The name “Dalai Lama”, by which the lineage later became known throughout the non-Tibetan world, was thus established and it was applied to the first two incarnations
He studied at Drepung and became its abbot but being a non-Tibetan he met with opposition from some Tibetans, especially the Karma Kagyu who felt their position was threatened
by these emerging events; there were several attempts to remove him from power.
By 1642, a strategy that was planned and carried out by his resourceful chagdzo or manager Sonam Rapten with the military assistance of his devoted disciple Gushri Khan, Chieftain
of the Khoshut Mongols, enabled the ‘Great 5th’ to found the Dalai Lamas’ religious and political reign over more or less the whole of Tibet that survived for over 300 years.
This caused Sonam Rabten who became the 5th Dalai Lama’s changdzo or manager, to seek more active Mongol patronage and military assistance for the Gelugpa while the Fifth
was still a boy.
 The 1st Dalai Lama soon became Abbot of the greatest one, Drepung, and developed a large popular power base in Ü.
 He attracted many students and disciples ‘from Kashmir to China' as well as major patrons and disciples such as Gongma Nangso Donyopa of Droda who built a monastery
at Zhekar Dzong in his honour and invited him to name it and be its spiritual guide.
 It was called the Ganden Phodrang, a name later adopted by the Tibetan Government, and it served as home for Dalai Lamas until the Fifth moved to the Potala Palace
 Gendun Gyatso continued to travel widely and teach while based at Tibet’s largest monastery, Drepung and became known as ‘Drepung Lama’, his fame and influence spreading
all over Central Asia as the best students from hundreds of lesser monasteries in Asia were sent to Drepung for education.
 Gendun Drup was said to be the greatest scholar-saint ever produced by Narthang Monastery and became ‘the single most important lama in Tibet’.
He died on the way, in 1634 but his vassal Choghtu Khong Tayiji, continued to advance against the Gelugpas, even having his own son Arslan killed after Arslan changed
sides, submitted to the Dalai Lama and become a Gelugpa monk.
 Thus the Dalai Lamas became pre-eminent spiritual leaders in Tibet and 25 Himalayan and Central Asian kingdoms and countries bordering Tibet and their prolific literary
works have “for centuries acted as major sources of spiritual and philosophical inspiration to more than fifty million people of these lands”.
“ Avalokiteśvara’s “Dalai Lama master plan” According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteśvara had promised the Buddha to guide and defend the Tibetan people
and in the late Middle Ages, his master plan to fulfill this promise was the stage-by-stage establishment of the Dalai Lama theocracy in Tibet.
 In 1415 Gendun Drup met Tsongkhapa, founder of the Gelugpa school, and became his student; their meeting was of decisive historical and political significance as he was
later to be known as the 1st Dalai Lama.
Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or “Yellow Hat” school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest and most dominant of
the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
 A brilliant scholar and teacher, he had the spiritual maturity to be made Abbot of Drepung, taking responsibility for the material and spiritual well-being
of Tibet’s largest monastery at the age of nine.
 Through hard work he became a leading lama, known as ‘Perfecter of the Monkhood’, ‘with a host of disciples’.
 Therefore, although Gendun Drup grew to be a very important Gelugpa lama, after he died in 1474 there was no question of any search being made to identify his incarnation.
Although he had served for some years as Tashilhunpo’s abbot, he therefore moved to central Tibet, where he was invited to Drepung and where his reputation as a brilliant
young teacher quickly grew.
Thus most of Mongolia was added to the Dalai Lama’s sphere of influence, founding a spiritual empire which largely survives to the modern age.
 By 1571, when Altan Khan received a title of Shunyi Wang (King) from the Ming dynasty of China and swore allegiance to Ming, although he remained de facto quite
independent,: 106 he had fulfilled his political destiny and a nephew advised him to seek spiritual salvation, saying that “in Tibet dwells Avalokiteshvara”, referring to Sonam Gyatso, then 28 years old.
