ella fitzgerald


  • “[18] Her 1945 scat recording of “Flying Home” arranged by Vic Schoen would later be described by The New York Times as “one of the most influential vocal jazz records of
    the decade….Where other singers, most notably Louis Armstrong, had tried similar improvisation, no one before Miss Fitzgerald employed the technique with such dazzling inventiveness.

  • In 1942, with increasing dissent and money concerns in Fitzgerald’s band, Ella and Her Famous Orchestra, she started to work as lead singer with The Three Keys, and in July
    her band played their last concert at Earl Theatre in Philadelphia.

  • “[9] Days after Fitzgerald’s death, The New York Times columnist Frank Rich wrote that in the Song Book series Fitzgerald “performed a cultural transaction as extraordinary
    as Elvis’ contemporaneous integration of white and African-American soul.

  • Duke Ellington and his longtime collaborator Billy Strayhorn both appeared on exactly half the set’s 38 tracks and wrote two new pieces of music for the album: “The E and
    D Blues” and a four-movement musical portrait of Fitzgerald.

  • [14] Early career While she seems to have survived during 1933 and 1934 in part from singing on the streets of Harlem, Fitzgerald made her most important debut at the age
    of 17 on November 21, 1934, in one of the earliest Amateur Nights at the Apollo Theater.

  • It had previously been widely reported that Fitzgerald was the first black performer to play the Mocambo, following Monroe’s intervention, but this is not true.

  • Though the relationship ended after a year, Fitzgerald regularly returned to Denmark over the next three years and even considered buying a jazz club there.

  • [44] Even though she had already worked in the movies (she sang two songs in the 1942 Abbott and Costello film Ride ‘Em Cowboy),[45] she was “delighted” when Norman Granz
    negotiated the role for her, and, “at the time … considered her role in the Warner Brothers movie the biggest thing ever to have happened to her.

  • She loved the Boswell Sisters’ lead singer Connee Boswell, later saying, “My mother brought home one of her records, and I fell in love with it…I tried so hard to sound
    just like her.

  • The New York Times wrote in 1996, “These albums were among the first pop records to devote such serious attention to individual songwriters, and they were instrumental in
    establishing the pop album as a vehicle for serious musical exploration.

  • Fitzgerald also made a one-off appearance alongside Sarah Vaughan and Pearl Bailey on a 1979 television special honoring Bailey.

  • With the ‘New Testament’ Basie band in full swing, and arrangements written by a young Quincy Jones, this album proved a respite from the ‘Song Book’ recordings and constant
    touring that Fitzgerald was engaged in during this period.

  • [62] Her second marriage was in December 1947, to the famous bass player Ray Brown, whom she had met while on tour with Dizzy Gillespie’s band a year earlier.

  • [19] In January 1935, Fitzgerald won the chance to perform for a week with the Tiny Bradshaw band at the Harlem Opera House.

  • [53] Ella Fitzgerald Just One of Those Things is a film about her life including interviews with many famous singers and musicians who worked with her and her son.

  • • Fitzgerald and Joe Pass recorded four albums together toward the end of Fitzgerald’s career.

  • When she got into the band, she was dedicated to her music…She was a lonely girl around New York, just kept herself to herself, for the gig.

  • While Fitzgerald appeared in movies and as a guest on popular television shows in the second half of the twentieth century, her musical collaborations with Louis Armstrong,
    Duke Ellington, and The Ink Spots were some of her most notable acts outside of her solo career.

  • [42] Film and television[edit] Fitzgerald shakes hands with President Ronald Reagan after performing in the White House, 1981 In her most notable screen role, Fitzgerald played
    the part of singer Maggie Jackson in Jack Webb’s 1955 jazz film Pete Kelly’s Blues.

  • Although the tour was a big hit with audiences and set a new box office record for Australia, it was marred by an incident of racial discrimination that caused Fitzgerald
    to miss the first two concerts in Sydney, and Gordon had to arrange two later free concerts to compensate ticket holders.

  • While recording the Song Books and the occasional studio album, Fitzgerald toured 40 to 45 weeks per year in the United States and internationally, under the tutelage of Norman

  • Together they adopted a child born to Fitzgerald’s half-sister, Frances, whom they christened Ray Brown Jr. With Fitzgerald and Brown often busy touring and recording, the
    child was largely raised by his mother’s aunt, Virginia.

  • The Song Book series ended up becoming the singer’s most critically acclaimed and commercially successful work, and probably her most significant offering to American culture.

  • Their 1965 album Ella at Duke’s Place is also extremely well received.

