The concert made international headlines, led to one of only five Time magazine cover stories dedicated to a jazz musician, and resulted in an album produced by George
Avakian that would become the best-selling LP of Ellington’s career.
 The British visit saw Ellington win praise from members of the serious music community, including composer Constant Lambert, which gave a boost to Ellington’s interest
in composing longer works.
One side in particular, “Creole Love Call”, became a worldwide sensation and gave both Ellington and Hall their first hit record.
Announcing that the two pieces would be separated by an interlude played by tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves, Ellington proceeded to lead the band through the two pieces,
with Gonsalves’ 27-chorus marathon solo whipping the crowd into a frenzy, leading the Maestro to play way beyond the curfew time despite urgent pleas from festival organizer George Wein to bring the program to an end.
 Some years later following a low-profile period (Hodges temporarily left), an appearance by Ellington and his orchestra at the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1956 led to
a major revival and regular world tours.
The revived attention brought about by the Newport appearance should not have surprised anyone, Johnny Hodges had returned the previous year, and Ellington’s collaboration
with Strayhorn had been renewed around the same time, under terms more amenable to the younger man.
Well-known sides continued to be recorded, “Caravan” in 1937, and “I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart” the following year.
With the additional guidance of Washington pianist and band leader Oliver “Doc” Perry, Ellington learned to read sheet music, project a professional style, and improve his
While Count Basie was forced to disband his whole ensemble and work as an octet for a time, Ellington was able to tour most of Western Europe between April 6 and June 30,
1950, with the orchestra playing 74 dates over 77 days.
A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington wrote or collaborated on more than one thousand compositions; his extensive body of
work is the largest recorded personal jazz legacy, and many of his pieces have become standards.
Ellington built his music business through his day job.
Some of Ellington’s new works, such as the wordless vocal feature “Transblucency” (1946) with Kay Davis, were not going to have a similar reach as the newly emerging stars.
In September 1927, King Oliver turned down a regular booking for his group as the house band at Harlem’s Cotton Club; the offer passed to Ellington after Jimmy McHugh
suggested him and Mills arranged an audition.
Ellington in the early to mid-1940s Two musicians who joined Ellington at this time created a sensation in their own right, Jimmy Blanton and Ben Webster.
Titled Time Runs in Paris and An Evening With Orson Welles in Frankfurt, the variety show also featured a newly discovered Eartha Kitt, who performed Ellington’s original
song “Hungry Little Trouble” as Helen of Troy.
The singer later commented that the audience must have thought he was an entirely different character in the second half of the show.
 The original Ellington at Newport album was the first release in a new recording contract with Columbia Records which yielded several years of recording stability, mainly
under producer Irving Townsend, who coaxed both commercial and artistic productions from Ellington.
 Strayhorn, with his training in classical music, not only contributed his original lyrics and music but also arranged and polished many of Ellington’s works, becoming
a second Ellington or “Duke’s doppelganger”.
 Early post-war years Musicians enlisting in the military and travel restrictions made touring difficult for the big bands, and dancing became subject to a new tax, which
continued for many years, affecting the choices of club owners.
 Ellington’s film work began with Black and Tan (1929), a 19-minute all-African American RKO short in which he played the hero “Duke”.
This was followed in September 1923 by a move to the Hollywood Club (at 49th and Broadway) and a four-year engagement, which gave Ellington a solid artistic base.
Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in and scored several films, and composed a handful of stage musicals.
“ However, by 1955, after three years of recording for Capitol, Ellington lacked a regular recording affiliation.
Privately made by Jack Towers and Dick Burris, these recordings were first legitimately issued in 1978 as Duke Ellington at Fargo, 1940 Live; they are among the earliest of
innumerable live performances which survive.
 Once more recording for Victor (from 1940), with the small groups being issued on their Bluebird label, three-minute masterpieces on 78 rpm record sides continued to
flow from Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Ellington’s son Mercer Ellington, and members of the orchestra.
