conservatism in the united states


  • A belief in the importance of the civil society is another reason why conservatives support a smaller role for the government in the economy.

  • [29] While historians such as Patrick Allitt (born 1956) and political theorists such as Russell Kirk (1918–1994) assert that conservative principles have played a major role
    in U.S. politics and culture since 1776, they also argue that an organized conservative movement with beliefs that differ from those of other American political parties did not emerge in the U.S. at least until the 1950s.

  • [citation needed] 21st-century policies According to conservative academic Sean Speer, the most important developments within the 21st century American conservative movement
    include the rise of Donald Trump and right-wing populism more broadly, an emerging movement within conservatism that is opposed to both post-Cold War neoliberalism and liberalism more broadly, the return of competition between great powers
    and a possible new Cold War with China, a generational change within conservatism causing a renewed emphasis on identity and culture among younger conservative figures, the rise of social media platforms causing a fragmentation of traditional
    media platforms, and mainstream institutions being increasingly dominated by progressives promoting identity politics or “wokeism.

  • Apart from some right-libertarians, American conservatives tend to favor strong action in areas they believe to be within government’s legitimate jurisdiction, particularly
    national defense and law enforcement.

  • Typical positions include the view that the United States was founded as a Christian nation rather than a secular one and that abortion should be restricted or outlawed.

  • [89] All of the major American political parties support republicanism and the basic classical liberal ideals on which the country was founded in 1776, emphasizing liberty,
    the rule of law, the consent of the governed, and that all men were created equal.

  • [30][31][32] The recent movement conservatism has its base in the Republican Party, which has adopted conservative policies since the 1950s; Southern Democrats also became
    important early figures in the movement’s history.

  • “[96] Speer adds that these developments have caused “an erosion of the conservative consensus involving free markets, social conservatism, and a hawkish foreign policy (sometimes
    described as “fusionism”) that provided the intellectual scaffolding for American conservatism essentially from the launch of National Review magazine in the mid-1950s to the second term of George W. Bush’s presidency.

  • Although originally regarded as an approach to domestic policy (the founding instrument of the movement, Kristol’s The Public Interest periodical, did not even cover foreign
    affairs), through the influence of figures like Dick Cheney, Robert Kagan, Richard Perle, Kenneth Adelman and (Irving’s son) Bill Kristol, it has become most famous for its association with the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration
    in the Middle East that used aggressive military action to ostensibly promote democracy and protect American interests.

  • Conservative beliefs often include global warming denial and opposition towards government action to combat it, which

  • [79] Social views[edit] Main article: Social conservatism in the United States See also: Bible Belt and Traditionalist conservatism in the United States Social conservatism
    in the United States is the defense of traditional family values rooted in Judeo-Christian ethics and the nuclear family.

  • To the traditionalist, whether one arrives at a right- or left-wing government is less important than whether change is effected through rule of law rather than through revolution
    and utopian schemes.

  • [58] History In the United States, there has never been a national political party called the Conservative Party.

  • Traditional conservatives strongly support traditional codes of conduct, especially those they feel are threatened by social change and modernization.

  • The history of American conservatism has been marked by tensions and competing ideologies, but at least during the era of Ronald Reagan,[38] a coalition of ideologies was
    formed that was known as “the Three Leg Stool” — the three legs being social conservatives (consisting of the Christian right and paleo-conservatives), war hawks (consisting of interventionists and neoconservatives), and fiscal conservatives
    (consisting of right-libertarians and free-market capitalists), with overlap between the sides.

  • Through much of the 20th century, a primary force uniting the varied strands of conservatism, and uniting conservatives with liberals and socialists, was opposition to communism,
    which was seen not only as an enemy of the traditional order but also the enemy of Western freedom and democracy.

  • Following the American Revolution, Americans rejected the core ideals of European conservatism, which were based on landed aristocracy, hereditary monarchy, established churches,
    and powerful armies.

  • [14][15][16] They often advocate for a strong national defense, gun rights, capital punishment, and a defense of Western culture from perceived threats posed by communism
    and moral relativism.

  • [57] It seeks to preserve national interests, emphasizes American nationalism, strict law and order policies[58] and social conservatism (revolving around the nuclear family),[57]
    opposes illegal immigration and laissez-faire or free market economic policy.

  • Types[edit] See also: Factions in the Republican Party (United States) Conservatism in the United States is not a single school of thought.

  • He did so with tax cuts, continued deregulation, a greatly increased military budget, a policy of rollback of Communism as opposed to just containing it, and appeals to family
    values and religious morality.

  • A political strategy employed by conservatives to achieve a smaller government is known as starve the beast.

  • Nevertheless, the conservatives continued to call for voluntary school prayer, which is already protected under law, and repeatedly attacked the Supreme Court on this issue
    and on other issues, especially abortion.

  • The Legion never saw much benefit in the United Nations, and like other conservatives worried about a loss of American sovereignty to international bodies.

  • Libertarian conservatism is constituted by a broad, sometimes conflicted, coalition including pro-business social moderates, so-called “deficit hawks”, those favoring more
    rigid enforcement of states’ rights, individual liberty activists, and many of those who place their socially liberal ideology ahead of their fiscal beliefs.

  • The growth of government (the dominant social feature of this century) must be fought relentlessly.

  • Conservatism in the United States is based on a belief in limited government, individualism, traditionalism, republicanism, and limited federal governmental power in relation
    to U.S.

  • As of 2021, 36 percent of Americans consider themselves conservative, according to polling by Gallup, Inc.[2][3][4] American conservatives tend to support Christian values,[5]
    moral absolutism,[6] traditional family values,[7] and American exceptionalism,[8] while opposing abortion, euthanasia, same-sex marriage, and transgender rights.