  • [80] Fitzgerald is also referred to in the 1976 Stevie Wonder hit “Sir Duke” from his album Songs in the Key of Life, and the song “I Love Being Here With You”, written by
    Peggy Lee and Bill Schluger.

  • “[41] Amid The New York Times pan of the film when it opened in August 1955, the reviewer wrote, “About five minutes (out of ninety-five) suggest the picture this might have

  • Fitzgerald and Brown divorced in 1953, due to the various career pressures both were experiencing at the time, though they would continue to perform together.

  • [51] The tape was played back and the recording also broke another glass, asking: “Is it live, or is it Memorex?

  • After taking over the band when Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start her solo career.

  • During this period, she had her last US chart single with a cover of Smokey Robinson’s “Get Ready”, previously a hit for the Temptations, and some months later a top-five
    hit for Rare Earth.

  • “A-Tisket, A-Tasket” became a major hit on the radio and was also one of the biggest-selling records of the decade.

  • “[41] When, later in her career, the Society of Singers named an award after her, Fitzgerald explained, “I don’t want to say the wrong thing, which I always do but I think
    I do better when I sing.

  • [18] She won the chance to perform at the Apollo for a week but, seemingly because of her disheveled appearance, the theater never gave her that part of her prize.

  • In 1997, Newport News, Virginia created a week-long music festival with Christopher Newport University to honor Fitzgerald in her birth city.

  • [41] Plagued by health problems, Fitzgerald made her last recording in 1991 and her last public performances in 1993.

  • Personal life[edit] Fitzgerald married at least twice, and there is evidence that suggests that she may have married a third time.

  • Fitzgerald also recorded a number of sides with Armstrong for Decca in the early 1950s.

  • In 1993, after a career of nearly 60 years, she gave her last public performance.

  • [citation needed] Fitzgerald also recorded albums exclusively devoted to the songs of Porter and Gershwin in 1972 and 1983; the albums being, respectively, Ella Loves Cole
    and Nice Work If You Can Get It.

  • Of the seven, four reached the top of the pop charts, including “I’m Making Believe” and “Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall,” which both reached No.

  • [29] Verve years[edit] Ella Fitzgerald at the Paul Masson Winery, Saratoga, California in 1986 Fitzgerald made her first tour of Australia in July 1954 for the Australian-based
    American promoter Lee Gordon.

  • When asked, Norman Granz would cite “complex contractual reasons” for the fact that the two artists never recorded together.

  • Although Webb was “reluctant to sign her…because she was gawky and unkempt, a ‘diamond in the rough,'”[9] he offered her the opportunity to test with his band when they
    played a dance at Yale University.

  • [48] She made numerous guest appearances on television shows, singing on The Frank Sinatra Show, The Carol Burnett Show, The Andy Williams Show, The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom,
    and alongside other greats Nat King Cole, Dean Martin, Mel Tormé, and many others.

  • Bridgewater’s album Dear Ella (1997) featured many musicians that were closely associated with Fitzgerald during her career, including the pianist Lou Levy, the trumpeter
    Benny Powell, and Fitzgerald’s second husband, double bassist Ray Brown.

  • [3] Her parents were unmarried but lived together in the East End section of Newport News[4] for at least two and a half years after she was born.

  • Fitzgerald and Pass appeared together on the albums Take Love Easy (1973), Easy Living (1986), Speak Love (1983) and Fitzgerald and Pass… Again (1976).

  • Ed Dwight created a series of over 70 bronze sculptures at the St. Louis Arch Museum at the request of the National Park Service; the series, “Jazz: An American Art Form”,
    depicts the evolution of jazz and features various jazz performers, including Fitzgerald.

  • After a tumultuous adolescence, Fitzgerald found stability in musical success with the Chick Webb Orchestra, performing across the country but most often associated with the
    Savoy Ballroom in Harlem.

  • These partnerships produced some of her best-known songs such as “Dream a Little Dream of Me”, “Cheek to Cheek”, “Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall”, and “It Don’t Mean a
    Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing)”.

  • [76] In 1958 Fitzgerald became the first African-American female to win at the inaugural show.

  • The shows were a great success, and September 1975 saw them gross $1,000,000 in two weeks on Broadway, in a triumvirate with the Count Basie Orchestra.

  • The surprise success of the 1972 album Jazz at Santa Monica Civic ’72 led Granz to found Pablo Records, his first record label since the sale of Verve.

  • Her manager was Moe Gale, co-founder of the Savoy,[1] until she turned the rest of her career over to Norman Granz, who founded Verve Records to produce new records by Fitzgerald.

  • Bridgewater’s following album, Live at Yoshi’s, was recorded live on April 25, 1998, what would have been Fitzgerald’s 81st birthday.

