• Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method.

  • [83] Climate change may significantly impact coffee yields during the 21st century, such as in Nicaragua and Ethiopia which could lose more than half of the farming land suitable
    for growing (Arabica) coffee.

  • A more effective process of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months.

  • The earliest credible evidence of the drinking of coffee in the form of the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen from the mid-15th century in Sufi shrines, where coffee
    seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to current methods.

  • Starting in the 1970s, many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy.

  • [9] Critics also point to the coffee industry’s negative impact on the environment and the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use.

  • In this method, the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand.

  • Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice during the first few years of cultivation as farmers become familiar with its requirements.

  • [5] Though coffee is now a global commodity, it has a long history tied closely to food traditions around the Red Sea.

  • [57] Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.

  • [77][78] Coffee production use a large volume of water.

  • Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals.

  • [71] While traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior.

  • Production Main article: Coffee production Coffee production map In 2020, world production of green coffee beans was 175,647,000 60 kg bags, led by Brazil with 39% of the
    total (table).

  • In the 20th century, coffee became a much more global commodity, creating different coffee cultures around the world.

  • [2] However, no direct evidence that has been found earlier than the 15th century indicating who among the African populations used it as a stimulant, or where coffee was
    first cultivated.

  • After picking, green coffee is processed by one of two types of method—a dry process type of method which is often simpler and less labor-intensive, and a wet process type
    of method, which incorporates batch fermentation, uses larger amounts of water in the process, and often yields a milder coffee.

  • [2] It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is prepared now.

  • Though the United States was not the heaviest coffee-drinking nation at the time (Nordic countries, Belgium, and Netherlands all had comparable or higher levels of per capita
    consumption), due to its sheer size, it was already the largest consumer of coffee in the world by 1860, and, by 1920, around half of all coffee produced worldwide was consumed in the US.

  • During the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the
    reduced availability of tea from British merchants,[26] and a general resolution among many Americans to avoid drinking tea following the 1773 Boston Tea Party.

  • This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee’s relative degree of roast or flavor development.

  • For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C.

  • [36] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many developing countries.

  • Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee seeds, though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high.

  • [27] After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans’ taste for coffee grew.

  • [2] The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered the stimulating effect of coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans
    from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.

  • [89][90][91] Processing Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee.

  • In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink, useful against
    numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach.

  • [53] Consequently, this species is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends.

  • As of 2021, no synthetic coffee products are publicly available but multiple bioeconomy companies have reportedly produced first batches that are highly similar on the molecular
    level and are close to commercialization.

  • During the 18th century, coffee consumption declined in England, giving way to tea-drinking.

  • Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income.

  • [64] The 2-mm-long coffee borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most damaging insect pest to the world’s coffee industry, destroying up to 50 percent or more of the coffee
    berries on plantations in most coffee-producing countries.

  • On average it takes about 140 liters (37 U.S. gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee, producing 1 kg (2.2 lb) of roasted coffee in Africa,
    South America or Asia requires 26,400 liters (7,000 U.S. gal) of water.

  • [clarification needed][79] Coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage, such as Ethiopia.

  • [51] Cultivation Further information: List of countries by coffee production Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r: Coffea canephora m: Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica
    a: Coffea arabica The traditional method of planting coffee is to place 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season.

  • Mycena citricolor, commonly referred to as American Leaf Spot, is a fungus that can affect the whole coffee plant.

  • [36] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation
    of the indigenous people.

  • It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu.

  • [45] Coffee plants grow within a defined area between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, termed the bean belt or coffee belt.

  • Coffee brewed from this process[94] is among the most expensive in the world, with bean prices reaching $160 per pound or $30 per brewed cup.

  • Named Strychnos electri, after the Greek word for amber (electron), the flowers represent the first-ever fossils of an asterid, which is a clade of flowering plants that not
    only later gave us coffee, but also sunflowers, peppers, potatoes, mint – and deadly poisons.

  • The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee on a large scale.

  • [99] One of these oils, caffeol, is created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee’s aroma and flavor.

  • [66] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee’s growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.

  • Coffee has, in many countries, been graded by size longer than it has been graded by quality.

  • [3] It is one of the most popular drinks in the world[4] and can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed
    canned coffee).

  • Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries[46] have only one; these are called peaberries.

  • The seeds are then roasted, a process which transforms them into a consumable product: roasted coffee, which is ground into fine particles that are typically steeped in hot
    water before being filtered out, producing a cup of coffee.

  • Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822.

  • [19][better source needed] A late 19th-century advertisement for coffee essence A 1919 advertisement for G Washington’s Coffee.

  • [25] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe, as alcoholic beverages remained more popular.