: 23 History In Central Asian Buddhist countries, it has been widely believed for the last millennium that Avalokiteśvara, the bodhisattva of compassion, has a special
relationship with the people of Tibet and intervenes in their fate by incarnating as benevolent rulers and teachers such as the Dalai Lamas.
 By now widely regarded as one of Tibet’s greatest saints and scholars he was invited back to Tashilhunpo.
 In fact, according to the “Birth to Exile” article on the 14th Dalai Lama’s website, he is “the seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a Brahmin boy who
lived in the time of Buddha Shakyamuni.
 He also stayed in Kongpo and Dagpo and became known all over Tibet.
Once there, in Kham, he founded two more great Gelugpa monasteries, the first in 1580 at Lithang where he left his representative before going on to Chamdo Monastery where
he resided and was made Abbot.
 His influence grew so quickly that soon the monks at Sera Monastery also made him their Abbot and his mediation was being sought to prevent fighting between political
 In fact, this text is said to have laid the foundation for the Tibetans’ later identification of the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara.
 Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist
values and traditions.
 The stage was set for the great Mongol King Altan Khan, hearing of his reputation, to invite the 3rd to Mongolia where he converted the King and his followers to Buddhism,
as well as other Mongol princes and their followers covering a vast tract of central Asia.
 As a young man, being 22 years his junior, the Dalai Lama addressed him reverentially as “Zhalngo”, meaning “the Presence”.
During these years and for the rest of his life (he died in 1658), “there was little doubt that politically Sonam Chophel [Rabten] was more powerful than the Dalai Lama”.
 The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the fourteenth Dalai
 The next New Year, the Gongma was so impressed by Gendun Gyatso’s performance leading the Festival that he sponsored construction of a large new residence for him at
Drepung, ‘a monastery within a monastery’.
 Establishment of the Dalai Lama lineage Gendun Drup (1391–1474), a disciple of the founder Je Tsongkapa, was the ordination name of the monk who came to be
known as the ‘First Dalai Lama’, but only from 104 years after he died.
It was the first time a Dalai Lama had exercised such political authority.
 Gongma Gyaltsen Palzangpo of Khyomorlung at Tolung and his Queen Sangyey Paldzomma also became his favourite devoted lay patrons and disciples in the 1530s and he visited
their area to carry out rituals as ‘he chose it for his next place of rebirth’.
 Having reactivated the 1st’s large popular followings in Tsang and Ü, the 2nd then moved on to southern Tibet and gathered more followers there who helped him construct
a new monastery, Chokorgyel.
 However, in 1618 Sonam Rabten, the former attendant of the 4th Dalai Lama who had become the Ganden Phodrang treasurer, secretly identified the child, who had been
born to the noble Zahor family at Tagtse castle, south of Lhasa.
 Taking advantage of good relations with the nobility and a lack of determined opposition from rival orders, on the very edge of Karma Kagyu-dominated territory he founded
Tashilhunpo Monastery at Shigatse.
 First, Tsongkhapa established three great monasteries around Lhasa in the province of Ü before he died in 1419.
 Tashilhunpo was destined to become ‘Southern Tibet’s greatest monastic university' with a complement of 3,000 monks.
 It was said that, by the time he died, through his disciples and their students, his personal influence covered the whole of Buddhist Central Asia where ‘there was nobody
of any consequence who did not know of him’.
 By the mid-1630s, thanks again to the efforts of Sonam Rabten, the 5th Dalai Lama had found a powerful new patron in Güshi Khan of the Khoshut Mongols, a subgroup
of the Dzungars, who had recently migrated to the Kokonor area from Dzungaria.
 Apparently by general consensus, by virtue of his position as the Dalai Lama’s changdzo (chief attendant, minister), after the Dalai Lama became absolute ruler of Tibet
in 1642 Sonam Rabten became the “Desi” or “Viceroy”, in fact, the de facto regent or day-to-day ruler of Tibet’s governmental affairs.