The young band met stride pianist Willie “The Lion” Smith, who introduced them to the scene and gave them some money.
After only a year, his Master and Variety labels (the small groups had recorded for the latter) collapsed in late 1937.
Unfortunately, starting a regular pattern, Ellington’s longer works were generally not well received.
 Later 1930s From 1936, Ellington began to make recordings with smaller groups (sextets, octets, and nonets) drawn from his then-15-man orchestra.
Also during his time in Europe, Ellington would compose the music for a stage production by Orson Welles.
 Ellington had to increase from a six to eleven-piece group to meet the requirements of the Cotton Club’s management for the audition, and the engagement finally began
on December 4.
He started to play gigs in cafés and clubs in and around Washington, D.C. His attachment to music was so strong that in 1916 he turned down an art scholarship to the Pratt
Institute in Brooklyn.
\ James Stewart and Ellington in Anatomy of a Murder (1959) Around this time Ellington and Strayhorn began to work on film scoring.
 The band assembled the next day to re-record several of the numbers with the addition of the faked sound of a crowd, none of which was disclosed to purchasers of the
Ellington’s long-term aim, though, was to extend the jazz form from that three-minute limit, of which he was an acknowledged master.
It was mainly Bechet’s unreliability—he was absent for three days in succession—which made his association with Ellington short-lived.
The late 1950s also saw Ella Fitzgerald record her Duke Ellington Songbook (Verve) with Ellington and his orchestra—a recognition that Ellington’s songs had now become part
of the cultural canon known as the ‘Great American Songbook’.
By the time World War II ended, the focus of popular music was shifting towards singing crooners such as Frank Sinatra and Jo Stafford.
Although a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, in the opinion of Gunther Schuller and Barry Kernfeld, “the most significant composer of the genre”, Ellington himself
embraced the phrase “beyond category”, considering it a liberating principle, and referring to his music as part of the more general category of American Music.
An ambition of his, he told his previous employer, Teddy Wilson, then leading a big band, that Ellington was the only rival he would leave Wilson for.
Ellington continued listening to, watching, and imitating ragtime pianists, not only in Washington, D.C., but also in Philadelphia and Atlantic City, where he vacationed with
his mother during the summer.
Film historians have recognized the score “as a landmark – the first significant Hollywood film music by African Americans comprising non-diegetic music, that is, music whose
source is not visible or implied by action in the film, like an on-screen band.”
Will Vodery, Ziegfeld’s musical supervisor, recommended Ellington for the show, and, according to John Edward Hasse’s Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington,
“Perhaps during the run of Show Girl, Ellington received what he later termed ‘valuable lessons in orchestration from Will Vody.” In his 1946 biography, Duke Ellington, Barry Ulanov wrote: From Vodery, as he (Ellington) says himself, he drew
his chromatic convictions, his uses of the tones ordinarily extraneous to the diatonic scale, with the consequent alteration of the harmonic character of his music, it’s broadening, The deepening of his resources.
 British pressing of “East St. Louis Toodle-Oo” (1927) When his drummer Sonny Greer was invited to join the Wilber Sweatman Orchestra in New York City, Ellington left
his successful career in D.C. and moved to Harlem, ultimately becoming part of the Harlem Renaissance.
From the beginning of their relationship, Mills arranged recording sessions on nearly every label including Brunswick, Victor, Columbia, OKeh, Pathê (and its subsidiary, Perfect),
the ARC/Plaza group of labels (Oriole, Domino, Jewel, Banner) and their dime-store labels (Cameo, Lincoln, Romeo), Hit of the Week, and Columbia’s cheaper labels (Harmony, Diva, Velvet Tone, Clarion) labels which gave Ellington popular recognition.
The settlement of the first recording ban of 1942–44, leading to an increase in royalties paid to musicians, had a severe effect on the financial viability of the big bands,
including Ellington’s Orchestra.
