early european modern humans


  • The first wave of modern humans in Europe from 45,000-40,000 (Initial Upper Paleolithic) left no genetic legacy to modern Europeans;[1] however, from 37,000 years ago a second
    wave succeeded in forming a single founder population, from which all EEMH descended and which contributes ancestry to present-day Europeans.

  • The study instead concluded that such a genetic makeup in present-day Europeans stemmed from Near Eastern and Siberian introgression occurring predominantly in the Neolithic
    and the Bronze Age (though beginning by 14,000 years ago), but all EEMH specimens including and following Kostenki-14 contributed to the present-day European genome and were more closely related to present-day Europeans than East Asians.

  • [44][46] Genetics[edit] Further information: Genetic history of Europe While anatomically modern humans have been present outside of Africa during some isolated time intervals
    potentially as early as 250,000 years ago,[47] present-day non-Africans descend from the out of Africa expansion which occurred around 65–55 thousand years ago.

  • [5] Also around 37,000 years ago, the founder population of all later early European modern humans (EEMH) existed, and Europe would remain in genetic isolation from the rest
    of the world for the next 23,000 years.

  • [50] Initial genomic studies on the earliest EEMH in 2014, namely on the 37,000-year-old Kostenki-14 individual, identified 3 major lineages which are also present in present-day
    Europeans: one related to all later EEMH; a “Basal Eurasian” lineage which split from the common ancestor of present-day Europeans and East Asians before they split from each other; and another related to a 24,000-year-old individual from
    the Siberian Mal’ta–Buret’ culture (near Lake Baikal).

  • [43][44] The variation of the gene which is associated with blue eyes in present-day humans, OCA2, seems to have descended from a common ancestor about 10–6 thousand years
    ago somewhere in Northern Europe.

  • Because of these, the study also concluded that, beginning roughly 37,000 years ago, EEMH descended from a single founder population and were reproductively isolated from
    the rest of the world.

  • Upper Paleolithic[edit] After 40,000 years ago with the onset of Heinrich event 4 (a period of extreme seasonality), the Aurignacian proper evolved perhaps in South-Central
    Europe, and rapidly replaced other cultures across the continent.

  • [16] Hypotheses for Gravettian genesis include evolution: in Central Europe from the Szeletian (which developed from the Bohunician) which existed 41 to 37 thousand years
    ago; or from the Ahmarian or similar cultures from the Near East or the Caucasus which existed before 40,000 years ago.

  • [2] Early European modern humans (EEMH) produced Upper Palaeolithic cultures, the first major one being the Aurignacian, which was succeeded by the Gravettian by 30,000 years

  • [54][55] In 2015, the 40,000 year old modern human Oase 1 was found to have had 6–9% (point estimate 7.3%) Neanderthal DNA, indicating a Neanderthal ancestor up to four to
    six generations earlier, but this hybrid Romanian population does not appear to have made a substantial contribution to the genomes of later Europeans.

  • Genes in the present-day genome are estimated to have entered about 65 to 47 thousand years ago, most likely in West Asia soon after modern humans left Africa.

  • [29]: 137  Early depictions of early modern humans Charles R. Knight’s 1920 reconstruction of Magdalenian painters at Font-de-Gaume, France Hugo Darnaut’s 1885 Ideal picture
    from the Stone Age Viktor Vasnetsov’s 1882–1885 Stone Age Viktor Vasnetsov’s 1883 The Feast Demographics The beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic is thought to have been characterised by a major population increase in Europe, with the human
    population of Western Europe possibly increasing by a factor of 10 in the Neanderthal/modern human transition.

  • [5] Initial Upper Paleolithic[edit] See also: Initial Upper Paleolithic The earliest indication of Upper Palaeolithic modern human migration into Europe is a series of modern
    human teeth with Neronian industry stone tools found at Mandrin Cave, Malataverne in France, dated in 2022 to between 56,800 and 51,700 years ago.

  • [11] About 45 to 44 thousand years ago, the Proto-Aurignacian culture, the first widely-recognised European Upper Palaeolithic culture, spread out across Europe, probably
    descending from the Near Eastern Ahmarian culture.

  • This has variously been explained as: retention of a hypothetically tall ancestral condition; higher-quality diet and nutrition due to the hunting of megafauna which later
    became uncommon or extinct; functional adaptation to increase stride length and movement efficiency while running during a hunt; increasing territorialism among later EEMH reducing gene flow between communities and increasing inbreeding rate;
    or statistical bias due to small sample size or because taller people were more likely to achieve higher status in a group before the LGM and thus were more likely to be buried and preserved.

  • [48][49] Mitochondrial DNA analysis places EEMH as the sister group to Upper Palaeolithic East Asian groups, divergence occurring roughly 50,000 years ago.

  • [58] In a genetic study published in Nature in March 2023, the authors found that the ancestors of the Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHGs) were populations associated with the
    Epigravettian culture, which largely replaced populations associated with the Magdalenian culture about 14,000 years ago.