 Returning eventually to Tibet by a roundabout route and invited to stay and teach all along the way, in 1580 Sonam Gyatso was in Hohhot [or Ningxia], not far from Beijing,
when the Chinese Emperor invited him to his court.
 The Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, which was politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond
 5th Dalai Lama Main article: 5th Dalai Lama Güshi Khan Map showing the extent of the Khoshut Khanate, 1642–1717, after the Unification of Tibet under the 5th Dalai
Lama with Sonam Chöphel and Güshi Khan ‘Greater Tibet’ as claimed by exiled groups The death of the Fourth Dalai Lama in 1617 led to open conflict breaking out between various parties.
 The 4th was then born in Mongolia as the great-grandson of Altan Khan, thus cementing strong ties between Central Asia, the Dalai Lamas, the Gelugpa and Tibet.
 As proposed by Sonam Gyatso, Altan Khan sponsored the building of Thegchen Chonkhor Monastery at the site of Sonam Gyatso’s open-air teachings given to the whole Mongol
 Claiming he was Gendun Gyatso and readily recalling events from his previous life, he was recognised as the incarnation, named ‘Sonam Gyatso’ and installed at Drepung,
where ‘he quickly excelled his teachers in knowledge and wisdom and developed extraordinary powers’.
 Narthang ran the largest printing press in Tibet and its celebrated library attracted scholars and adepts from far and wide, so Pema Dorje received an education beyond
the norm at the time as well as exposure to diverse spiritual schools and ideas.
 He also established the method by which later Dalai Lama incarnations would be discovered through visions at the “oracle lake”, Lhamo Lhatso.
 His popularity and renown became such that in 1564 when the Nedong King died, it was Sonam Gyatso at the age of 21 who was requested to lead his funeral rites, rather
than his own Kagyu lamas.
 The Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government afterwards despite that, until 1951.
 Also in 1618, the Tsangpa King, Karma Puntsok Namgyal, whose Mongol patron was Choghtu Khong Tayiji of the Khalkha Mongols, attacked the Gelugpa in Lhasa to avenge an
earlier snub and established two military bases there to control the monasteries and the city.
 Although he was born in a cattle pen to be a simple goatherd, Gendun Drup rose to become one of the most celebrated and respected teachers in Tibet and Central Asia.
 In 1498 the Ringpung army captured Lhasa and banned the Gelugpa annual New Year Monlam Prayer Festival started by Tsongkhapa for world peace and prosperity.
 Throughout Gendun Gyatso’s life, the Gelugpa were opposed and suppressed by older rivals, particularly the Karma Kagyu and their Ringpung clan patrons from Tsang, who
felt threatened by their loss of influence.
 There had been resistance, since first he was ordained a monk in the Kadampa tradition and for various reasons, for hundreds of years the Kadampa school had eschewed
the adoption of the tulku system to which the older schools adhered.
When his father died in 1398 his mother was unable to support the young goatherd so she entrusted him to his uncle, a monk at Narthang, a major Kadampa monastery near Shigatse,
for education as a Buddhist monk.
In brief, these include a mythology of 36 Indian personalities plus 10 early Tibetan kings and emperors, all said to be previous incarnations of Dromtönpa, and fourteen further
Nepalese and Tibetan yogis and sages in between him and the 1st Dalai Lama.
 Origins in myth and legend Thus, according to such sources, an informal line of succession of the present Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara stretches
back much further than Gendun Drub.
 China was also happy to help Altan Khan by providing necessary translations of holy scripture, and also lamas.
 Finally, in fulfilment of Avalokiteśvara’s master plan, the 5th in the succession used the vast popular power base of devoted followers built up by his four predecessors.
This is according to The Book of Kadam, the main text of the Kadampa school, to which the 1st Dalai Lama, Gendun Drup, first belonged.