Black, Brown and Beige debuted at Carnegie Hall on January 23, 1943, beginning an annual series of Ellington concerts at the venue over the next four years.
Radio exposure helped maintain Ellington’s public profile as his orchestra began to tour.
Ellington, who had abruptly ended the band’s scheduled set because of the late arrival of four key players, called the two tunes as the time was approaching midnight.
 He would sometimes hear strange music played by those who could not afford much sheet music, so for variations, they played the sheets upside down.
When a customer asked him to make a sign for a dance or party, he would ask if they had musical entertainment; if not, Ellington would offer to play for the occasion.
After a few months, the young musicians returned to Washington, D.C., feeling discouraged.
 Born in Washington, D.C., Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s and gained a national profile through his orchestra’s appearances at the Cotton Club
While some jazz musicians had played at Carnegie Hall before, none had performed anything as elaborate as Ellington’s work.
 He was the orchestra’s first regular tenor saxophonist and increased the size of the sax section to five for the first time.
Not until 1999 was the concert recording properly released for the first time.
After the young musicians left the Sweatman Orchestra to strike out on their own, they found an emerging jazz scene that was highly competitive with difficult inroad.
Symphony in Black (also 1935), a short film, featured his extended piece ‘A Rhapsody of Negro Life’.
 Ellington went to Armstrong Technical High School in Washington, D.C. His first job was selling peanuts at Washington Senators baseball games.
New dance crazes such as the Charleston emerged in Harlem, as well as African American musical theater, including Eubie Blake’s and Noble Sissle’s (the latter of whom was
his neighbor) Shuffle Along.
However, Ellington’s extended composition, Harlem (1950), was in the process of being completed at this time.
While Ellington’s United States audience remained mainly African American in this period, the orchestra had a significant following overseas.
 Much influenced by Johnny Hodges, he often credited Hodges with showing him “how to play my horn”.
Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and leader of his eponymous jazz orchestra from 1923 through the rest of
Ellington moved out of his parents’ home and bought his own as he became a successful pianist.
Swing dancing became a youth phenomenon, particularly with white college audiences, and danceability drove record sales and bookings.
She is the vocalist on “It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing)” (1932) among other recordings.
 Despite this disappointment, a Broadway production of Ellington’s Beggar’s Holiday, his sole book musical, premiered on December 23, 1946, under the direction of
At the end of the 1930s, Ellington began a nearly thirty-year collaboration with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion.
“ In his autobiography, Music is my Mistress (1973), Ellington wrote that he missed more lessons than he attended, feeling at the time that piano was not his talent.
His first play date was at the True Reformer’s Hall, where he took home 75 cents.
[‘”Biography”. DukeEllington.com (Official site). 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
2. ^ Hajdu, David (1996), Lush Life: A Biography of Billy Strayhorn, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, ISBN 978-0-86547-512-0, p. 170.
3. ^ O’Dell, Cary. “Blanton-Webster
Era Recordings—Duke Ellington Orchestra (1940-1942) Added to the National Registry: 2002” (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
4. ^ Schuller, Gunther; Kernfeld, Barry (2002). “=Ellington, Duke (jazz) [Edward Kennedy]”. Grove Music
Online (8th ed.). Oxford University Press.
5. ^ Tucker 1993, p. 6 writes: “He tried to avoid the word ‘jazz’ preferring ‘Negro’ or ‘American’ music. He claimed there were only two types of music, ‘good’ and ‘bad’ … And he embraced a
phrase coined by his colleague Billy Strayhorn – ‘beyond category’ – as a liberating principle.”
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g “The 1999 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Special Awards and Citations”. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved December 3, 2013. With
reprint of short biography and list of works (selected).
7. ^ Jump up to:a b Lawrence 2001, p. 1.
8. ^ Lawrence 2001, p. 2.
9. ^ Hasse 1995, p. 21.