  • Good quality robusta beans are used in traditional Italian espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste and a better foam head (known as crema).

  • [70] Unshaded coffee plants grown with fertilizer yield the most coffee, although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield more than unfertilized unshaded crops: the response
    to fertilizer is much greater in full sun.

  • [33] It made a brief come-back in 1949 when Haiti was the world’s 3rd largest coffee exporter, but declined rapidly after that.

  • [76] Shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, and those more distant from continuous forest compare rather poorly to undisturbed
    native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species.

  • From Ethiopia, coffee could have been introduced to Yemen via trade across the Red Sea.

  • [13] Accounts differ on the origin of the coffee plant prior to its appearance in Yemen.

  • [81] Some commercial coffee shops run initiatives to make better use of these grounds, including Starbucks’ “Grounds for your Garden” project,[82] and community sponsored
    initiatives such as “Ground to Ground”.

  • He tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor, but they became hard.

  • Coffee has a number of classifications used to determine the participation of growers (or the supply chain) in various combinations of social, environmental, and economic

  • Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful.

  • Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground, which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.

  • [93] An Asian coffee known as kopi luwak undergoes a peculiar process made from coffee berries eaten by the Asian palm civet, passing through its digestive tract, with the
    beans eventually harvested from feces.

  • [21] Roasting is the last step of processing the beans in their intact state.

  • Legendary accounts According to one legend, ancestors of today’s Oromo people in a region of Jimma in Ethiopia were the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee

  • [42] Ecological effects Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects.

  • As of 2018, Brazil was the leading grower of coffee beans, producing 35% of the world total.

  • From the coffee fruit, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, raw product: unroasted green coffee.

  • It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common.

  • The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of seeds differ in moisture and density and
    therefore roast at different rates.