  • However, of the 3 predominant genes responsible for lighter skin in present-day Europeans — KITLG, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 — the latter two, as well as the TYRP1 gene associated
    with lighter hair and eye colour, experienced positive selection as late as 19 to 11 thousand years ago during the Mesolithic transition.

  • [21] During the Bølling–Allerød warming, Near Eastern genes began showing up in the indigenous Europeans, indicating the end of Europe’s genetic isolation.

  • Largely based on Western European archaeology, the transition was dubbed the “Upper Palaeolithic Revolution,” (extended to be a worldwide phenomenon) and the idea of “behavioural
    modernity” became associated with this event and early modern cultures.

  • It is unclear if this could equate to any functional differences between present-day and early modern humans.

  • (2016), evaluating much earlier European specimens, including Ust’-Ishim and Oase-1 from 45,000 years ago, found no evidence of a “Basal Eurasian” component to the genome,
    nor did they find evidence of Mal’ta–Buret’ introgression when looking at a wider range of EEMH from the entire Upper Palaeolithic.

  • This earliest sample did not cluster with any modern human population, including Africans, and died out without leaving ancestry to modern peoples.

  • [32] Prior to genetic analysis, it was generally assumed that EEMH, like present-day Europeans, were light skinned as an adaptation to better generate vitamin D from the less
    luminous sun farther north.

  • Earlier EEMH (10 tested in total), on the other hand, did not seem to be ancestral to any present-day population, nor did they form any cohesive group in and of themselves,
    each representing either completely distinct genetic lineages, admixture between major lineages, or have highly divergent ancestry.

  • Around 4,500 years ago, the immigration of the Yamnaya and Corded Ware cultures from the eastern steppes brought the Bronze Age, the Proto-Indo-European language, and more
    or less the present-day genetic makeup of Europeans.

  • However, KITLG experienced positive selection in EEMH (as well as East Asians) beginning approximately 30,000 years ago.

  • Early European modern humans (EEMH), or Cro-Magnons, were the first early modern humans (Homo sapiens) to settle in Europe, migrating from Western Asia, continuously occupying
    the continent possibly from as early as 56,800 years ago.

  • [66] Nonetheless, Magdalenian peoples appear to have had a greater dependence on small animals, aquatic resources, and plants than predecessors, probably due to the relative
    scarcity of European big game following the LGM (Quaternary extinction event).

  • [32] The Venus figurines — sculptures of pregnant women with exaggerated breasts and thighs — were used as evidence of the presence of the “Negroid race” in Palaeolithic Europe,
    because they were interpreted as having been based on real women with steatopygia (a condition which causes thicker thighs, common in the women of the San people of Southern Africa) and the hairdos of some are supposedly similar to those seen
    in Ancient Egypt.

  • [30] The racial classification system was quickly extended to fossil specimens, including both EEMH and the Neanderthals, after the true extent of their antiquity was recognised.

  • Most present-day Europeans have a 40–60% WHG ratio, and the 8,000 year old Mesolithic Loschbour man seems to have had a similar genetic makeup.

  • The Neronian is one of the many industries associated with modern humans classed as transitional between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.

  • It is largely agreed that the Upper Palaeolithic seems to feature a higher rate of technological and cultural evolution than the Middle Palaeolithic, but it is debated if
    behavioural modernity was truly an abrupt development or was a slow progression initiating far earlier than the Upper Paleolithic, especially when considering the non-European archaeological record.

  • [13] In the Danube Valley, the Aurignacian features sites few and far between, compared to later traditions, until 35,000 years ago.

  • The second wave (represented by Bacho Kiro ~45kya) appeared to be more closely related to modern East Asians and Australasians compared to Europeans, suggesting that this
    lineage split initially after the formation of Eastern Eurasians, and migrated instead northwestwards into Europe.

  • Relatively few sites are known through this time.

  • Following the LGM, population density increased as communities travelled less frequently (though for longer distances), and the need to feed so many more people in tandem
    with the increasing scarcity of big game caused them to rely more heavily on small or aquatic game, and more frequently participate in game drive systems and slaughter whole herds at a time.

  • [28] Following Charles Darwin’s 1859 On the Origin of Species, racial anthropologists and raciologists began splitting off putative subspecies and sub-races of present-day
    humans based on unreliable and pseudoscientific metrics gathered from anthropometry, physiognomy, and phrenology continuing into the 20th century.

  • [22] It is possible that human activity, in addition to the rapid retreat of favourable steppeland, inhibited recolonisation of most of Europe by megafauna following the LGM
    (such as mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, Irish elk, and cave lions), in part contributing to their final extinction which occurred by the beginning of or well into the Holocene depending on the species.

