production, affinity tagging, single-stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools.

  • Notably, although the first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell.

  • Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated

  • The first step is to collect the somatic cells from the animal that will be cloned.

  • However, other researchers, including Ian Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly’s early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated
    to problems with the cloning process.

  • According to a news report “[i]n many countries, including the United States, farmers breed clones with conventional animals to add desirable traits, such as high milk production
    or disease resistance, into the gene pool”.

  • Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps[8] 1. fragmentation – breaking apart a strand of DNA 2. ligation – gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence
    3. transfection – inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells 4. screening/selection – selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA Although these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number
    of alternative routes can be selected; these are summarized as a cloning strategy.

  • The first mammalian cloning (resulting in Dolly) had a success rate of 29 embryos per 277 fertilized eggs, which produced three lambs at birth, one of which lived.

  • [9] In this technique a single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at high dilution to create isolated
    colonies, each arising from a single and potentially clonal distinct cell.

  • At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few cells, sterile polystyrene rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease, are placed over an individual
    colony and a small amount of trypsin is added.

  • Organism cloning Organism cloning (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another.

  • [75] • First artificial parthenogenesis in mammals: (2022) Viable mice offspring was born from unfertilized eggs via targeted DNA methylation editing of seven imprinting control

  • A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings (cylinders).

  • Cloning stem cells[edit] Main article: Somatic-cell nuclear transfer Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, popularly known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research
    or therapeutic purposes.

  • [139] In 2003, for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, using the preserved

  • Cloning of animals is opposed by animal-groups due to the number of cloned animals that suffer from malformations before they die, and while food from cloned animals has been
    approved as safe by the US FDA,[97][98] its use is opposed by groups concerned about food safety.

  • The somatic cells could be used immediately or stored in the laboratory for later use.

  • [120] De-extinction[edit] One of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the woolly mammoth, but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful,
    though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal.[when?]

  • [87] Religious groups are divided, with some opposing the technology as usurping “God’s place” and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others support
    therapeutic cloning’s potential life-saving benefits.

  • The monkey clones were made to study several medical diseases.

  • Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction.

  • It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos.

  • [11] The embryo will then form a blastocyst which has the potential to form/become any cell in the body.

  • Experts estimate that this female’s genome contains three times as much genetic diversity as any of the modern black-footed ferrets.

  • Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA.

  • [23] Methods[edit] Reproductive cloning generally uses “somatic cell nuclear transfer” (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical.

  • Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows.

  • [107] Conservation cloning[edit] Several tissue banks have come into existence, including the “Frozen zoo” at the San Diego Zoo, to store frozen tissue from the world’s rarest
    and most endangered species.

  • However, cloning, or asexual propagation,[17] has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.

  • [47] • Cattle: o Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) and (2005), Brazil[48] o In 2023, Chinese scientists reported the cloning of three supercows with a milk productivity “nearly
    1.7 times the amount of milk an average cow in the United States produced in 2021” and a plan for 1,000 of such super cows in the near-term.

  • [102][103] The best current cloning techniques have an average success rate of 9.4 percent[104] (and as high as 25 percent[33]) when working with familiar species such as
    mice,[note 1] while cloning wild animals is usually less than 1 percent successful.

  • However, by 2014 researchers were reporting cloning success rates of seven to eight out of ten[15] and in 2016, a Korean Company Sooam Biotech was reported to be producing
    500 cloned embryos per day.

  • While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.

  • Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction.

  • [121][122] It was noted, however that the result, if possible, would be an elephant-mammoth hybrid rather than a true mammoth.

  • The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals.

  • Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful.

  • [76] Human cloning[edit] Main article: Human cloning Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human.

  • This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.

  • Cell cloning Cloning unicellular organisms[edit] Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell.

  • The researchers said they hoped to produce a baby mammoth within six years.

  • [99][100] In practical terms, the inclusion of “licensing requirements for embryo research projects and fertility clinics, restrictions on the commodification of eggs and
    sperm, and measures to prevent proprietary interests from monopolizing access to stem cell lines” in international cloning regulations has been proposed, albeit e.g.

  • [123] In 2022, scientists showed major limitations and the scale of challenge of genetic-editing-based de-extinction, suggesting resources spent on more comprehensive de-extinction
    projects such as of the woolly mammoth may currently not be well allocated and substantially limited.

  • Initially, the DNA of interest needs to be isolated to provide a DNA segment of suitable size.

  • Parts of an individual plant may become detached by fragmentation and grow on to become separate clonal individuals.

  • A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the donor’s somatic
    cell nucleus is inserted into the oocyte.

  • Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in
    livestock production.

  • The term clone is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis.


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