Works Cited

[‘1. Souza, Richard M. (2008) Plant-Parasitic Nematodes of Coffee. Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4020-8720-2
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Weinberg & Bealer 2001, pp. 3–4
3. ^ Cappelletti S, Piacentino D, Daria P, Sani G, Aromatario M (January 2015).
“Caffeine: cognitive and physical performance enhancer or psychoactive drug?”. Current Neuropharmacology. 13 (1): 71–88. doi:10.2174/1570159X13666141210215655. PMC 4462044. PMID 26074744.
4. ^ Oder, Tom (9 June 2015). “How coffee changed the world”.
Mother Nature Network. Narrative Content Group. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J (November 2017). “Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses
of multiple health outcomes”. BMJ. 359: j5024. doi:10.1136/bmj.j5024. PMC 5696634. PMID 29167102.
6. ^ “Green coffee production for 2018; World regions/Crops/Production quantity from picklists”. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations, Statistics Division. 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
7. ^ Jump up to:a b Daniel Workman (28 April 2020). “Coffee exports by country”. World’s Top Exports. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
8. ^ Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins,
Silvia; Teixeira, José A. (2011). “Production, Composition, and Application of Coffee and Its Industrial Residues”. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 4 (5): 661–72. doi:10.1007/s11947-011-0565-z. hdl:1822/22361. S2CID 27800545.
9. ^ Eco-Business.
“Coffee farmers in dire straits; large roasters and traders must step up: Report”. Eco-Business. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
10. ^ Alex Nicholls; Charlotte Opal (12 July 2005). Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption. SAGE Publications. pp. 84–.
ISBN 978-1-4129-0105-5.
11. ^ “Coffee”. Oxford English Dictionary. Vol. 2 (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. 1893. p. 589, Col. 3.Text at Internet Archive
12. ^ Jump up to:a b “coffee”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
13. ^
Jump up to:a b Houtsma, M. Th.; Wensinck, A. J.; Arnold, T. W.; Heffening, W.; Lévi-Provençal, E., eds. (1993). “Ḳawah”. First Encyclopedia of Islam. Vol. IV. E.J. Brill. p. 631. ISBN 978-90-04-09790-2. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
14. ^ Souza 2008,
p. 3
15. ^ Hattox, Ralph S. (1985). Coffee and coffeehouses: The origins of a social beverage in the medieval Near East. University of Washington Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-295-96231-3.
16. ^ Burton, Richard F. (1856). First footsteps in East Africa.
London: Longman. p. 78. ali omar coffee yemen.
17. ^ R. J., Gavin (1975). Aden Under British Rule, 1839–1967. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 53.
18. ^ Precis of Papers Regarding Aden, pg. 166, 1838–1872
19. ^ Jump up to:a b Meyers, Hannah (7
March 2005). “Suave Molecules of Mocha—Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization”. New Partisan. New Partisan. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011.
20. ^ Ukers, William H. (1922). “The Introduction of Coffee into Holland”. All About Coffee. New
York: Tea and Coffee Trade Journal. ISBN 978-0-8103-4092-3. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
21. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Dobelis, Inge N., ed. (1986). Magic and medicine of plants. Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s
Digest. pp. 370–71. ISBN 978-0-89577-221-3.
22. ^ Fischer, Dieter. “History of Indonesian coffee”. Specialty Coffee Association of Indonesia. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
23. ^ “Caffeine and plants prototype
24. ^ Diary of John Evelyn (various editions)
25. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 9
26. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 39
27. ^ (1) Adams, John (6 July 1774). “John Adams to Abigail Adams”. The Adams Papers: Digital Editions: Adams Family Correspondence,
Volume 1. Massachusetts Historical Society. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. I believe I forgot to tell you one Anecdote: When I first came to this House it was late in the Afternoon, and I had ridden 35
miles at least. “Madam” said I to Mrs. Huston, “is it lawful for a weary Traveller to refresh himself with a Dish of Tea provided it has been honestly smuggled or paid no Duties?”
“No sir, said she, we have renounced all Tea in this Place. I can’t
make Tea, but I’ll make you Coffee.” Accordingly, I have drunk Coffee every Afternoon since and have borne it very well. Tea must be universally renounced. I must be weaned, and the sooner, the better.
(2) Stone, William L. (1867). “Continuation
of Mrs. General Riedesel’s Adventures”. Mrs. General Riedesel: Letters and Journals relating to the War of Independence and the Capture of the Troops at Saratoga (Translated from the Original German). Albany: Joel Munsell. p. 147. She then became
more gentle, and offered me bread and milk. I made tea for ourselves. The woman eyed us longingly, for the Americans love it very much; but they had resolved to drink it no longer, as the famous duty on the tea had occasioned the war. At Google Books.
Note: Fredricka Charlotte Riedesel was the wife of General Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, commander of all German and Indian troops in General John Burgoyne’s Saratoga campaign and American prisoner of war during the American Revolution.
(3) Heiss, Mary
Lou; Heiss, Robert J. (2007). “A History of Tea: The Boston Tea Party”. The Story of Tea: A Cultural History and Drinking Guide. pp. 21–24. ISBN 978-1-60774-172-5. Retrieved 18 November 2015. At Google Books.
(4) Zuraw, Lydia (24 April 2013). “How
Coffee Influenced The Course of History”. NPR. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
