Diamonds can also form an ABAB … structure, which is known as hexagonal diamond or lonsdaleite, but this is far less common and is formed under different conditions from
Transition metals nickel and cobalt, which are commonly used for growth of synthetic diamond by high-pressure high-temperature techniques, have been detected in diamond as
individual atoms; the maximum concentration is 0.01% for nickel and even less for cobalt.
However, when diamond surfaces are chemically modified with certain ions, they are expected to become so hydrophilic that they can stabilize multiple layers of water ice at
human body temperature.
At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form of carbon, but diamond converts to it extremely slowly.
They are also the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth.
These regions have high enough pressure and temperature to allow diamonds to form and they are not convecting, so diamonds can be stored for billions of years until a kimberlite
eruption samples them.
Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond.
It is possible to treat regular diamonds under a combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce diamonds that are harder than the diamonds used in hardness gauges.
 Carbonado, a type in which the diamond grains were sintered (fused without melting by the application of heat and pressure), is black in color and tougher than single
 High purity diamond wafers 5 cm in diameter exhibit perfect resistance in one direction and perfect conductance in the other, creating the possibility of using them for
quantum data storage.
 Crystal habit One face of an uncut octahedral diamond, showing trigons (of positive and negative relief) formed by natural chemical etching Diamonds occur most often
as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles.
It is possible that diamonds can form from coal in subduction zones, but diamonds formed in this way are rare, and the carbon source is more likely carbonate rocks and organic
carbon in sediments, rather than coal.
 Color in diamond has two additional sources: irradiation (usually by alpha particles), that causes the color in green diamonds, and plastic deformation of the diamond
Loose diamonds are also found along existing and ancient shorelines, where they tend to accumulate because of their size and density.
 This exceptionally high value, along with the hardness and transparency of diamond, are the reasons that diamond anvil cells are the main tool for high pressure experiments.
At depths greater than 240 km, iron-nickel metal phases are present and carbon is likely to be either dissolved in them or in the form of carbides.
Peridotitic diamonds are mostly within the typical mantle range; eclogitic diamonds have values from −40 to +3, although the peak of the distribution is in the mantle range.
 The extreme hardness and high value of diamond means that gems are typically polished slowly, using painstaking traditional techniques and greater attention to detail
than is the case with most other gemstones; these tend to result in extremely flat, highly polished facets with exceptionally sharp facet edges.
Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic.
Since large quantities of metallic fluid can affect the magnetic field, this could serve as an explanation as to why the geographic and magnetic poles of the two planets are
 At high pressures, silicon and germanium have a BC8 body-centered cubic crystal structure, and a similar structure is predicted for carbon at high pressures.
 Geology Diamonds are extremely rare, with concentrations of at most parts per billion in source rock.
Diamonds cut glass, but this does not positively identify a diamond because other materials, such as quartz, also lie above glass on the Mohs scale and can also cut it.
 This ratio has a wide range in meteorites, which implies that it also varied a lot in the early Earth.
The composition forms a continuum with carbonatites, but the latter have too much oxygen for carbon to exist in a pure form.
Although the causes are not well understood, variations in the atomic structure, such as the number of nitrogen atoms present are thought to contribute to the phenomenon.
 Tetrahedra are rigid, the bonds are strong, and of all known substances diamond has the greatest number of atoms per unit volume, which is why it is both the hardest
and the least compressible.
 Thin needles of diamond can be made to vary their electronic band gap from the normal 5.6 eV to near zero by selective mechanical deformation.
However, when single crystalline diamond is in the form of micro/nanoscale wires or needles (~100–300 nanometers in diameter, micrometers long), they can be elastically stretched
by as much as 9-10 percent tensile strain without failure, with a maximum local tensile stress of ~89 to 98 GPa, very close to the theoretical limit for this material.
Thus, the deeper origin of some diamonds may reflect unusual growth environments.
Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved various minerals and replaced them with diamonds.
 Nitrogen is by far the most common impurity found in gem diamonds and is responsible for the yellow and brown color in diamonds.
Properties Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal.
 In 2018 the first known natural samples of a phase of ice called Ice VII were found as inclusions in diamond samples.