  • [119] These have resulted in shifts towards greater support of national conservatism,[120] protectionism,[121] cultural conservatism, a more realist foreign policy, a conspiracist
    sub-culture, a repudiation of neoconservatism, reduced efforts to roll back entitlement programs, and a disdain for traditional checks and balances.

  • [75] In terms of governmental economic policies, American conservatives have been heavily influenced by the classical liberal or libertarian tradition as expressed by Friedrich
    Hayek and Milton Friedman, and a major source of influence has been the Chicago school of economics.

  • The liberal tradition is suspicious of government authority and prefers individual choice, and hence tends to see free market capitalism as the preferable means of achieving
    economic ends.

  • [7][26][9] Social conservatives are strongest in the Southern “Bible Belt” and in recent years played a major role in the political coalitions of George W. Bush and Donald

  • [92] No American party has ever advocated traditional European ideals of “conservatism” such as a monarchy, an established church, or a hereditary aristocracy.

  • Conservatives in the United States historically view individual liberty within the bounds of conservative values as the fundamental trait of democracy.

  • [39][40][41] In the 21st century United States, types of conservatism include: • Christian conservatism, whose proponents are primarily Christian fundamentalists focused on
    the traditional nuclear family rooted in religion.

  • [70] • Blue Dog Coalition ideology, the set of values and policy held by most conservative Democrats and the coalition that represents them.

  • [96] John Adams[edit] Main article: John Adams Political conservatives have emphasized an identification with the Founding Fathers of the United States and the U.S.

  • To the vast majority of American classical liberals, however, laissez-faire did not mean no government intervention at all.

  • Libertarian conservatives’ emphasis on personal freedom often leads them to have social positions contrary to those of social conservatives, especially on such issues as marijuana,
    abortion and gay marriage.

  • [119] The environment[edit] See also: Climate change denial Many modern conservatives oppose environmentalism.

  • As noted by Alexis de Tocqueville, there is a belief that a bigger role of the government in the economy will make people feel less responsible for the society.

  • [86] Views on foreign policy[edit] Main articles: Neoconservatism and National conservatism President Ronald Reagan holding a “Stop Communism in Central America” t-shirt on
    the South Lawn of the White House in March 1986 Neoconservatism emphasizes foreign policy over domestic policy.

  • [90] Political divisions inside the United States often seemed minor or trivial to Europeans, where the divide between the left and the right led to violent polarization,
    starting with the French Revolution.

  • American conservatism is best characterized as a reaction against utopian ideas of progress[93] and European political philosophy from before the end of World War II.

  • Most, especially libertarians, support gun ownership rights, citing the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution.

  • Fiscal conservatives since the 19th century have argued that debt is a device to corrupt politics; they argue that big spending ruins the morals of the people, and that a
    national debt creates a dangerous class of speculators.

  • [1] Conservative and Christian media organizations and American conservative figures are influential, and American conservatism is a large and mainstream ideology in the Republican
    Party and nation.

  • Reagan Era[edit] Duration: 3 minutes and 22 seconds.3:22Subtitles available.CCRonald Reagan gives a televised address from the Oval Office, outlining his plan for tax reductions
    in July 1981 (excerpt) The archetypal free market conservative administrations of the late 20th century, the Margaret Thatcher government in Britain and the Reagan administration in the U.S., both held unfettered operation of the market to
    be the cornerstone of contemporary modern conservatism.

  • In this great social conflict of the era, we are, without reservations, on the libertarian side.

  • Between 1945 and 1947, it was the Labour government in the United Kingdom, which embraced socialism, that pushed the Truman administration to take a strong stand against Soviet

  • They concluded with surprising unanimity that those school decisions had done more than forced evangelical belief out of America’s public schools; the decisions had pushed
    evangelicals themselves out of America’s mainstream culture.

  • National conservatives strongly identify with American nationalism, patriotism, and American exceptionalism, while opposing internationalism, globalism, and multiculturalism.

  • “[96] Long-term shifts in American conservative thinking following the election of Trump have been described as a “new fusionism” of traditional conservative ideology and
    right-wing populist themes.

  • [106] Political conservatism has been an important aspect of the American Legion since its founding in the 1920s.

  • [104] Classical liberals supported free markets on moral, ideological grounds: principles of individual liberty morally dictate support for free markets.

  • [43] • Related to Christian conservatism is Social conservatism, which focuses on the preservation of traditional moral values, often rooted in the nuclear family and religion,
    that they see as threatened by secularism and moral relativism.

  • [118] Typically, conservative politicians and spokesmen in the 21st century proclaim their devotion to Reagan’s ideals and policies on most social, economic, and foreign policy

  • [74] Instead American conservatives were firmly rooted in American republicanism, which European conservatives opposed.

  • Religious conservatives often assert that America is a Christian nation, calling for laws that enforce Christian morality.

  • [71][72] Ideology and political philosophy[edit] William F. Buckley Jr., an author who founded National Review magazine in 1955 In February 1955, in the first issue of National
    Review, William F. Buckley Jr. explained the standards of his magazine and articulate the beliefs of American conservatives:[73] Among our convictions: It is the job of centralized government (in peacetime) to protect its citizens’ lives,
    liberty and property.

  • Its supporters, mainly war hawks, advocate a more militaristic, interventionist foreign policy aimed at promoting democracy abroad, which stands in stark contrast to Paleoconservatisms
    more isolationist foreign policy.

  • Declaration of Independence (“that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and
    the Pursuit of Happiness”) and of the U.S. Constitution, which established a federal republic under the rule of law.

  • [88] Since 1962, there has been a small Conservative Party of New York State.

  • The classical liberal maintains that free markets work best, while the libertarian contends that free markets are the only ethical markets.


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