 At last, at the age of 84, older than any of his 13 successors, in 1474 he went on foot to visit Narthang Monastery on a final teaching tour.
 Firstly, the Tsangpa dynasty, rulers of Central Tibet from Shigatse, supporters of the Karmapa school and rivals to the Gelugpa, forbade the search for his incarnation.
 From there he visited Narthang, the first monastery of Gendun Drup and gave numerous discourses and offerings to the monks in gratitude.
 Based at Drepung in winter and Chokorgyel in summer, he spent his remaining years in composing commentaries, regional teaching tours, visiting Tashilhunpo from time to
time and acting as abbot of these four great monasteries.
From this time Buddhism spread rapidly across Mongolia and soon the Gelugpa had won the spiritual allegiance of most of the Mongolian tribes.
 This strong connection caused the Mongols to zealously support the Gelugpa sect in Tibet, strengthening their status and position but also arousing intensified opposition
from the Gelugpa’s rivals, particularly the Tsang Karma Kagyu in Shigatse and their Mongolian patrons and the Bönpo in Kham and their allies.
Through Altan Khan, the 3rd Dalai Lama requested to pay tribute to the Emperor of China in order to raise his State Tutor ranking, the Ming imperial court of China agreed
with the request.
 Arriving in Mongolia in 1585, he stayed 2 years with Dhüring Khan, teaching Buddhism to his people and converting more Mongol princes and their tribes.
[‘According to Mullin, Smith and Shakabpa however, the 12th Dalai Lama’s Regent, Reting Rinpoche, was deposed in 1862 in a coup by Gyalpo Shetra and Tibet was ruled by despots or assemblies of abbots and ministers for the next eleven years, that is until
1873 when the 12th Dalai Lama assumed power.
2. ^ According to their biographies, the Eighth, Jamphel Gyatso lived to 46 years old, the Ninth, Lungtok Gyatso to 9 years, the Tenth, Tsultrim Gyatso to 21, the Eleventh, Khedrup Gyatso to 17 and the
Twelfth, Trinley Gyatso to 18.
3. ^ Considering what occurred in Lhasa after the Chinese ambans murdered Gyurme Namgyal in 1750, however, the Manchus would have been particularly reluctant to murder a Dalai Lama.
4. “Definition of Dalai Lama
in English”. Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2015. The spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet. Each Dalai
Lama is believed to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, reappearing in a child when the incumbent Dalai Lama dies
5. ^ Jump up to:a b “Dalai lama”. Dictionary.com. Retrieved 12 March 2014. (formerly) the ruler and chief monk
of Tibet, believed to be a reincarnation of Avalokitesvara and sought for among newborn children after the death of the preceding Dalai Lama
6. ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 129, “Gelug: the newest of the
schools of Tibetan Buddhism”
7. ^ Peter Popham (29 January 2015). “Relentless: The Dalai Lama’s Heart of Steel”. Newsweek. His mystical legitimacy – of huge importance to the faithful – stems from the belief that the Dalai Lamas are manifestations
of Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion
8. ^ Laird 2006, p. 12.
9. ^ Woodhead, Linda (2016). Religions in the Modern World. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-415-85881-6.
10. ^ Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations.
Taylor and Francis. Kindle locations 2519–2522.
11. ^ Cantwell and Kawanami (2016). Religions in the Modern World. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-415-85880-9.
12. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1997, pp. 107–149.
13. ^ Emilian Kavalski (1 April 2016).
The Ashgate Research Companion to Chinese Foreign Policy. Routledge. pp. 445–. ISBN 978-1-317-04389-8.
14. ^ “Udo B. Barkmann – Die Mongolei und die VR China – Wege zur strategischen Partnerschaft (2003–2011)”, Geschichte und Gesellschaft des modernen
China, Peter Lang, 2016, doi:10.3726/978-3-653-06417-9/36, ISBN 9783631671146
15. ^ Schwieger 2014, p. 33.
