Conditions for human habitation An expedition-style crewed mission would operate on the surface, but for limited amounts of time Dust is one concern for Mars missions
Conditions on the surface of Mars are closer to the conditions on Earth in terms of temperature and sunlight than on any other planet or moon, except for the cloud tops of Venus.
The reduced gravity well of Mars and its position in the Solar System may facilitate Mars–Earth trade and may provide an economic rationale for continued settlement of the
The Mars Gravity Biosatellite was a proposed project designed to learn more about what effect Mars’ lower surface gravity would have on humans, but it was cancelled due to
a lack of funding.
 If the colony is to scale beyond a few people, systems will also need to maximise use of local resources to reduce the need for resupply from Earth, for example by recycling
water and oxygen and being adapted to be able to use any water found on Mars, whatever form it is in.
For example, if electricity generation systems rely on solar power, large energy storage facilities will also be needed to cover the periods when dust storms block out the
sun, and automatic dust removal systems may be needed to avoid human exposure to conditions on the surface.
Once on Mars with its lesser surface gravity (38% percent of Earth’s), these health effects would be a serious concern.
NASA has found that direct communication can be blocked for about two weeks every synodic period, around the time of superior conjunction when the Sun is directly between
Mars and Earth, although the actual duration of the communications blackout varies from mission to mission depending on various factors—such as the amount of link margin designed into the communications system, and the minimum data rate
that is acceptable from a mission standpoint.
 A three-year exposure to such levels would exceed the safety limits currently adopted by NASA, and the risk of developing cancer due to radiation exposure after a
Mars mission could be two times greater than what scientists previously thought.
 Through experience and training, astronauts on the ISS have shown it is possible to use far less, and that around 70% of what is used can be recycled using the ISS water
Since terraforming cannot be expected as a near-term solution, habitable structures on Mars would need to be constructed with pressure vessels similar to spacecraft, capable
of containing a pressure between 30 and 100 kPa.
 Modified transfer trajectories that cut the travel time down to four to seven months in space are possible with incrementally higher amounts of energy and fuel compared
to a Hohmann transfer orbit, and are in standard use for robotic Mars missions.
The effect of long-term travel in interplanetary space is unknown, but scientists estimate an added risk of between 1% and 19% (one estimate is 3.4%) for males to die of cancer
because of the radiation during the journey to Mars and back to Earth.
) Similar systems would be needed on Mars but would need to be much more efficient, since regular robotic deliveries of water to Mars would be prohibitively expensive
(the ISS is supplied with water four times per year).
 They propose that cyanobacteria could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from
their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources.
 Occasional solar proton events (SPEs) produce much higher doses, as observed in September 2017, when NASA reported radiation levels on the surface of Mars were temporarily
doubled, and were associated with an aurora 25-times brighter than any observed earlier, due to a massive, and unexpected, solar storm.
 As a result of the higher radiation in the Martian environment, the summary report of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee released in 2009 reported
that “Mars is not an easy place to visit with existing technology and without a substantial investment of resources.
However, the size and power of the equipment needed for these distances make the L4 and L5 locations unrealistic for relay stations, and the inherent stability of these regions,
although beneficial in terms of station-keeping, also attracts dust and asteroids, which could pose a risk.
 However, the surface is not hospitable to humans or most known life forms due to the radiation, greatly reduced air pressure, and an atmosphere with only 0.16% oxygen.
 A satellite at the L4 or L5 Earth–Sun Lagrangian point could serve as a relay during this period to solve the problem; even a constellation of communications satellites
would be a minor expense in the context of a full colonization program.
 Human survival on Mars would require living in artificial Mars habitats with complex life-support systems.
 If one assumes carbon nanotube construction material will be available with a strength of 130 GPa (19,000,000 psi) then a space elevator could be built to land people
and material on Mars.
Different technologies have been developed to assist long-term space exploration and may be adapted for habitation on Mars.
