colonial history of the united states


  • Many territories that had been part of New Spain became part of the United States after 1776 through various wars and treaties, including the Louisiana Purchase (1803), the
    Adams–Onís Treaty (1819), the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), and the Spanish–American War (1898).

  • [37][38] Traces of Dutch influence remain in present-day northern New Jersey and southeastern New York State, such as homes, family surnames, and the names of roads and whole

  • Russian America and parts of New France and New Spain were also incorporated into the United States at later times.

  • These colonies came under British or Spanish control after the French and Indian War, though France briefly re-acquired a portion of Louisiana in 1800.

  • [18] Control was by Spain (223 years) and Mexico (25 years) until 1846, when the American Army of the West took over in the Mexican–American War.

  • As early as 1687, the Spanish government had begun to offer asylum to slaves from British colonies, and the Spanish Crown officially proclaimed in 1693 that runaway slaves
    would find freedom in Florida in return for converting to Catholicism and four years of military service to the Spanish Crown.

  • [31] At the end of the War for Independence in 1783, the region south of the Great Lakes formally became part of the United States.

  • The capital of Santa Fe was settled in 1610 and remains one of the oldest continually European-inhabited settlements in the United States.

  • There were several thousand families in New Mexico and California who became American citizens in 1848, plus small numbers in the other colonies.

  • These small settlements were absorbed by Massachusetts when it made significant land claims in the 1640s and 1650s, but New Hampshire was eventually given a separate charter
    in 1679.

  • This vast tract was first settled at Mobile and Biloxi around 1700, and continued to grow when 7,000 French immigrants founded New Orleans in 1718.

  • The Spanish moved north from Mexico, settling villages in the upper valley of the Rio Grande, including much of the western half of the present-day state of New Mexico.

  • In effect, Spaniards created a maroon settlement in Florida as a front-line defense against English attacks from the north.

  • Middle Colonies[edit] Main article: Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies consisted of the present-day states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware and were characterized
    by a large degree of diversity—religious, political, economic, and ethnic.

  • The city was captured by the English in 1664; they took complete control of the colony in 1674 and renamed it New York.

  • The United States would gain much of New France in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, and the U.S. would acquire another portion of French territory with the Louisiana Purchase of

  • In 1763, Spain traded Florida to Great Britain in exchange for control of Havana, Cuba, which the British had captured during the Seven Years’ War.

  • The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of North America from the early 17th century until the incorporation of the Thirteen
    Colonies into the United States after the Revolutionary War.

  • They fled England and attempted to create a “nation of saints” or a “City upon a Hill” in America: an intensely religious, thoroughly righteous community designed to be an
    example for all of Europe.

  • Through the Spanish and Mexican eras they eventually comprised a series of 21 missions to spread Roman Catholicism among the local Native Americans, linked by El Camino Real
    (“The Royal Road”).

  • There were also several Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, but Spain gave the United States all claims to the Pacific Northwest in the Adams–Onís Treaty.

  • [12][13][14] Florida[edit] Main articles: History of Florida and Spanish Florida Spain established several small outposts in Florida in the early 16th century.

  • Spain also intended to destabilize the plantation economy of the British colonies by creating a free black community to attract slaves.

  • The United States reached an agreement with Spain for navigation rights on the river and was content to let the “feeble” colonial power stay in control of the area.

  • [1] The death rate was very high among early immigrants, and some early attempts disappeared altogether, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke.

  • Over time, non-British colonies East of the Mississippi River were taken over and most of the inhabitants were assimilated.

  • The inhabitants of West Florida revolted against the Spanish in 1810 and formed the Republic of West Florida, which was quickly annexed by the United States.

  • The government spent much of its revenue on the Royal Navy, which protected the British colonies and also threatened the colonies of the other empires, sometimes even seizing

  • The colony’s capital of New Amsterdam was founded in 1625 and located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan, which grew to become a major world city.

  • [34] The situation changed when Napoleon forced Spain to return Louisiana to France in 1802 and threatened to close the river to American vessels.

  • In the late 16th century, England (British Empire), Kingdom of France, Spanish Empire, and the Dutch Republic launched major colonization programs in North America.

  • The Nothnagle Log House in present-day Gibbstown, New Jersey, was constructed in the late 1630s during the time of the New Sweden colony.

  • Britain occupied Florida but did not send many settlers to the area.

  • [49][58] In 1637, a second group including Anne Hutchinson established a second settlement on Aquidneck Island, also known as Rhode Island.

  • [43] English colonies England made its first successful efforts at the start of the 17th century for several reasons.