(5) DeRupo, Joseph (3 July 2013). “American Revolution: Stars, Stripes—and Beans”. NCA News. National Coffee Association. Archived
from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
(6) Luttinger, Nina; Dicum, Gregory (2006). The coffee book: anatomy of an industry from crop to the last drop. The New Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-59558-724-4. Retrieved 18 November
2015. At Google Books.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b c Pendergrast 2001, p. 13
29. ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2005). Nelson’s Sailors. Osprey Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84176-906-6. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
30. ^ Auguste Lacour, Histoire de la
Guadeloupe, vol. 1 (1635-1789). Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1855 full text at Google Books, p. 235ff.
31. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 14
32. ^ Pendergrast, Mark (2010). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. Basic Books.
p. 17. ISBN 978-0-465-02404-9. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
33. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 16
34. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 19
35. ^ Pendergrast 2001, pp. 20–24
36. ^ Jump up to:a b “The production and consumption of coffee”. Archived from the original
on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
37. ^ Pendergrast 2001, pp. 33–34
38. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 35–36
39. ^ Cousin, Tracey L. (June 1997). “Ethiopia Coffee and Trade”. American University. Archived from the original on 11 May
2015. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
40. ^ Sweetser, Heather Marie (2012) A Chapter in the History of Coffee: A Critical Edition and Translation of Murtaḍā az-Zabīdī’s Epistle on Coffee Archived 13 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine M.A. Thesis, Ohio
State University. p. 12.
41. ^ Ukers, William (1935). All About Coffee. New York: Tea & Coffee Trade Journal Company. pp. 9–10.
42. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Botanical Aspects”. London: International Coffee Organization. Archived from the original on
24 March 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
43. ^ Anthony F, Berthaud J, Guillaumet JL, Lourd M. “Collecting wild Coffea species in Kenya and Tanzania”. Plant Genet Resources Newsletter. 69 (1987): 23–29.
44. ^ van der Vossen, H. A. M. in Clifford
& Wilson 1985, p. 53
45. ^ Jump up to:a b Duke, James A. (1983). “Coffea arabica L”. Purdue University. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
46. ^ “Feature Article: Peaberry Coffee”. Acorns. 2004. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 4 January
47. ^ Hamon, S.; Noirot, M.; Anthony, F. (1995). “Developing a coffee core collection using the principal components score strategy with quantitative data” (PDF). Core Collections of Plant Genetic Resources. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
48. ^
Pradeepkumar, T.; Kumar, Pradeep (2008). Management of Horticultural Crops: Vol.11 Horticulture Science Series: In 2 Parts. New India Publishing. pp. 601–. ISBN 978-81-89422-49-3.
49. ^ Jump up to:a b Wilson, K. C. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p.
50. ^ Wilson, K. C. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, pp. 161–62.
51. ^ “Prehistoric Coffee Ancestor Found in Amber”. 16 February 2016.
52. ^ “Major coffee producers”. National Geographic. 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
53. ^
Belachew, Mekete (2003). “Coffee”. In Uhlig, Siegbert (ed.). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica. Vol. 1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. p. 763.
54. ^ Daviron, Benoit; Ponte, Stefano (2005). The Coffee Paradox: Global Markets, Commodity Trade and the Elusive Promise
of Development. Zed Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84277-457-1. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
55. ^ van der Vossen, H. A. M. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p. 55
56. ^ Levetin, Estelle; McMchon, Karen (2012). Plants & Society. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 263–67.
ISBN 978-0-07-352422-1.
57. ^ Waller, J. M. (1972). “Coffee Rust in Latin America”. PANS Pest Articles & News Summaries. 18 (4): 402–08. doi:10.1080/09670877209412699.
58. ^ Waller, J.M.; Bigger, M.; Hillocks, R.J. (2007). Coffee pests, diseases
and their management. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-84593-129-2.
59. ^ Jump up to:a b Krishnan, Sarada (1 June 2017). “Sustainable Coffee Production”. Oxford Research Encyclopedia. 1: 1–34. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.013.224.
ISBN 9780199389414.
60. ^ Bardner, R. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, pp. 208–209.
61. ^ Bardner, R. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p. 210.
62. ^ Bardner, R. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p. 211.
63. ^ Bardner, R. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p. 213.
64. ^
Bardner, R. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p. 214.
65. ^ Graham, Rex (5 September 2013). “Insect-eating birds reduce worst coffee plantation pest by 50 percent”. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
66. ^
Davids, Kenneth (2001). Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying (5th ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-24665-5.
67. ^ Castle, Timothy James (1991). The Perfect Cup: A Coffee Lover’s Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Tasting.
Reading, MA: Aris Books. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-201-57048-9.
68. ^ Jump up to:a b Janzen, Daniel H., ed. (1983). Costa Rican natural history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-39334-6.