 Radiation Because of so much radiation reaching Mars’ surface, the planet has lost its inner dynamo despite its far distance from the Sun compared
Some ideas of possible technologies that may be able to contribute to the terraforming of Mars have been conjectured, but none would be able to bring the entire planet into
the Earth-like habitat pictured in science fiction.
Current rotations on the International Space Station put astronauts in zero gravity for six months, a comparable length of time to a one-way trip to Mars.
Global dust storms are common throughout the year and can cover the entire planet for weeks, blocking sunlight from reaching the surface.
 Equipment needed for colonization Colonization of Mars would require a wide variety of equipment—both equipment to directly provide services to humans and production
equipment used to produce food, propellant, water, energy and breathable oxygen—in order to support human colonization efforts.
 The relatively strong gravity and the presence of aerodynamic effects make it difficult to land heavy, crewed spacecraft with thrusters only, as was done with the Apollo
Moon landings, yet the atmosphere is too thin for aerodynamic effects to be of much help in aerobraking and landing a large vehicle.
 The atmosphere Atmospheric pressure on Mars is far below the Armstrong limit at which people can survive without pressure suits.
Some early Mars colonies might specialize in developing local resources for Martian consumption, such as water and/or ice.
There are ways to mitigate against solar radiation, but without much of an atmosphere, the only solution to the GCR flux is heavy shielding amounting to roughly 15 centimeters
of steel, 1 meter of rock, or 3 meters of water, limiting human colonists to living underground most of the time.
Researchers have developed a Martian simulation called HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) that places scientists in a simulated Martian laboratory to
study the psychological effects of isolation, repetitive tasks, and living in close-quarters with other scientists for up to a year at a time.
• Equipment for energy production and energy storage, some solar and perhaps nuclear as well Mars greenhouses feature in many colonization designs, especially for food production
and other purposes Various technologies and devices for Mars are shown in the illustration of a Mars base • Food production spaces and equipment.
MARIE found that radiation levels in orbit above Mars are 2.5 times higher than at the International Space Station.
Difficulties and hazards include radiation exposure during a trip to Mars and on its surface, toxic soil, low gravity, the isolation that accompanies Mars’ distance from Earth,
a lack of water, and cold temperatures.
 Also due to the thinness of the atmosphere, the temperature difference between day and night is much larger than on Earth, typically around 70 °C (125 °F).
 Such a relay avoids the problems of satellites stationed at either L4 or L5 by being significantly closer to the surface of Mars while still maintaining continuous communication
between the two planets.
 However, due to the much thinner atmosphere, a higher fraction of the solar energy reaches the surface as radiation.
Although microgravity is known to cause health problems such as muscle loss and bone demineralization, it is not known if Martian gravity would have a similar effect.
 During the journey the astronauts would be subject to radiation, which would require a means to protect them.
These robotic systems also have a reduced cost compared with early crewed operations, and have less political risk.
These dust storms would affect electricity production from solar panels for long periods, and interfere with communications with Earth.
 In 2016, a University of California, Santa Barbara scientist said they could further reduce travel time for a small robotic probe to Mars down to “as little as 72 hours”
with the use of a laser propelled sail (directed photonic propulsion) system instead of the fuel-based rocket propulsion system.
But the thin atmosphere would allow almost all of that energy to reach the
One key aspect of this would be water processing systems.
 Much remains to be learned about space radiation.
 Upon return to Earth, recovery from bone loss and atrophy is a long process and the effects of microgravity may never fully reverse.
This means solar panels can always operate at maximum efficiency on dust-free days.
While Mars’ day and general composition is similar to Earth, the planet is hostile to life.
Shortening the travel time below about six months requires higher delta-v and an increasing amount of fuel, and is difficult with chemical rockets.
Being made mainly of water, a human being would die in a matter of days without it.
 Building living quarters underground (possibly in Martian lava tubes) would significantly lower the colonists’ exposure to radiation.
Given its size and resources, this might eventually be a place to grow food and produce equipment to mine the asteroid belt.