10. ^ Cohen, Harvey (2010). “An excerpt from Duke Ellington’s America”. University of Chicago
11. ^ Terkel 2002.
12. ^ Ellington 1976, p. 20.
13. ^ Ellington 1976, p. 10.
14. ^ Smith, Willie the Lion (1964). Music on My Mind: The Memoirs of an American Pianist, Foreword by Duke Ellington. New York City: Doubleday & Company Inc.
15. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ellington, Duke (1970). Current Biography. H.W. Wilson Company.
16. ^ Mercer Ellington to Marian McPartland, on Piano Jazz, rebroadcast on Hot Jazz Saturday Night, WAMU, 2018 April 28.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b Simmonds,
Yussuf (September 11, 2008). “Duke Ellington”. Los Angeles Sentinel. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
18. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 45.
19. ^ Cohen, Harvey G. (Autumn 2004). “The Marketing of Duke Ellington: Setting the Strategy for an African American Maestro”.
The Journal of African American History. 89 (4): 291–315. doi:10.2307/4134056. JSTOR 4134056. S2CID 145278913.
20. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 79.
21. ^ “Adelaide Hall | CHOCOLATE KIDDIES EUROPEAN TOUR 1925 Photo Album”. Retrieved February 2, 2013 – via
22. ^ Lawrence 2001, pp. 46–47
23. ^ Gary Giddins Visions of Jazz: The First Century, New York & Oxford, 1998, pp. 112–13.
24. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 90
25. ^ Lawrence 2001, p. 77
26. ^ Gutman, Bill. Duke: The Musical Life of Duke
Ellington, New York: E-Rights/E-Reads, 1977 , p. 35.
27. ^ Duke Ellington Music is my Mistress, New York: Da Capo, 1973 , pp. 75-76.
28. ^ John Franceschina Duke Ellington’s Music for the Theatre, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland,
2001, p. 16.
29. ^ Schuller, Gunther (October 1992). “Jazz and Composition: The Many Sides of Duke Ellington, the Music’s Greatest Composer”. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 46 (1): 36–51. doi:10.2307/3824163. JSTOR 3824163.
“Adelaide Hall talks about 1920s Harlem and Creole Love Call”. YouTube. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
31. ^ Williams, Iain Cameron, Underneath a Harlem Moon … The Harlem to Paris Years of Adelaide
Hall Archived February 26, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Continuum Publishing Int., 2002 (on pages 112–117 Williams talks about “Creole Love Call” in-depth).
32. ^ Ulanov, Barry. Duke Ellington, Creative Age Press, 1946.
33. ^ Stratemann, Klaus.
Duke Ellington: Day by Day and Film by Film, 1992. ISBN 87-88043-34-7
34. ^ John Bird, Percy Grainger.
35. ^ Jump up to:a b Hodeir, André. “Ellington, Duke”. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
36. ^ Hasse
1993, p. 166
37. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 173
38. ^ Green 2015, p. 221
39. ^ Jump up to:a b Williams, Richard (June 17, 2011). “Duke Ellington’s mother dies”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
40. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 385
41. ^ Tucker 1993,
42. ^ Stratemann 1992, p. 65
43. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 94
44. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 203.
45. ^ Stone, Sonjia, ed. (1983). “WILLIAM THOMAS STRAYHORN”. Billy Strayhorn Songs. University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill. Archived from the original
on June 22, 2009. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
46. ^ Ellington 1976, p. 156.
47. ^ d’Gama Rose, Raul. “Duke Ellington: Symphony of the Body and Soul”. Allaboutjazz.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
Jackson, Kenneth T.; Keller, Lisa; Flood, Nancy (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 1951. ISBN 978-0300182576.
49. ^ Whitehead, Kevin; Bianculli, David (October 5, 2018). “A Look Back At How Virtuoso Jimmy
Blanton Changed The Bass Forever”. NPR. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
50. ^ Jump up to:a b Büchmann-Møller 2006, p. 57
51. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 789
52. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 795
53. ^ “Musician Ivie Anderson (Vocal) @ All About Jazz”. Musicians.allaboutjazz.com.