69. ^ Wilson, K.C. in Clifford & Wilson 1985,
p. 166.
70. ^ Salvesen, David (1996). “The Grind Over Sun Coffee”. Zoogoer. 25 (4). Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
71. ^ Wilson, K. C. in Clifford & Wilson 1985, p. 165.
72. ^ “Measuring Consumer Interest
in Mexican Shade-grown Coffee” (PDF). Montréal: Commission for Environmental Cooperation. October 1999. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
73. ^ “The Problems with Sun Coffee”. Coffee & Conservation.
Retrieved 19 February 2014.
74. ^ “Shade-Grown Coffee Plantations”. Smithsonian Zoolongical Park website – Migratory Bird Center. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
75. ^ “Rain Forest-
Saving Arbor Day Coffee”. Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
76. ^ “Rainforest Alliance Certified Coffee”. 24 September 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
77. ^ Wong, Kate (27 September 2000). “Is Shade-Grown Coffee for the Birds?”.
Scientific American. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
78. ^ Rickert, Eve (15 December 2005). Environmental effects of the coffee crisis: a case study of land use and avian communities in Agua Buena, Costa Rica (MES). The Evergreen State College. Retrieved
11 January 2010.
79. ^ “On Water”. European Investment Bank. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
80. ^ Pearce, Fred (25 February 2006). “Earth: The parched planet”. New Scientist. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
81. ^ Martin, Deborah L.; Gershuny, Grace, eds.
(1992). “Coffee wastes”. The Rodale book of composting. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-87857-991-4. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
82. ^ “Grounds for Your Garden”. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
83. ^ “About Us | Coffee Grounds
to Ground”. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
84. ^ Läderach, Peter; Ramirez–Villegas, Julian; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Zelaya, Carlos; Martinez–Valle, Armando; Jarvis, Andy (26 October 2016). “Climate change adaptation
of coffee production in space and time”. Climatic Change. 141 (1): 47–62. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1788-9. ISSN 0165-0009.
85. ^ Moat, Justin; Williams, Jenny; Baena, Susana; Wilkinson, Timothy; Gole, Tadesse W.; Challa, Zeleke K.; Demissew, Sebsebe;
Davis, Aaron P. (19 June 2017). “Resilience potential of the Ethiopian coffee sector under climate change”. Nature Plants. 3 (7): 17081. doi:10.1038/nplants.2017.81. ISSN 2055-0278. PMID 28628132. S2CID 6873955.
86. ^ Justin Worland (21 June 2018).
“Your Morning Cup of Coffee Is in Danger. Can the Industry Adapt in Time?”. Time. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
87. ^ Voora, V., Bermudez, S., and Larrea, C. (2019). “Global Market Report: Coffee”. State of Sustainability Initiatives. Archived from
the original on 27 January 2021.
88. ^ Jump up to:a b Coffee production by exporting countries (PDF). International Coffee Organization. February 2021.
89. ^ Lavars, Nick (20 September 2021). “Lab-grown coffee cuts out the beans and deforestation”.
New Atlas. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
90. ^ “Sustainable coffee grown in Finland – | VTT News”. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
91. ^ “Eco-friendly, lab-grown coffee is on the way, but it comes with a catch”. The Guardian. 16 October
2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
92. ^ Vincent, J.-C. in Clarke & Macrae 1987, p. 1.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kummer 2003, p. 38
94. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcone, Massimo F. (2004). “Composition and properties of Indonesian palm civet coffee (Kopi
Luwak) and Ethiopian civet coffee”. Food Research International. 37 (9): 901–12. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2004.05.008.
95. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thuot, Buon Me (15 January 2012). “Coffee in Vietnam: it’s the shit”. The Economist. Retrieved 25 November
96. ^ Jump up to:a b Topper, Rachel (15 October 2012). “Elephant Dung Coffee: World’s Most Expensive Brew Is Made With Pooped-Out Beans”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
97. ^ Macheiner, Lukas; Schmidt, Anatol; Schreiner,
Matthias; Mayer, Helmut K. (2019). “Green coffee infusion as a source of caffeine and chlorogenic acid”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 84: 103307. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103307. S2CID 202882087.
98. ^ Kummer 2003, p. 37
99. ^ Jump
up to:a b c Ball, Trent; Guenther, Sara; Labrousse, Ken; Wilson, Nikki. “Coffee Roasting”. Washington State University. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
100. ^ Kummer 2003, p. 261
101. ^ Hoffmann, James (2018).
The World Atlas of Coffee 2nd Edition. Great Britain: Mitchell Beazley. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-78472-429-0.
102. ^ Cipolla, Mauro. “Educational Primer: Degrees of Roast”. Bellissimo Info Group. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 11 January
103. ^ “Which Has More Caffeine: Light or Dark Roast Coffee?”. Scribblers Coffee. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
104. ^ “Coffee Roasting Operations”. Permit Handbook. Bay Area Air Quality Management District. 15 May 1998. Archived from the original
on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
105. ^ “Swiss Water Process”. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
106. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f “Top Coffee Ratings – Coffee Buying Guide”. Consumer
Reports. May 2013. Storing coffee. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
107. ^ Brown, Alton. “True Brew”. Food Network. Archived from the original on 16 April 2003. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