16. ^ Laird 2006, p. 143.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b Dalai Lama at the Encyclopædia Britannica
18. ^ 陈庆英 (2005). 达赖喇嘛转世及历史定制英. 五洲传播出版社. pp.
16–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0745-3.
19. ^ Petech, Luciano (1977). The Kingdom of Ladakh, c. 950–1842 A.D. (PDF). Instituto Italiano Per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente – via academia.edu.[dead link]
20. ^ Thubten Jinpa (15 July 2008). “Introduction”. The
Book of Kadam. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-441-4. Available textual evidence points strongly toward the 11th and 12th centuries as the period during which the full myth of Avalokiteśvara’s special destiny with Tibet was established. During
this era, the belief that this compassionate spirit intervenes in the fate of the Tibetan people by manifesting as benevolent rulers and teachers took firm root
21. ^ Thubten Jinpa (4 July 2008). “Introduction”. The Book of Kadam. Wisdom Publications.
ISBN 978-0-86171-441-4. Perhaps the most important legacy of the book, at least for the Tibetan people as a whole, is that it laid the foundation for the later identification of Avalokiteśvara with the lineage of the Dalai Lama
22. ^ Thubten Jinpa
(15 July 2008). “Introduction”. The Book of Kadam. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-441-4. For the Tibetans, the mythic narrative that began with Avalokiteśvara’s embodiment in the form of Songtsen Gampo in the seventh century—or even earlier
with the mythohistorical figures of the first king of Tibet, Nyatri Tsenpo (traditionally calculated to have lived around the fifth century B.C.E.), and Lha Thothori Nyentsen (ca. third century c.e.), during whose reign some sacred Buddhist scriptures
are believed to have arrived in Tibet… continued with Dromtönpa in the eleventh century
23. ^ Thubten Jinpa (15 July 2008). “Introduction”. The Book of Kadam. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-441-4. For the Tibetans, the mythic narrative…
continues today in the person of His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama
24. ^ Thubten Jinpa (15 July 2008). The Book of Kadam. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-441-4.
25. ^ Thubten Jinpa (15 July 2008). “Introduction”. The
Book of Kadam. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-441-4. ‘The Book’ gives ample evidence of the existence of an ancient, mythological Tibetan narrative placing the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Dromtönpa, of his predecessors and of Avalokiteshvara
Tuttle, Gray; Schaeffer, Curtis R. (2013). The Tibetan History Reader. Columbia University Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-231-51354-8. In Atiśa’s telling, Dromtön was not only Avalokiteśvara but also a reincarnation of former Buddhist monks, laypeople,
commoners, and kings. Furthermore, these reincarnations were all incarnations of that very same being, Avalokiteśvara. Van der Kuijp takes us on a tour of literary history, showing that the narrative attributed to Atiśa became a major source for both
incarnation and reincarnation ideology for centuries to come.” From: “The Dalai Lamas and the Origins of Reincarnate Lamas. Leonard W. J. van der Kuijp”
27. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 39.
28. ^ Stein (1972), p. 138–139|quote=the Dalai Lama is … a link
in the chain that starts in history and leads back through legend to a deity in mythical times. The First Dalai Lama, Gedün-trup (1391–1474), was already the 51st incarnation; the teacher Dromtön, Atiśa’s disciple (eleventh century), the 45th; whilst
with the 26th, one Gesar king of India, and the 27th, a hare, we are in pure legend
29. ^ “The Dalai Lama – Birth to Exile”. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 28 October 2015. Thus His Holiness is also
believed to be a manifestation of Chenrezig, in fact the seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a Brahmin boy who lived in the time of Buddha Shakyamuni
30. ^ Jump up to:a b Laird 2006, p. 138.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Norbu 1968,
32. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 59.
33. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 66–67.
34. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Smith 1997, p. 106.
35. ^ Laird 2006, p. 138–139.
36. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Shakabpa 1984, p. 91.
37. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Laird 2006,
38. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 140–145.
39. ^ MacKay 2003, p. 18.
40. ^ Laird 2006, p. 146.
41. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 147–149.
42. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 149–151.
43. ^ Mullin 1982, p.iv
44. ^ Mullin 1983, p. 29.
45. ^ 陈庆英 (2005). 达赖喇嘛转世及历史定制英.
五洲传播出版社. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0745-3.
46. ^ Jump up to:a b c Richardson 1984, pp. 40–41.
47. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mullin 2001, p. 87.
48. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 94–95.
49. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 90–95.
50. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mullin 2001, pp. 95–96.
Mullin 2001, p. 137–8.
52. ^ Jump up to:a b Eric Tagliacozzo (5 January 2015). Asia Inside Out: Changing Times. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-96694-9.
53. ^ Bell 1946, p. 32.
54. ^ Jump up to:a b c Norbu 1968, p. 215.
55. ^ Mullin
2001, pp. 52–3.
56. ^ David-Neel 2007, p. 89.
57. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, p. 54.
58. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 54, 56.
59. ^ Dhondub 1984, p. 3.
60. ^ Jump up to:a b Snellgrove & Richardson 1986, p. 182.
61. ^ Richardson 1984, p. 40.
Jump up to:a b c d Bell 1946, p. 33.
63. ^ Smith 1997, p. 101.
64. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 1983, p. 242.
65. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 52.
66. ^ de:Bodong Chogle Namgyel[circular reference]
67. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 58–9.
68. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 60.
Dhondup 1984, p. 4.
70. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 61.
71. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 6.9
72. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 69–70.
73. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 87, 94–5.
74. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 89.
75. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 90–93.
76. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 90.
77. ^ Mullin 2001,
78. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 94.
79. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 97–8.
80. ^ Kapstein 2006, p. 129.
81. ^ Mullin 2001, 99–100
82. ^ Jump up to:a b Norbu 1984, p. 217/
83. ^ Snelling & Richardson 1986, pp. 182–3.
84. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 100–103.
de:Dagpo (Region)[circular reference]
86. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 105.
87. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mullin 2001, p. 111.
88. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 107–9.
89. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 109.
90. ^ Stein 1972, p. 84.
91. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 109–110.
92. ^ Jump
up to:a b c Dhondup 1984, pp. 4–6.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mullin 2001, p. 112.
94. ^ Shakabpa 1984, p. 90.
95. ^ Shakabpa 1984, pp. 89–92.
96. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mullin 2001, p. 113.
97. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Snellgrove & Richardson 1986,
98. ^ Mullin 2001, pp. 114–5.
99. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, pp. 113, 117.
100. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, p. 120.
101. ^ Jump up to:a b Shakabpa 1984, p. 92.
102. ^ Norbu 1986, p. 217.
103. ^ Jump up to:a b c Richardson
1984, p. 41.
104. ^ Dhondup 1984, p. 6.
105. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 141.
106. ^ Dhondup 1984, p. 7.
107. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, p. 142.
108. ^ Shakabpa 1984, p. 93.
109. ^ John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368–1644: A Concise History
of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1.
110. ^ 蔡東藩 (9 May 2015). 明史通俗演義: 蔡東藩歷史演義-明朝. 谷月社. pp. 440–. GGKEY:K7LK6AK932B. 俺答道:”我當約令稱臣，永不復叛，我死后，我子我孫，將必襲封，世世衣食中國。”
111. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 141–142.
112. ^ John
W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368–1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1.
113. ^ Jump up to:a b Snellgrove & Richardson 1984, p. 184.
114. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith 1996, p. 106.
Shakabpa 1984, pp. 94–95.
116. ^ 《明实录》又载：”万历十五年（1587）十月丁卯……番僧答赖（即达赖）准升’朵儿只唱名号，仍给敕命、图书……”
117. ^ Smith 1996, p. 104.