As a result, Mars has seasons much like Earth, though on average they last nearly twice as long because the Martian year is about 1.88 Earth years.
The lifetimes of these systems would be years and even decades, and as recent developments in commercial spaceflight have shown, it may be that these systems will involve
private as well as government ownership.
 However, results from a 2006 study indicated that protons from cosmic radiation may cause twice as much serious damage to DNA as previously estimated, exposing astronauts
to greater risk of cancer and other diseases.
• Building: even if the base is constructed before arrival, it will need frequent adaptation according to the evolution of the settlement as well as inevitable replacement.
 Equipment that would be necessary would include “machines to produce fertilizer, methane and oxygen from Mars’ atmospheric nitrogen and carbon dioxide and the planet’s
subsurface water ice” as well as construction materials to build transparent domes for initial agricultural areas.
 Assuming that life doesn’t exist on Mars, the soil is going to be very poor for growing plants, so manure and other fertilizers will be valued highly in any Martian civilization
until the planet changes enough chemically to support growing vegetation on its own.
 However, the day/night temperature variation is much lower during dust storms when very little light gets through to the surface even during the day, and instead warms
the middle atmosphere.
These would need to be designed to handle the harsh Martian environment and would either have to be serviceable while wearing an EVA suit or housed inside a human habitable
 Mars has a surface area that is 28.4% of Earth’s, which is only slightly less than the amount of dry land on Earth (which is 29.2% of Earth’s surface).
 Transportation Interplanetary spaceflight Rendezvous, an interplanetary stage and lander stage come together over Mars Mars (Viking 1, 1980) Mars requires less
energy per unit mass (delta V) to reach from Earth than any planet except Venus.
While generally colder than Earth, Mars can have Earth-like temperatures in some areas and at certain times.
This gives researchers the ability to better understand the physical state that astronauts going to Mars would arrive in.
Real-time communication, such as telephone conversations or Internet Relay Chat, between Earth and Mars would be highly impractical due to the long time lags involved.
The one-way communication delay due to the speed of light ranges from about 3 minutes at closest approach (approximated by perihelion of Mars minus aphelion of Earth) to 22
minutes at the largest possible superior conjunction (approximated by aphelion of Mars plus aphelion of Earth).
[needs update] Before any people are transported to Mars on the notional 2020s Mars transportation infrastructure envisioned by SpaceX, a number of robotic cargo missions
would be undertaken first in order to transport the requisite equipment, habitats and supplies.
However, landers and rovers have successfully explored the planetary surface and delivered information about conditions on the ground.
[‘Zubrin, Robert (1996). The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must. Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-684-83550-1.
o ^ https://www.khaleejtimes.com/news/general/uaes-mars-2117-is-put-in-action Archived July 16, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
UAE’s Mars 2117 is put in action]
o ^ “Mars 2117”. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
o ^ Amos, Jonathan (September 29, 2017). “Elon Musk: Rockets will fly people from city to city in minutes”. BBC. Archived
from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
o ^ Etherington, Darrell (September 28, 2017). “Elon Musk shares images of “Moon Base Alpha” and “Mars City” ahead of IAC talk”. TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September
30, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
o ^ West, John B. (1999). “Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: New data and physiological significance”. Journal of Applied Physiology. 86 (3): 1062–1066. doi:10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1242. PMID 10066724.
Fong, MD, Kevin (February 12, 2014). “The Strange, Deadly Effects Mars Would Have on Your Body”. Wired. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
o ^ “Gravity Hurts (so Good)”. NASA. 2001. Archived from the original
on May 28, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
o ^ “Mars Mice”. science.nasa.gov. 2004. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
o ^ Phillips, Tony (January 31, 2001). “The Solar Wind at Mars”. NASA. Archived from the original
on August 18, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
o ^ “What makes Mars so hostile to life?”. BBC News. January 7, 2013. Archived from the original on August 30, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
o ^ Keating, A.; Goncalves, P. (November 2012). “The impact
of Mars geological evolution in high energy ionizing radiation environment through time”. Planetary and Space Science – Eslevier. 72 (1): 70–77. Bibcode:2012P&SS…72…70K. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.04.009.
o ^ Whitehouse, David (July 15, 2004). “Dr.