Most other diamonds show more evidence of multiple growth stages, which produce inclusions, flaws, and defect planes in the crystal lattice, all of which affect their hardness.
Taken together, these factors affect the overall appearance of a polished diamond and most diamantaires still rely upon skilled use of a loupe (magnifying glass) to identify
diamonds “by eye”.
The latter have compositions that reflect the conditions where diamonds form, such as extreme melt depletion or high pressures in eclogites.
 Above the graphite-diamond-liquid carbon triple point, the melting point of diamond increases slowly with increasing pressure; but at pressures of hundreds of GPa, it
Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are used in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing
Diamonds from below the lithosphere have a more irregular, almost polycrystalline texture, reflecting the higher temperatures and pressures as well as the transport of
 Fluorescence Extremely rare purple fluorescent diamonds from the Ellendale L-Channel deposit in Australia Between 25% to 35% of natural diamonds exhibit some degree of
fluorescence when examined under invisible long-wave Ultraviolet light or higher energy radiation sources such as X-rays and lasers.
 Crystal structure See also: Crystallographic defects in diamond Diamond unit cell, showing the tetrahedral structure The most common crystal structure of diamond
is called diamond cubic.
 Using probes such as polarized light, photoluminescence, and cathodoluminescence, a series of growth zones can be identified in diamonds.
Both planets are made up of approximately 10 percent carbon and could hypothetically contain oceans of liquid carbon.
In addition, when meteorites strike the ground, the shock wave can produce high enough temperatures and pressures for microdiamonds and nanodiamonds to form.
 All three of the diamond-bearing rocks (kimberlite, lamproite and lamprophyre) lack certain minerals (melilite and kalsilite) that are incompatible with diamond formation.
This means that pure diamond should transmit visible light and appear as a clear colorless crystal.
In an atmosphere of pure oxygen, diamond has an ignition point that ranges from 690 °C (1,274 °F) to 840 °C (1,540 °F); smaller crystals tend to burn more easily.
A similar proportion of diamonds comes from the lower mantle at depths between 660 and 800 km.
Thus, diamonds should be reduced under this temperature.
 A common misconception is that diamonds form from highly compressed coal.
 Diamonds have been adopted for many uses because of the material’s exceptional physical characteristics.
 Surface property Diamonds are naturally lipophilic and hydrophobic, which means the diamonds’ surface cannot be wet by water, but can be easily wet and stuck by oil.
They weather quickly (within a few years after exposure) and tend to have lower topographic relief than surrounding rock.
Diamond’s great hardness relative to other materials has been known since antiquity, and is the source of its name.
Instead, they are the result of tectonic processes, although (given the ages of diamonds) not necessarily the same tectonic processes that act in the present.
Small numbers of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (defects), green (radiation exposure),
purple, pink, orange, or red.
 Much higher pressures may be possible with nanocrystalline diamonds.
Their hardness is associated with the crystal growth form, which is single-stage crystal growth.
 However, at temperatures above about 4500 K, diamond rapidly converts to graphite.
 “Impact toughness” is one of the main indexes to measure the quality of synthetic industrial diamonds.
 A smaller fraction of diamonds (about 150 have been studied) come from depths of 330–660 km, a region that includes the transition zone.
The equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond are well established theoretically and experimentally.
 The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) classifies low saturation yellow and brown diamonds as diamonds in the normal color range, and applies a grading scale from
“D” (colorless) to “Z” (light yellow).
 Another common source that does keep diamonds intact is eclogite, a metamorphic rock that typically forms from basalt as an oceanic plate plunges into the mantle at a
 Substantial conductivity is commonly observed in nominally undoped diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition.
Yellow diamonds of high color saturation or a different color, such as pink or blue, are called fancy colored diamonds and fall under a different grading scale.
The most common impurity, nitrogen, causes a slight to intense yellow coloration depending upon the type and concentration of nitrogen present.
The inclusions formed at depths between 400 and 800 km, straddling the upper and lower mantle, and provide evidence for water-rich fluid at these depths.
It can also be altered by surface processes like photosynthesis.
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