108. ^ New Process Keep Coffee Fresh in High Vacuum Cans. Popular
Science. October 1931. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
109. ^ “How to Brew Coffee: The NCA Guide to Brewing Essentials”. NCA: National Coffee Association of USA. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
110. ^ Borchgrevink, Carl P.; Susskind, Alex M.; Tarras, John
M. (1999). “Consumer preferred hot beverage temperatures”. Food Quality and Preference. 10 (2): 117–21. doi:10.1016/S0950-3293(98)00053-6. hdl:1813/72021.
111. ^ “Brewing – How to Get the Most Out of Your Coffee”. Mountain City Coffee Roasters.
2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013.
112. ^ Jump up to:a b Rothstein, Scott. “Brewing Techniques”. The Coffee FAQ. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
113. ^ Jump up to:a b Ukers, William Harrison (1922). All about Coffee (2nd ed.). Gale Research.
p. 725. ISBN 978-0-8103-4092-3. Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
114. ^ Jump up to:a b Levy, Joel (2002). Really Useful: The Origins of Everyday Things. Firefly Books. p. 1948. ISBN 978-1-55297-622-7. Retrieved
11 January 2010.
115. ^ Jump up to:a b Davids, Kenneth (1991). Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. 01 Productions. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-56426-500-5. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
116. ^ Prince, Mark (11 November 2003). “How To Use A Press
Pot”. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
117. ^ “How much caffeine in a cup of coffee: Types, brands, and other sources”. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
118. ^ Vittori, Sauro; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese,
Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni (1 January 2015), Preedy, Victor R. (ed.), “Chapter 28 – Espresso Machine and Coffee Composition”, Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention, Academic Press, pp. 255–263, ISBN 978-0-12-409517-5, retrieved 1 February 2020
119. ^
Salvaggio, A.; Periti, M.; Miano, L.; Quaglia, G.; Marzorati, D. (1991). “Coffee and cholesterol, an Italian study”. American Journal of Epidemiology. 134 (2): 149–56. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116067. PMID 1862798.
120. ^ Bonné, Jon (20 August
2004). “My coffee is cold: A brewing system without heat proves it’s a contender when it comes to taste”. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
121. ^ Basic Report: 14209, Coffee, brewed from grounds, prepared with tap water a
122. ^
“Full Report (All Nutrients): 14210, Beverages, coffee, brewed, espresso, restaurant-prepared”. May 2016.
123. ^ Jump up to:a b Castle, Timothy; Nielsen, Joan (1999). The Great Coffee Book. Ten Speed Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-58008-122-1.
Retrieved 11 January 2010.
124. ^ Fried, Eunice (November 1993). “The lowdown on caffè latte”. Black Enterprise. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
125. ^ Miller, Emily Wise (May 2003). The Food Lover’s Guide to Florence: With Culinary Excursions in
Tuscany. Ten Speed Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-58008-435-2. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
126. ^ Kenneally, Patrick (25 June 2014). “Hey hipsters, hands off my flat white”. The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
127. ^ Corney, John. “How to make
a flat white”. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
128. ^ The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-991210-0.
129. ^ “The Art of Brewing Coffee Beers”. All About Beer. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved
24 November 2015.
130. ^ Hobhouse, Henry (2005). Seeds of Wealth: Five Plants That Made Men Rich. Shoemaker & Hoard. p. 294. ISBN 978-1-59376-089-2. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
131. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 119
132. ^ Instant Coffee – How it’s
made. (6 October 2009). Retrieved 25 May 2012.
133. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 195
134. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 196
135. ^ Beckerman, Jim. “What on earth ever happened to instant coffee?”. North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 28
April 2022.
136. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 197
137. ^ “Report: Coke, Pepsi faceoff brewing”. CNN Money. Cable news network. 6 December 2005. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
138. ^ “Regarding liquid coffee concentrate”. Commodities Report. The Wall Street
Journal. 21 March 2005. p. C4.
139. ^ NYMEX Coffee Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest
140. ^ Ellis, Blake (10 September 2010). “Coffee prices on the rise”. CNN Money. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
141. ^ Galatola, Thomas (14 February 2012). “Coffee
Futures Fall to Lowest in 14 Months: Commodities at Close”. Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
142. ^ “Historical Coffee Intraday Data (KCA)”. PortaraCQG. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
143. ^ Jump up
to:a b Pendergrast, Mark (April 2009). “Coffee: Second to Oil?”. Tea & Coffee Trade Journal: 38–41. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
144. ^ Pendergrast 2001
145. ^ Talbot, John M. (2004). Grounds for Agreement:
The Political Economy of the Coffee Commodity Chain. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 50. So many people who have written about coffee have gotten it wrong. Coffee is not the second most valuable primary commodity in world trade, as is often stated. […]
It is not the second most traded commodity, a nebulous formulation that occurs repeatedly in the media. Coffee is the second most valuable commodity exported by developing countries.