David Whitehouse – Ammonia on Mars could mean life”. BBC News. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
o ^ “Mars Weather”. Centro de Astrobiología. 2015. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved
May 31, 2015.
o ^ Jump up to:a b “Opportunity Hunkers Down During Dust Storm”. NASA. June 8, 2018. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
o ^ “Why is Mars So Dry?”. Universe Today. February 16, 2004. Archived
from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
o ^ Hecht, M. H. (2002). “Metastability of Liquid Water on Mars”. Icarus. 156 (2): 373–386. Bibcode:2002Icar..156..373H. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6794.
o ^ Webster, Guy; Brown,
Dwayne (December 10, 2013). “NASA Mars Spacecraft Reveals a More Dynamic Red Planet”. NASA. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
o ^ Hamilton, Calvin. “Mars Introduction”. Archived from the original on August
16, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
o ^ Elert, Glenn. “Temperature on the Surface of Mars”. Archived from the original on November 24, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
o ^ Kluger, J. (1992). “Mars, in Earth’s Image”. Discover Magazine. 13 (9): 70.
Bibcode:1992Disc…13…70K. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
o ^ Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Gwynne, O. E.; Atkinson, D. H.; Appelbaum, J.; Landis, G. A.; Zurek, R. W.; Flood, D. J. (1993).
Atmospheric Effects on the Utility of Solar Power on Mars (PDF). Bibcode:1993rnes.book..845H. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016.
o ^ Sharonov, V. V. (1957). “1957SvA…..1..547S Page 547”. Harvard.edu. 1: 547. Bibcode:1957SvA…..1..547S.
“Sunlight on Mars – Is There Enough Light on Mars to Grow Tomatoes?”. first the seed foundation. Archived from the original on November 26, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
o ^ Viorel Badescu (2009). Mars: Prospective Energy and Material Resources.
Springer Science & Business Media. p. 83. ISBN 978-3-642-03629-3. Archived from the original on December 21, 2019. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
o ^ Tomatosphere. “Teachers guide – Sunlight on mars – Tomatosphere”. tomatosphere.org. Archived from
the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Fenton, Lori K.; Geissler, Paul E.; Haberle, Robert M. (2007). “Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars” (PDF). Nature. 446 (7136): 646–649. Bibcode:2007Natur.446..646F.
doi:10.1038/nature05718. PMID 17410170. S2CID 4411643. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2007.
o ^ “Mars covered in toxic chemicals that can wipe out living organisms, tests reveal”. The Guardian. July 6, 2017. Archived from the original
on February 18, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
o ^ “Toxic Mars: Astronauts Must Deal with Perchlorate on the Red Planet”. space.com. June 13, 2013. Archived from the original on November 20, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
o ^ Heinz, Jacob;
Doellinger, Joerg; Maus, Deborah; Schneider, Andy; Lasch, Peter; Grossart, Hans‐Peter; Schulze‐Makuch, Dirk (August 10, 2022). “Perchlorate‐specific proteomic stress responses of Debaryomyces hansenii could enable microbial survival in Martian brines”.
Environmental Microbiology: 1462–2920.16152. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.16152. ISSN 1462-2912.
o ^ “Can Life exist on Mars?”. Mars Academy. ORACLE-ThinkQuest. Archived from the original on February 22, 2001.
o ^ Badescu, Viorel (2009). Mars: Prospective
Energy and Material Resources (illustrated ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 600. ISBN 978-3-642-03629-3. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2016. Extract of page 600 Archived April 16, 2017, at the Wayback
o ^ Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony; LaMarre, Christopher M. (June 2002). “Atmospheric Flight on Venus” (PDF). Glenn Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2011.