  • These groups all became part of the United States when it gained its independence in 1776.

  • New Spain included territories in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, much of the United States west of the Mississippi River, parts of Latin America (including Puerto Rico), and
    the Spanish East Indies (including Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands).

  • At this time, however, there was no official attempt by the English government to create a colonial empire.

  • The United States took possession of East Florida in 1821 according to the terms of the Adams–Onís Treaty.

  • It remains the oldest European-built house in New Jersey and is believed to be one of the oldest surviving log houses in the United States.

  • [52] New England[edit] Main articles: History of New England, Connecticut Colony, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Province of New Hampshire, and Colony of Rhode
    Island Puritans[edit] Main articles: Puritans and Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony) Plymouth Rock, commemorating the landing of the Mayflower in 1620 The Pilgrims were a small group of Puritan separatists who felt that they needed to physically distance
    themselves from the Church of England.

  • By the late 17th century, Virginia’s export economy was largely based on tobacco, and new, richer settlers came in to take up large portions of land, build large plantations
    and import indentured servants and slaves.

  • In 1511, a second settlement, San Germán was established in the southwestern part of the island.

  • [11][1] New Spain Starting in the 16th century, Spain built a colonial empire in the Americas consisting of New Spain and other vice-royalties.

  • The government also fought smuggling, and this became a direct source of controversy with North American merchants when their normal business activities became reclassified
    as “smuggling” by the Navigation Acts.

  • [53] The non-separatist Puritans constituted a much larger group than the Pilgrims, and they established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 with 400 settlers.

  • However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a foundation of merchant-based investment that seemed to need much less government support.

  • [10] Over the following 20 years, people fleeing persecution from King Charles I settled most of New England.

  • [1] A significant percentage of the native Americans living in the eastern region had been ravaged by disease before 1620, possibly introduced to them decades before by explorers
    and sailors (although no conclusive cause has been established).

  • The administration was eventually led by Governor Sir Edmund Andros and seized colonial charters, revoked land titles, and ruled without local assemblies, causing anger among
    the population.

  • The most important of these was St. Augustine, founded alongside Mission Nombre de Dios in 1565 but repeatedly attacked and burned by pirates, privateers, and English forces,
    and nearly all the Spanish left after the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Florida to Great Britain.

  • [27] The following year, the colony was abandoned in favor of a nearby island on the coast, named Puerto Rico (Rich Port), which had a suitable harbor.

  • They sought to reform the Church of England by creating a new, pure church in the New World.

  • During the French and Indian War (1754–1763) many of these settlements became occupied by the British.

  • New France New France was the vast area centered on the Saint Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Mississippi River, and other major tributary rivers that was explored and claimed
    by France starting in the early 17th century.

  • Francisco Coronado followed with a larger expedition in 1539, throughout modern New Mexico and Arizona, arriving in New Mexico in 1540.

  • They were established to convert the indigenous peoples of California, while protecting historic Spanish claims to the area.

  • Early colonial failures Several European countries attempted to found colonies in the Americas after 1500.

  • [1][19] California[edit] Main article: History of California before 1900 Further information: Spanish missions in California, Territorial evolution of California, and History_of_the_west_coast_of_North_America
    § Spanish_explorers_and_conquistadors The ruins of the Spanish Mission San Juan Capistrano in California Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of present-day California starting with Cabrillo in 1542-43.

  • Some historians add a fifth region of the “Frontier”, which was never separately organized.

  • The two chief armed rebellions were short-lived failures in Virginia in 1676 and in New York in 1689–1691.

  • [16][17] Arizona and New Mexico[edit] Main articles: History of Arizona and History of New Mexico Throughout the 16th century, Spain explored the southwest from Mexico.

  • In 1867, the U.S. purchased Alaska, and nearly all Russians abandoned the area except a few missionaries of the Russian Orthodox Church working among the natives.

  • Years later, the entire New Netherland colony was incorporated into England’s colonial holdings.

  • However, these would not be the last attempts at control of Puerto Rico.

  • New England became an important mercantile and shipbuilding center, along with agriculture, fishing, and logging, serving as the hub for trading between the southern colonies
    and Europe.

  • Thus, the British Navy captured New Amsterdam (New York) in 1664.

  • Following the decline of the Taíno population, more slaves were brought to Puerto Rico; however, the number of slaves on the island paled in comparison to those in neighboring

  • Upon their arrival, they drew up the Mayflower Compact, by which they bound themselves together as a united community, thus establishing the small Plymouth Colony.


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