146. ^ Ismail, Izwan (29 September 2014). “Let’s drink to coffee!”.
New Straits Times Online.
147. ^ “Breakfast buffet: National coffee day – Eatocracy – Blogs”. 29 September 2011. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
148. ^ “Ten things you didn’t
know about coffee”. Global Saskatoon. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
149. ^ “Mission”. International Coffee Organization. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
150. ^ “NCA USA”. National Coffee Association USA. 2019. Retrieved
27 January 2019.
151. ^ “About Us”. The British Coffee Association. 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
152. ^ “Top 10 Coffee Consuming Nations”. WorldAtlas. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
153. ^ Bernard, Kristine (5 January 2018).
“Top 10 Coffee Consuming Nations”. Quebec, Canada: World Atlas. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
154. ^ Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. (1999). “Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction.
A review”. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Supplement. 34 (230): 35–39. doi:10.1080/003655299750025525. ISSN 0085-5928. PMID 10499460.
155. ^ Cornwall, Hannah L.; Edwards, Ben A.; Curran, John F.; Boyce, Stephen (2019). “Coffee to go?
The effect of coffee on resolution of ileus following abdominal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials”. Clinical Nutrition. 39 (5): 30258–4. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2019.06.003. ISSN 0261-5614. PMID 31253438. S2CID
156. ^ Eamudomkarn, Nuntasiri; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Kaewrudee, Srinaree; Jampathong, Nampet; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Lumbiganon, Pisake (26 November 2018). “Effect of postoperative coffee consumption on gastrointestinal function after abdominal
surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 17349. Bibcode:2018NatSR…817349E. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35752-2. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6255780. PMID 30478433.
157. ^ Freedman, N. D.; Park,
Y.; Abnet, C. C.; Hollenbeck, A. R.; Sinha, R. (2012). “Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality”. New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (20): 1891–1904. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1112010. PMC 3439152. PMID 22591295.
158. ^
Crippa, Alessio; Discacciati, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C.; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola (15 October 2014). “Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis”. American Journal of Epidemiology.
180 (8): 763–75. doi:10.1093/aje/kwu194. PMID 25156996.
159. ^ Hildebrand, J. S.; Patel, A. V.; McCullough, M. L.; Gaudet, M. M.; Chen, A. Y.; Hayes, R. B.; Gapstur, S. M. (2012). “Coffee, Tea, and Fatal Oral/Pharyngeal Cancer in a Large Prospective
US Cohort”. American Journal of Epidemiology. 177 (1): 50–58. doi:10.1093/aje/kws222. ISSN 0002-9262. PMID 23230042.
160. ^ Je, Youjin; Giovannucci, Edward (2014). “Coffee consumption and total mortality: a meta-analysis of twenty prospective cohort
studies”. British Journal of Nutrition. 111 (7): 1162–73. doi:10.1017/S0007114513003814. PMID 24279995.
161. ^ Zhao, Y.; Wu, K.; Zheng, J.; Zuo, R.; Li, D. (2015). “Association of coffee drinking with all-cause mortality: a systematic review and
meta-analysis”. Public Health Nutrition. 18 (7): 1282–91. doi:10.1017/S1368980014001438. PMID 25089347.
162. ^ Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing,
Heiner (11 July 2017). “Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 167 (4): 236–247. doi:10.7326/M16-2945. ISSN 0003-4819. PMC 5788283. PMID 28693038.
163. ^ Wu, Jiang-nan; Ho, Suzanne C.; Zhou, Chun; Ling,
Wen-hua; Chen, Wei-qing; Wang, Cui-ling; Chen, Yu-ming (2009). “Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: A meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies”. International Journal of Cardiology. 137 (3): 216–25. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.06.051.
PMID 18707777.
164. ^ Mostofsky, E.; Rice, M. S.; Levitan, E. B.; Mittleman, M. A. (2012). “Habitual Coffee Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis”. Circulation: Heart Failure. 5 (4): 401–05. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.967299.
PMC 3425948. PMID 22740040.
165. ^ Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB (February 2014). “Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort
studies”. Circulation. 129 (6): 643–59. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.113.005925. PMC 3945962. PMID 24201300.
166. ^ Brown, OI; Allgar, V; Wong, K-Y K (2016). “Coffee reduces death after myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis”. Coronary Artery Disease.
27 (7): 566–72. doi:10.1097/MCA.0000000000000397. PMID 27315099. S2CID 7980392.
167. ^ D’Elia, Lanfranco; La Fata, Ersilia; Galletti, Ferruccio; Scalfi, Luca; Strazzullo, Pasquale (February 2019). “Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a
dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies”. European Journal of Nutrition. 58 (1): 271–280. doi:10.1007/s00394-017-1591-z. ISSN 1436-6207. PMID 29222637. S2CID 7264285.
168. ^ Grosso, G; Micek, A; Godos, J; Pajak, A; Sciacca, S; Bes-Rastrollo,
M; Galvano, F; Martinez-Gonzalez, MA (17 August 2017). “Long-term coffee consumption is associated with decreased incidence of new-onset hypertension: A dose-response meta-analysis”. Nutrients. 9 (8): 890. doi:10.3390/nu9080890. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC
5579683. PMID 28817085.
169. ^ Xie, Chen; Cui, Lingling; Zhu, Jicun; Wang, Kehui; Sun, Nan; Sun, Changqing (4 January 2018). “Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies”. Journal