Retrieved February 2, 2013.
54. ^ “Jazz Musicians – Duke Ellington”. Theory Jazz. Archived from the original on September 3, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
55. ^ Crawford, Richard (1993). The American Musical Landscape. Berkeley: University of
California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07764-5.
56. ^ Harvey G. Cohen, Duke Ellington’s America, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2010, p. 189.
57. ^ Cohen 2010, pp. 190–91.
58. ^ Cohen 2010, pp. 191–92.
59. ^ Brent, David (February
6, 2008). “Jump For Joy: Duke Ellington’s Celebratory Musical | Night Lights Classic Jazz – WFIU Public Radio”. Indianapublicmedia.org. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
60. ^ Lawrence, 2001, p. 287.
61. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 274.
62. ^ Lawrence 2001,
63. ^ Jump up to:a b Lawrence 2001, p. 291
64. ^ “Eartha Kitt: Singer who rose from poverty to captivate audiences around the world with her purring voice”. The Daily Telegraph. December 26, 2008. Archived from the original on January
11, 2022. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
65. ^ Win Fanning (August 13, 1950). “Eartha Kitt wins raves in Welles’ show at Frankfurt”. Stars and Stripes. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
66. ^ Ken Vail Duke’s Diary: The Life of Duke Ellington, Lanham,
Maryland & Oxford, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2002, p. 28.
67. ^ Ralph J. Gleason “Duke Excites, Mystifies Without Any Pretension”, DownBeat, November 5, 1952, reprinted in Jazz Perspectives Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2008, pp. 215–49.
68. ^ “Jazzman Duke
Ellington”. Time. August 20, 1956. Archived from the original on December 7, 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
69. ^ Jump up to:a b Jack Sohmer “Duke Ellington: Ellington at Newport 1956 (Complete)” JazzTimes, October 1999.
70. ^ Hasse 1995, pp.
71. ^ Hajdu 1996, pp. 153–154
72. ^ Wein, George (2003). Myself Among Others: A Life in Music. Da Capo Press.
73. ^ Mark Stryker, “Ellington’s score still celebrated”, Detroit Free Press, January 20, 2009; Mervyn Cooke, History of Film
Music, 2008, Cambridge University Press.
74. ^ Gary Giddins, “How Come Jazz Isn’t Dead”, pp. 39–55 in Weisbard 2004, pp. 41–42. Giddins says that Ellington was denied the 1965 Music Pulitzer because the jury commended him for his body of work rather
than for a particular composition. Still, his posthumous Pulitzer was granted precisely for that life-long body of work.
75. ^ Tucker 1993, p. 362
76. ^ “Duke Ellington – Biography”. The Duke Ellington Society. May 24, 1974. Archived from the
original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
77. ^ Ellington 1976, p. 269.
78. ^ “Ellington’s Steinway Grand”. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 10, 2008. Retrieved
August 26, 2008.
79. ^ Vail, Ken (2002). Duke’s Diary: The Life of Duke Ellington. Scarecrow Press. pp. 449–452. ISBN 9780810841192.
80. ^ Green, Edward, ed. (January 8, 2015). The Cambridge Companion to Duke Ellington. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 9781316194133.
81. ^ McGowan, Mark (November 3, 2003). “NIU to rededicate Duke Ellington Ballroom during Nov. 6 NIU Jazz Ensemble concert”. Northern Illinois University. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009.
Retrieved July 14, 2009.
82. ^ Jump up to:a b Hasse 1995, p. 49
83. ^ Susan Robinson, “Duke Ellington”, Gibbs magazine, n.d.
84. ^ Duke Ellington’s Duchess. Jet. February 2, 1967. pp. 46–. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
85. ^ Hasse 1995, pp.