  • [64] There is much evidence that EEMH, especially in Western Europe following the LGM, corralled large prey animals into natural confined spaces (such as against a cliff wall,
    a cul-de-sac, or a water body) in order to efficiently slaughter whole herds of animals (game drive system).

  • [6] Beyond this there is the Balkan Bohunician industry beginning 48,000 years ago, likely deriving from the Levantine Emiran industry,[7] and the next oldest fossils date
    to roughly 45–43 thousand years ago in Bulgaria,[8] Italy,[9] and Britain.

  • [19][59] Culture There is a notable technological complexification coinciding with the replacement of Neanderthals with EEMH in the archaeological record, and so the terms
    “Middle Palaeolithic” and “Upper Palaeolithic” were created to distinguish between these two time periods.

  • [34] The archaeological record indicates that the overwhelming majority of Palaeolithic people (both Neanderthals and modern humans) died before reaching the age of 40, with
    few elderly individuals recorded.

  • [35] A 2005 study estimated the population of Upper Palaeolithic Europe by calculating the total geographic area which was inhabited based on the archaeological record; averaged
    the population density of Chipewyan, Hän, Hill people, and Naskapi Native Americans which live in cold climates and applied to this to EEMH; and assumed that population density continually increased with time calculated by the change in the
    number of total sites per time period.

  • [29]: 203–205  Stature was among the characteristics used to distinguish these sub-races, so taller EEMH such as specimens from the French Cro-Magnon, Paviland, and Grimaldi
    sites were classified as ancestral to the “Nordic race”, and smaller ones such as Combe-Capelle and Chancelade man (also from France) were considered the forerunners of either the “Mediterranean race” or “Eskimoids”.

  • [36] Following the LGM, EEMH are thought to have been much less mobile and featured a higher population density, indicated by seemingly shorter trade routes as well as symptoms
    of nutritional stress.

  • The exact symbolism of these works remains enigmatic, but EEMH are generally (though not universally) thought to have practiced shamanism, in which cave art — specifically
    of those depicting human/animal hybrids — played a central part.

  • Haplogroup I emerged about 35 to 30 thousand years ago, either in Europe or West Asia.

  • Near Eastern Neolithic farmers which split from the European hunter-gatherers about 40,000 years ago started to spread out across Europe by 8,000 years ago, ushering in the
    Neolithic with Early European Farmers (EEF).

  • In 2019, Greek palaeoanthropologist Katerina Harvati and colleagues argued that two 210,000 year old skulls from Apidima Cave, Greece, represent modern humans rather than
    Neanderthals — indicating these populations have an unexpectedly deep history —[3] but this was disputed in 2020 by French paleoanthropologist Marie-Antoinette de Lumley [fr] and colleagues.

  • Remains of Palaeolithic cultures have been known for centuries, but they were initially interpreted in a creationist model, wherein they represented antediluvian peoples which
    were wiped out by the Great Flood.

  • [20] The glaciers began retreating about 20,000 years ago, and the Solutrean evolved into the Magdalenian, which would recolonise Western and Central Europe over the next
    couple thousand years.

  • Among these was Australian archaeologist Betty Meehan in her 1974 article Woman the Gatherer, who argued that women play a vital role in these communities by gathering more
    reliable food plants and small game, as big game hunting has a low success rate.

  • Subsequent authors contended the skeleton was either evidence of antediluvian (before the Great Flood) people in Britain, or was swept far from the inhabited lands farther
    south by the powerful floodwaters.

  • [5] Consequently, large swathes of Europe were uninhabitable, and two distinct cultures emerged with unique technologies to adapt to the new environment: the Solutrean in
    Southwestern Europe which invented brand new technologies, and the Epi-Gravettian from Italy to the East European Plain which adapted the previous Gravettian technologies.

  • EEMH were anatomically similar to present-day Europeans, West Asians and North Africans, but were more robust, having larger brains, broader faces, more prominent brow ridges,
    and bigger teeth.

  • EEMH likely commonly constructed temporary huts while moving around, and Gravettian peoples notably made large huts on the East European Plain out of mammoth bones.

  • [5] Starting during the Older Dryas roughly 14,000 years ago, Final Magdalenian traditions appear, namely the Azilian, Hamburgian, and Creswellian.

  • Following the conception and popularisation of evolution in the mid-to-late 19th century, EEMH became the subject of much scientific racism, with early race theories allying
    with Nordicism and Pan-Germanism.

  • [29]: 116  These European fossils were considered to have been the ancestors to specifically living European races.

  • Before the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum), EEMH had overall low population density, tall stature similar to post-industrial humans, and expansive trade routes stretching as long
    as 900 km (560 mi), and hunted big game animals.

  • 2022 found that Europe was populated by three distinct lineages.

  • [67] Epi-Gravettian communities, in contrast, generally focused on hunting one species of large game, most commonly horse or bison.

  • EEMH had much higher populations than the Neanderthals, possibly due to higher fertility rates; life expectancy for both species was typically under 40 years.


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