  • [15] Fitzgerald recorded several hit songs, including “Love and Kisses” and “(If You Can’t Sing It) You’ll Have to Swing It (Mr.

  • [24][25] While working for Decca Records, she had hits with Bill Kenny & the Ink Spots,[26] Louis Jordan,[27] and the Delta Rhythm Boys.

  • It was in this period that Fitzgerald started including scat singing as a major part of her performance repertoire.

  • Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Cole Porter Song Book, released in 1956, was the first of eight Song Book sets Fitzgerald would record for Verve at irregular intervals from 1956
    to 1964.

  • Possibly Fitzgerald’s greatest unrealized collaboration (in terms of popular music) was a studio or live album with Frank Sinatra.

  • [15][16] She had intended to go on stage and dance, but she was intimidated by a local dance duo called the Edwards Sisters and opted to sing instead.

  • Ella in Berlin is still one of her best-selling albums; it includes a Grammy-winning performance of “Mack the Knife” in which she forgets the lyrics but improvises magnificently
    to compensate.

  • Trumpet player Mario Bauzá, who played behind Fitzgerald in her early years with Chick Webb, remembered that “she didn’t hang out much.

  • She was also frequently featured on The Ed Sullivan Show.

  • [67] Bill Reed, author of Hot from Harlem: Twelve African American Entertainers, referred to Fitzgerald as the “Civil Rights Crusader”, facing discrimination throughout her

  • African-American singers Herb Jeffries,[37] Eartha Kitt,[38] and Joyce Bryant[39] all played the Mocambo in 1952 and 1953, according to stories published at the time in Jet
    magazine and Billboard.

  • Sinatra gave her his dressing-room on A Man and His Music and couldn’t do enough for her.”

  • Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996) was an American jazz singer, sometimes referred to as the “First Lady of Song”, “Queen of Jazz”, and “Lady Ella”.

  • [40] Fitzgerald performing at the Helsinki Culture Hall in Helsinki, Finland, in April 1963 There are several live albums on Verve that are highly regarded by critics.

  • “[46] After Pete Kelly’s Blues, she appeared in sporadic movie cameos, in St. Louis Blues (1958)[47] and Let No Man Write My Epitaph (1960).

  • Her years with Pablo Records also documented the decline in her voice.

  • [41][55] Fitzgerald’s appearance with Sinatra and Count Basie in June 1974 for a series of concerts at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, was seen as an important incentive for Sinatra
    to return from his self-imposed retirement of the early 1970s.