Baldwin, Emily (April 26, 2012). “Lichen survives harsh Mars environment”. Skymania News. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
o ^ de Vera, J.-P.; Kohler, Ulrich (April 26, 2012). “The adaptation potential of extremophiles
to Martian surface conditions and its implication for the habitability of Mars” (PDF). EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. European Geosciences Union. 14: 2113. Bibcode:2012EGUGA..14.2113D. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 4, 2012. Retrieved
April 27, 2012.
o ^ “Surviving the conditions on Mars”. DLR. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; et al. (August 3, 2015). “Sustainable life support
on Mars – the potential roles of cyanobacteria”. International Journal of Astrobiology. 15 (1): 65–92. Bibcode:2016IJAsB..15…65V. doi:10.1017/S147355041500021X.
o ^ “Extreme Planet Takes Its Toll”. Mars Exploration Rovers. Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
California Institute of Technology. June 12, 2007. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
o ^ “Higher, Farther, and Longer — Record Balloon Flights in the Second Part of the Twentieth Century”. U.S. Centennial
Of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on April 30, 2003. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
o ^ “Barometric Pressure vs. Altitude Table”. Sable Systems International. 2014. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007.
o ^ “How much water
does an average person use?”. South West Water. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
o ^ Mui, K. W., Wong, L. T., & Law, L. Y. (2007). Domestic water consumption benchmark development for Hong Kong. Building
Services Engineering Research & Technology, 28(4), 329.
o ^ Gillard, Eric (December 9, 2016). “Students Work to Find Ways to Drill for Water on Mars”. NASA. Archived from the original on June 17, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
o ^ Schwirtz,
Michael (March 30, 2009). “Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
o ^ Cheng, Kenneth (March 27, 2015). “Breaking Space Records”. The New York Times. Archived
from the original on April 5, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
o ^ “NASA’s Journey to Mars – Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration” (PDF). NASA. October 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
“Speech Monitoring of Cognitive Deficits and Stress – NSBRI”. NSBRI. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
o ^ Nguyen Nguyen, Gyutae Kim, & Kyu-Sung Kim. (2020). Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology. Korean
Journal of Aerospace & Environmental Medicine, 30(1), 25–29. https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.30.1.25 Archived October 1, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
o ^ Aubert AE, Beckers F, Verheyden B. Cardiovascular function and basics of physiology in microgravity.
Acta Cardiologica 2005;60(2):129-151.
o ^ Williams D, Kuipers A, Mukai C, Thirsk R. Acclimation during space flight: effects on human physiology. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne 2009;180(13):1317-1323.
Heer M, Paloski WH. Space motion sickness: Incidence, etiology, and countermeasures. Autonomic Neuroscience 2006;129(1):77-79.
o ^ “How Will Living On Mars Affects Our Human Body?”. Space Safety Magazine. February 11, 2014. Archived from the original
on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
o ^ Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E. (February 1991). “NASA.gov”. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
o ^ “References & Documents”. Human Adaptation and Countermeasures
Division, Johnson Space Center, NASA. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010.
o ^ Real Martians: How to Protect Astronauts from Space Radiation on Mars. Archived September 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Moon To Mars. NASA. 30 September 2015.
Quote: “[…] a trip to interplanetary space carries more radiation risk than working in low-Earth orbit, said Jonathan Pellish, a space radiation engineer at Goddard.”
o ^ Study: Collateral Damage from Cosmic Rays Increases Cancer Risk for Mars
Astronauts Archived October 14, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). May 2017.
o ^ “Non-Targeted Effects Models Predict Significantly Higher Mars Mission Cancer Risk than Targeted Effects Models.” Francis A. Cucinotta,
and Eliedonna Cacao. Nature, Scientific Reports, volume 7, Article number: 1832. 12 May 2017.doi:10.1016/j.lssr.2015.04.002
o ^ Scott, Jim (September 30, 2017). “Large solar storm sparks global aurora and doubles radiation levels on the martian
surface”. Phys.org. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
o ^ Kerr, Richard (May 31, 2013). “Radiation Will Make Astronauts’ Trip to Mars Even Riskier”. Science. 340 (6136): 1031. Bibcode:2013Sci…340.1031K.