118. ^ Jump up to:a b c Shakabpa 1986, p. 96.
119. ^ Jiawei Wang; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). The Historical Status of China’s Tibet.
五洲传播出版社. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-7-80113-304-5.
120. ^ Jump up to:a b Norbu 1986, p. 220.
121. ^ Laird 2006, p. 147.
122. ^ John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368–1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 16–. ISBN
123. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Smith 1997, p. 107.
124. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 172–181.
125. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 182.
126. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Karmay, Samten C. (2005). “The Great Fifth” (PDF). The Newsletter. Research. Leiden,
the Netherlands: International Institute for Asian Studies. Winter 2005 (39): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
127. ^ Jump up to:a b Shakabpa 1984, pp. 101–102.
128. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 198.
Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, p. 199.
130. ^ Karmay 2014, p. 4.
131. ^ Michael Weiers, Geschichte der Mongolen, Stuttgart 2004, p. 182f
132. ^ Shakabpa 1984, p. 104.
133. ^ Shakabpa 1984, pp. 105–106.
134. ^ Shakabpa 1967, p. 105–111.
Jump up to:a b Shakabpa 1984, p. 106–110.
136. ^ Karmay 2014, p. 403.
137. ^ Karmay 2014, pp. 409–425.
138. ^ Shakabpa 2010, p. 1133.
139. ^ René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, New Brunswick 1970, p. 522.
140. ^ Bell 1946, p. 273.
Jump up to:a b Smith 1997, p. 108.
142. ^ Buswell & Lopez 2014, p. 210.
143. ^ Jump up to:a b Mullin 2001, p. 201.
144. ^ Karmay, Samten C. (2005). “The Great Fifth” (PDF). The Newsletter. Research. Leiden, the Netherlands: International Institute
for Asian Studies. Winter 2005 (39): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015. Over time the region’s Mongols were completely Tibetanized but continued to enjoy prestige among the Tibetans as Gushri Khan’s descendants
and played a significant role in the Gelug Order’s expansion in Amdo.
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234. ^ 光绪三年（一八七七年），由八世班禅丹白旺秀和摄政王公德林呼图克图、三大寺和扎什伦布寺的全体僧俗官员，联名要求驻藏大臣转奏朝廷，以只选定了一名灵童，且经各方公认，请免予金瓶制签。当年三月，光绪帝谕旨:”贡噶仁钦之子罗布藏塔布开甲木措，即作为达赖喇嘛之呼毕勒罕，毋庸制签，钦此。”
[In the third year of Guangxu (1877), the eighth Panchen Lama Danbai Wangxiu and the regent Delin Hutuktu, all monks and lay officials from the Three Great Temples and Tashilhunpo Monastery jointly asked the Minister in Tibet to transfer to the court.
Since only one soul boy has been selected, and it has been recognized by all parties, please be exempt from signing the golden bottle. In March of that year, Emperor Guangxu issued a decree: “Lob Zangtab, son of Gongga Rinqin, opened Jiamucuo, that
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245. ^ 司仁; 格旺 (1977). 十四世达赖喇嘛. ISBN 9787801132987. |quote=拉萨西北50公里处的堆龙德庆县色村，民主改革前是十四世达赖喇嘛家的庄园。当时庄囩里20户差巴(农奴)。
246. ^ 1940年2月5日，国民政府正式颁发命令：”青海灵童拉木登珠，慧性湛深，灵异特著，查系第十三辈达赖喇嘛转世，应即免予抽签，特准继任为第十四辈达赖喇嘛。此令。” [On February 5,
1940, the National Government formally issued an order: “The Qinghai soul boy, Lamu Dengzhu, has profound wisdom, and a special book. The reincarnation of the 13th generation of the Dalai Lama should be exempted from drawing lots and succeeded to
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zanastardust/172882635/’]