86. ^ Africville Genealogy Society 2010, p. 34
87. ^ Africville Genealogy Society 2010, pp. 33–34
88. ^ Lawrence 2001, p. 130
89. ^ Jump up to:a b Cohen 2010, p. 297
90. ^ Hasse 1995, pp. 218–219
91. ^ Teachout 2015, pp. 310–312
Lawrence, 2001, p. 356.
93. ^ Norment, Lynn (January 1983). McHenry-Boatwright. Ebony. pp. 30–. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
94. ^ Yanow, Scott. “Mercer Ellington: Biography”. AllMusic. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
95. ^ “Famous Alphas”. Alpha
Phi Alpha. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
96. ^ Lewis, John (July 2, 2014). “The secret history of the jazz greats who were freemasons”. The Guardian.
97. ^ Jones, Jack (May 25, 1974). “From the Archives: Jazz Great Duke Ellington Dies in New York
Hospital at 75”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
98. ^ Hasse 1993, p. 385.
99. ^ Bradbury, David (October 12, 2005). Duke Ellington. Haus Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 9781904341666 – via Google Books.
100. ^ “Program and Invitation
entitled “the Dedication of the Birth Site of Edward Kennedy ‘Duke’ Ellington” at 2129 Ward Place, N.W., Washington, D.C., April 29, 1989″. Felix E. Grant Digital Collection. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 5,
101. ^ “Letter from Curator of the Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C. Mathilde D. Williams to Felix Grant, September 21, 1972”. Felix E. Grant Digital Collection. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December
102. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Jazz man is first African-American to solo on U.S. circulating coin”. CNN. February 24, 2009. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009. The United States Mint launched a new coin
Tuesday featuring jazz legend Duke Ellington, making him the first African American to appear by himself on a circulating U.S. coin. […] The coin was issued to celebrate Ellington’s birthplace, the District of Columbia.
103. ^ Jump up to:a b
United States Mint. Coins and Medals. District of Columbia.
104. ^ Jump up to:a b “Duke Ellington – Artist – www.grammy.com”. Recording Academy. May 22, 2018. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
105. ^ Maya Parmer, “Curtain Up: Two Days of the Duke”, UCLA
Magazine, April 1, 2009.
106. ^ Schuller, Gunther, The Swing Era, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-19-504312-X, p. 157.
107. ^ Martin Williams, liner notes, Duke Ellington’s Symphony in Black, The Smithsonian Jazz Repertory Ensemble
conducted by Gunther Schuller, The Smithsonian Collections recording, 1980.
108. ^ Boston Globe, April 25, 1999.
109. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.
110. ^ “‘The Duke’ by Dave Brubeck: song review, recordings, covers”. AllMusic. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
111. ^ Rosen, Jody (June 25, 2019). “Here Are Hundreds More Artists Whose Tapes Were Destroyed in the UMG Fire”. The
New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
112. ^ “Entertainment Awards Database”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
113. ^ “GRAMMY Hall Of Fame”. GRAMMY.org. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
Aderoju, Darlene (June 13, 2022). “Black Music Month & Juneteenth 2022: Industry Celebrations (Updating)”. Billboard. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
115. ^ “The United States Mint · About The Mint”. Usmint.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
116. ^ Sheridan,
Mary Beth (June 20, 2008). “Ellington Comes Out Ahead in Coin Tossup”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
117. ^ “Featured Exhibition”. Center for Jazz Arts. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
“NMAH Archives Center”. Americanhistory.si.edu. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
119. ^ “Recipients of Honorary Degrees (By Year)”. Howard University.
120. ^ Galston, Arthur (October 2002). “The Duke
& I: A professor explains how jazz legend Duke Ellington became a doctor in 1967”. Yale Alumni Magazine.
121. ^ “Yale Honorary Degree Recipients”. Yale University. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015.
Photo credit: by David Ohmer’]