doi:10.1126/science.340.6136.1031. PMID 23723213.
o ^ Zeitlin, C.; Hassler, D. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Brinza, D. E.; Kang, S.; Weigle, G.; et al. (May 31, 2013). “Measurements of Energetic Particle Radiation
in Transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory”. Science. 340 (6136): 1080–1084. Bibcode:2013Sci…340.1080Z. doi:10.1126/science.1235989. PMID 23723233. S2CID 604569.
o ^ Chang, Kenneth (May 30, 2013). “Data Point to Radiation Risk for Travelers
to Mars”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
o ^ “Space Radiobiology”. NASA/BNL Space Radiation Program. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. November 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September
24, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
o ^ Zubrin, Robert (1996). The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must. Touchstone. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-0-684-83550-1.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Gutierrez-Folch, Anita (September 17,
2009). “Space Radiation Hinders NASA’s Mars Ambitions”. Finding Dulcinea. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
o ^ “Mental preparation for Mars”. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original
on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
o ^ Zubrin, Robert M.; McKay, Christopher P. “Technological Requirements for Terraforming Mars”. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved November 1, 2006.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Salotti,
Jean-Marc (2020). “Minimum number of Settlers for Survival on Another planet”. Nature. Scientific Reports (1): 9700. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.9700S. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66740-0. PMC 7297723. PMID 32546782.
o ^ Smith, Cameron M. (2014). “Estimation
of a genetically viable population for multigenerational interstellar voyaging: Review and data for project Hyperion”. Acta Astronautica. 97: 16–29. Bibcode:2014AcAau..97…16S. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.12.013. Retrieved April 1, 2022.
o ^ Stern,
David P. (December 12, 2004). “#21b, Flight to Mars: How Long? Along what Path?”. From Stargazers to Starships. Phy6.org. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
o ^ “Variable-Specific-Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket”.
Tech Briefs. NASA. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
o ^ “Ion engine could one day power 39-day trips to Mars”. New Scientist. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
“NASA Scientist: I can get humans to Mars in a month”. USA TODAY. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
o ^ Starlight: Directed Energy for Relativistic Interstellar Missions. Archived November 9, 2019, at the Wayback
Machine UCSB Experimental Cosmology Group. Accessed on 9 November 2019.
o ^ “Space radiation between Earth and Mars poses a hazard to astronauts”. NASA. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
o ^ Williams, Dr.
David R. (September 1, 2004). “Mars Fact Sheet”. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
o ^ Atkinson, Nancy (July 17, 2007). “The Mars Landing Approach: Getting Large Payloads
to the Surface of the Red Planet”. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
o ^ “The Space Elevator – Chapters 2 & 7”. Archived from the original on June 3, 2005.
o ^ Weinstein, Leonard M. (2003). “Space Colonization
Using Space-Elevators from Phobos” (PDF). AIP Conference Proceedings. Space Technology and Applications International Forum – Staif 2003. Vol. 654. pp. 1227–1235. Bibcode:2003AIPC..654.1227W. doi:10.1063/1.1541423. hdl:2060/20030065879. Archived (PDF)
from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
o ^ Belluscio, Alejandro G. (March 7, 2014). “SpaceX advances drive for Mars rocket via Raptor power”. NASAspaceflight.com. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved
March 14, 2014.
o ^ Landis (2001). “Mars Rocket Vehicle Using In Situ Propellants”. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 38 (5): 730–735. Bibcode:2001JSpRo..38..730L. doi:10.2514/2.3739.
o ^ “During Solar Conjunction, Mars Spacecraft Will Be on
Autopilot”. Spotlight. JPL, NASA. October 20, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2006.