of Human Hypertension. 32 (2): 83–93. doi:10.1038/s41371-017-0007-0. ISSN 0950-9240. PMID 29302055. S2CID 3515374.
170. ^ Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, Appel L, Chen L (June 2011). “Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic
review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93 (6): 1212–19. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004044. PMID 21450934.
171. ^ “Self-help: Generalised anxiety disorder in adults”. National Health
Service, UK. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
172. ^ Winston AP (2005). “Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine”. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 11 (6): 432–439. doi:10.1192/apt.11.6.432.
173. ^ Vilarim MM, Rocha Araujo DM, Nardi
AE (August 2011). “Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 11 (8): 1185–95. doi:10.1586/ern.11.83. PMID 21797659. S2CID 5364016.
174. ^ Smith A (September 2002). “Effects of
caffeine on human behavior”. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 40 (9): 1243–55. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0. PMID 12204388.
175. ^ Bruce MS, Lader M (February 1989). “Caffeine abstention in the management of anxiety disorders”. Psychological Medicine.
19 (1): 211–4. doi:10.1017/S003329170001117X. PMID 2727208.
176. ^ Addicott, Merideth A. (28 May 2014). “Caffeine Use Disorder: A Review of the Evidence and Future Implications”. Current Addiction Reports. 1 (3): 186–192. doi:10.1007/s40429-014-0024-9.
ISSN 2196-2952. PMC 4115451. PMID 25089257.
177. ^ O’Neill, Casey E.; Newsom, Ryan J.; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C.; Spencer, Robert L.; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K. (1 January 2016). “Adolescent caffeine
consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 67: 40–50. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.01.030. ISSN 0306-4530. PMC 4808446. PMID 26874560.
178. ^ Wang L, Shen X, Wu Y, Zhang
D (March 2016). “Coffee and caffeine consumption and depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 50 (3): 228–42. doi:10.1177/0004867415603131. PMID 26339067. S2CID 23377304.
179. ^
Grosso G, Micek A, Castellano S, Pajak A, Galvano F (January 2016). “Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 60 (1): 223–34.
doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500620. PMID 26518745.
180. ^ Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, V.; Barulli, M. R.; Bonfiglio, C.; Guerra, V.; Osella, A.; Seripa, D.; Sabbà, C.; Pilotto, A.; Logroscino, G. (2015). “Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and prevention
of late-life cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review”. J Nutr Health Aging. 19 (3): 313–28. doi:10.1007/s12603-014-0563-8. PMID 25732217. S2CID 8376733.
181. ^ Ding, Ming; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Chen, Mu; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B
(February 2014). “Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-analysis”. Diabetes Care (Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis). 37 (2): 569–86. doi:10.2337/dc13-1203. PMC 3898757.
PMID 24459154.
182. ^ Xie, F.; Wang, D.; Huang, Z.; Guo, Y. (2014). “Coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a large updated meta-analysis of prospective studies”. Nutrients. 6 (9): 3734–46. doi:10.3390/nu6093734. PMC 4179186. PMID 25237829.
183. ^
Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Wakai, Kenji; Nagata, Chisato; Nakayama, Tomio; Sadakane, Atsuko; Tanaka, Keitaro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Sugawara, Yumi; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki,
Shizuka (12 May 2016). “Coffee drinking and colorectal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review and meta-analysis among the Japanese population”. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 46 (8): 781–787. doi:10.1093/jjco/hyw059. ISSN
0368-2811. PMID 27174958.
184. ^ Bravi, Francesca; Tavani, Alessandra; Bosetti, Cristina; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo (2017). “Coffee and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease”. European Journal of Cancer Prevention.
26 (5): 368–377. doi:10.1097/cej.0000000000000252. ISSN 0959-8278. PMID 27111112. S2CID 25243023.
185. ^ Zhao, Long-Gang; Li, Zhuo-Ying; Feng, Guo-Shan; Ji, Xiao-Wei; Tan, Yu-Ting; Li, Hong-Lan; Gunter, Marc J.; Xiang, Yong-Bing (5 February 2020).
“Coffee drinking and cancer risk: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies”. BMC Cancer. 20 (1): 101. doi:10.1186/s12885-020-6561-9. ISSN 1471-2407. PMC 7003434. PMID 32024485.
186. ^ Wadhawan, M; Anand, AC (March 2016). “Coffee
and liver disease”. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 6 (1): 40–6. doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2016.02.003. PMC 4862107. PMID 27194895.
187. ^ Cappelletti, S.; Daria, P.; Sani, G.; Aromatario, M. (2015). “Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance
Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?”. Current Neuropharmacology. 13 (1): 71–88. doi:10.2174/1570159X13666141210215655. PMC 4462044. PMID 26074744.
188. ^ Herraiz, Tomas; Chaparro, Carolina (2006). “Human monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibition by coffee
and β-carbolines norharman and harman isolated from coffee”. Life Sciences. 78 (8): 795–802. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.074. PMID 16139309.
189. ^ Zivković, R. (2000). “Coffee and health in the elderly”. Acta Medica Croatica. 54 (1): 33–36. PMID
190. ^ Bakalar, Nicholas (15 August 2006). “Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits”. The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
191. ^ Williams, Robert J.; Spencer, Jeremy P. E; Rice-Evans, Catherine (2004). “Flavonoids:
Antioxidants or sig Photo credit:’]