o ^ Gangale, T. (2005). “MarsSat: Assured Communication with Mars”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1065:
296–310. Bibcode:2005NYASA1065..296G. doi:10.1196/annals.1370.007. PMID 16510416. S2CID 22087209.
o ^ “Sun-Mars Libration Points and Mars Mission Simulations” (PDF). Stk.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2013. Retrieved October
o ^ “A Novel Interplanetary Communications Relay” (PDF). August 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
o ^ Kaplan, D.; et al. (1999). “The Mars In-Situ-Propellant-Production Precursor
(MIP) Flight Demonstration” (PDF). Workshop on Mars 2001: Integrated Science in Preparation for Sample Return and Human Exploration (991): 54. Bibcode:1999misp.conf…54K. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved August 30,
2012. Paper presented at Mars 2001: Integrated Science in Preparation for Sample Return and Human Exploration, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Oct. 2–4 1999, Houston, TX.
o ^ Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.; Scheiman, D.; Baraona, C. “MATE and DART: An
Instrument Package for Characterizing Solar Energy and Atmospheric Dust on Mars” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2012. Presented at Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration, July 18–20, 2000
o ^ Gwynne Shotwell (March 21, 2014). Broadcast 2212: Special Edition, interview with Gwynne Shotwell (audio file). The Space Show. Event occurs at 29:45–30:40. 2212. Archived from the original (mp3) on March 22, 2014. Retrieved
March 22, 2014. would have to throw a bunch of stuff before you start putting people there. … It is a transportation system between Earth and Mars.
o ^ “Huge Mars Colony Eyed by SpaceX Founder”. Discovery News. December 13, 2012. Archived from
the original on November 15, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
o ^ Landis, Geoffrey A. (2009). “Meteoritic steel as a construction resource on Mars”. Acta Astronautica. 64 (2–3): 183. Bibcode:2009AcAau..64..183L. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.07.011.
Lovelock, James and Allaby, Michael, “The Greening of Mars” 1984
o ^ “Effect of Clouds and Pollution on Insolation”. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
o ^ Globus, Al (February 2, 2012). “Space Settlement Basics”.
NASA Ames Research Center. Archived from the original on November 5, 2009.
o ^ “SpaceX Capabilities and Services”. SpaceX. 2017. Archived from the original on October 7, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
o ^ Belfiore, Michael (December 9, 2013).
“The Rocketeer”. Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on December 10, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
o ^ Amos, Jonathan (September 30, 2013). “Recycled rockets: SpaceX calls time on expendable launch vehicles”. BBC News. Archived from
the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
o ^ “A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover” (PDF). Report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy. June 2004. Archived (PDF) from
the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d Kornei, Katherine (October 29, 2022). “House-Hunting on Mars Has Already Started”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
o ^ Fogg, Martyn J. (1997).
“The utility of geothermal energy on Mars” (PDF). Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 49: 403–22. Bibcode:1997JBIS…50..187F. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
o ^ Cushing, G. E.; Titus,
T. N.; Wynne1, J. J.; Christensen, P. R. “THEMIS Observes Possible Cave Skylights on Mars” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 15, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
o ^ Queens University Belfast scientist helps NASA Mars project Archived
October 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine “No-one has yet proved that there is deep groundwater on Mars, but it is plausible as there is certainly surface ice and atmospheric water vapour, so we wouldn’t want to contaminate it and make it unusable
by the introduction of micro-organisms.”
o ^ COSPAR PLANETARY PROTECTION POLICY Archived 2013-03-06 at the Wayback Machine (20 October 2002; As Amended to 24 March 2011)
o ^ When Biospheres Collide – a history of NASA’s Planetary Protection Programs
Archived July 14, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Michael Meltzer, May 31, 2012, see Chapter 7, Return to Mars – final section: “Should we do away with human missions to sensitive targets”
o ^ Johnson, James E. “Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps
for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Goals and Scope.” (2015) Archived October 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
o ^ Safe on Mars page 37 Archived September 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine “Martian biological contamination may occur if astronauts
breathe contaminated dust or if they contact material that is introduced into their habitat. If an astronaut becomes contaminated or infected, it is conceivable that he or she could transmit Martian biological entities or even disease to fellow astronauts,
or introduce such entities into the biosphere upon returning to Earth. A contaminated vehicle or item of equipment returned to Earth could also be a source of contamination.”
o ^ Szocik, Konrad, Kateryna Lysenko-Ryba, Sylwia Banaś, and Sylwia Mazur.
“Political and Legal Challenges in a Mars Colony.” Space Policy (2016): n. pag. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Chang, Kenneth (September 27, 2016). “Elon Musk’s Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond”. The New York Times. Archived from the
original on September 29, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
o ^ Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance, 2015. Print.
o ^ “President Obama’s Space Legacy: Mars, Private Spaceflight and More”. Space.com. January 20, 2017.
Archived from the original on April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
o ^ “NASA.gov”. December 11, 2017. Archived from the original on April 28, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
o ^ “Trump, Congress approve largest U.S. Research spending increase
in a decade”. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
o ^ Chiles, James R. “Bigger Than Saturn, Bound for Deep Space”. Airspacemag.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
“Finally, some details about how NASA actually plans to get to Mars”. Arstechnica.com. March 28, 2017. Archived from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
o ^ Gabrielle Cornish (July 22, 2019). “How imperialism shaped the race
to the moon”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
o ^ Keith A. Spencer (October 8, 2017). “Against Mars-a-Lago: Why SpaceX’s Mars colonization plan should terrify you”. Salon.com. Archived
from the original on September 19, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
o ^ Zuleyka Zevallos (March 26, 2015). “Rethinking the Narrative of Mars Colonisation”. Other Sociologist. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved September
o ^ Keith A. Spencer (May 2, 2017). “Keep the Red Planet Red”. Jacobin. Archived from the original on November 3, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
o ^ Caroline Haskins (August 14, 2018). “The racist language of space exploration”.
The Outline. Archived from the original on October 16, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
o ^ DNLee (March 26, 2015). “When discussing Humanity’s next move to space, the language we use matters”. Scientific American. Archived from the original
on September 14, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
o ^ Drake, Nadia (November 9, 2018). “We need to change the way we talk about space exploration”. National Geographic. Archived from the original on October 16, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
Tickle, Glen (March 5, 2015). “A Look Into Whether Humans Should Try to Colonize Venus Instead of Mars”. Laughing Squid. Archived from the original on September 1, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
o ^ David Warmflash (March 14, 2017). “Colonization
of the Venusian Clouds: Is ‘Surfacism’ Clouding Our Judgement?”. Vision Learning. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
o ^ Robert Z. Pearlman (September 18, 2019). “NASA Reveals New Gateway Logo for Artemis
Lunar Orbit Way Station”. Space.com. Archived from the original on June 28, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
o ^ Minkel, JR. “Sex and Pregnancy on Mars: A Risky Proposition.” Space.com. Space.com, 11 Feb. 2011. Web. 09 Dec. 2016.
o ^ Schuster, Haley,
and Steven L. Peck. “Mars Ain’t the Kind of Place to Raise Your Kid: Ethical Implications of Pregnancy on Missions to Colonize Other Planets.” Life Sciences, Society and Policy 12.1 (2016): 1–8. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
o ^ Alex Knapp (November 27, 2012).
“SpaceX Billionaire Elon Musk Wants A Martian Colony Of 80,000 People”. Forbes. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
o ^ “Richard Branson on space travel: “I’m determined to start a population on Mars””. cbsnews.com.
September 18, 2012. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
o ^ Aldrin, Buzz (June 13, 2013). “The Call of Mars”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 17, 2019. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
o ^ Dunn,
Marcia (August 27, 2015). “Buzz Aldrin joins university, forming ‘master plan’ for Mars”. AP News. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/33671002@N00/8202034834/’]