Works Cited

[‘”The Savoy Ballroom opens”. African American Registry. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
2. ^ “Biography”. Ella Fitzgerald. March 11, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
3. ^ Jump up to:a b c Nicholson 1996, p. 4.
4. ^ Whitaker, Matthew (2011). Icons
of Black America: Breaking Barriers and Crossing Boundaries. Vol. v. 1. Santa Barbara, CA, US: Greenwood. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-313-37643-6. OCLC 781709336.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b Nicholson 1996, p. 5.
6. ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 7, 13.
7. ^ Jump up to:a
b Nicholson 1996, p. 6.
8. ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 7.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Holden, Stephen (June 16, 1996). “Ella Fitzgerald, the Voice of Jazz, Dies at 79”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
10. ^ “Biography”. EllaFitzgerald.com
(Official website). March 11, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b Nicholson 1996, p. 14.
12. ^ Jump up to:a b Rich, Frank (June 19, 1996). “Journal; How High the Moon”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
13. ^
“Ella Fitzgerald is born”. History. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b Bernstein, Nina (June 23, 1996). “Ward of the State; The Gap in Ella Fitzgerald’s Life”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
15. ^ Jump up to:a
b c d e Fritts, Ron; Vail, Ken (2003). Ella Fitzgerald: The Chick Webb Years & Beyond. Scarecrow Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-8108-4881-8. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b Horton, James Oliver (2005). Landmarks of African American
History. Oxford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-514118-4. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b Hemming & Hajdu 1991, p. 97.
18. ^ Jump up to:a b c Moret, Jim (June 15, 1996). “‘First Lady of Song’ passes peacefully, surrounded
by family”. CNN. Archived from the original on November 29, 2006. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
19. ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 19.
20. ^ Robinson, Louie (November 1961). “First Lady of Jazz”. Ebony. Vol. 17, no. 1. pp. 131–132, 139. ISSN 0012-9011. Retrieved
October 10, 2014.
21. ^ Otfinoski, Steven (2010). African Americans in the Performing Arts. Infobase Publishing. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-4381-2855-9. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
22. ^ James, Edward T.; James, Janet Wilson; Boyer, Paul S. (2004). Notable
American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Harvard University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-674-01488-6. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
23. ^ Nicholson 2004, p. 44.
24. ^ Stuart Nicholson (2014). Ella Fitzgerald: A Biography of the First Lady of Jazz.
Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-136-78814-7.
25. ^ Humphrey, Harold (April 4, 1942). “New Notes”. The Billboard. Vol. 54, no. 14. p. 67. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
26. ^ Goldberg, Marv (1998). More Than Words Can Say: The Ink Spots
and Their Music. Scarecrow Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-4616-6972-2.
27. ^ Tyler, Don (2007). Hit Songs, 1900–1955: American Popular Music of the Pre-Rock Era. McFarland. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-7864-2946-2.
28. ^ “Coming Up”. The Billboard. December
7, 1946. p. 27.
29. ^ Gioia, Ted (2012). The Jazz Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire. Oxford University Press. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-19-993739-4. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
30. ^ Stratton, Jon (September 2007). “‘All Rock and Rhythm and Jazz’:
Rock ‘n’ Roll Origin Stories and Race in Australia”. Continuum. 21 (3): 379–392. doi:10.1080/10304310701460730. hdl:20.500.11937/39207. S2CID 143360217.
31. ^ “‘Stop the music,’ said Artie Shaw”. The Argus. July 24, 1954. p. 3. Retrieved February
7, 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
32. ^ “Complaint, Ella Fitzgerald et al v. Pan American, December 23, 1954”. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
33. ^ “Ella Fitzgerald Sues Airline for Discrimination
(1970)”. CBC News. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
34. ^ “Talent topics”. The Billboard. March 12, 1955. p. 24. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
35. ^ “Ella Fitzgerald a big hit”. Jet. Vol.
7, no. 22. April 7, 1955. p. 60. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
36. ^ Nicholson 2004, p. 149.
37. ^ “Jet”. Jet : 2004. August 13, 1953. p. 60. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
38. ^ “Jet”. Jet : 2004. December 10, 1953.
ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
39. ^ “Jet”. Jet : 2004. November 12, 1953. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
40. ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 198.
41. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Nicholson 2004 “For many years Fitzgerald’s birthdate was
thought to be on the same date one year later in 1918 – and it is still listed as such in some sources – but research by Nicholson and another biographer, Tanya Lee Stone, established 1917 as the correct year of birth.”
42. ^ Davies, Hugh (December
31, 2005). “Sir Johnny up there with the Count and the Duke”. The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
43. ^ “Movie of the week: Pete Kelly’s Blues”. Jet. August 25, 1955. p. 62. ISSN
0021-5996. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
44. ^ Capua, Michelangelo (March 8, 2013). Janet Leigh: A Biography. McFarland. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7864-7022-8. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
45. ^ Furia, Philip; Patterson, Laurie (March 10, 2010). The Songs
of Hollywood. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-979266-5. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
46. ^ Manohla, Dargis (August 10, 1955). “Webb Plays the Blues”. The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
47. ^ Storb, Ilse (2000). Jazz Meets
the World – The World Meets Jazz (in German). LIT Verlag Münster. p. 61. ISBN 978-3-8258-3748-8. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
48. ^ Croix, St. Sukie de la (July 11, 2012). Chicago Whispers: A History of LGBT Chicago before Stonewall. University
of Wisconsin Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-299-28693-4. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
49. ^ “Ella on Special 1980 Duet with Karen Carpenter”. YouTube. December 25, 2008. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
50. ^
Jump up to:a b “New stamp honors first lady of song”. USA Today. AP. January 9, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
51. ^ Jump up to:a b Rosen, Larry (July 18, 2013). “Is It Live or Is It Memorex?”. Psychology Today. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
52. ^
“Ella Fitzgerald For Kentucky Fried Chicken”. Rerojunk.com. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
53. ^ “She puts the famous in focus”. St. Petersburg Times. November 22, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
54. ^ Jump up to:a b Evans-Darby, Sally (March
21, 2019). “Ella Fitzgerald: Just One of Those Things | Jazz Journal”.
55. ^ “On Frank Sinatra’s Hair”. Swarthmore.edu. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
56. ^ “Ella Fitzgerald Hospitalized”. The Lewiston Journal. AP. August 13, 1985. Retrieved February
22, 2014.
57. ^ “Ella Fitzgerald Hospitalized”. AP News Archive. AP. July 27, 1986. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
58. ^ “Ella Fitzgerald Hospitalized”. Los Angeles Times. July 10, 1990. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
59. ^ “25 years of Jazz FM”.
Jazz FM. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
60. ^ “Ella Fitzgerald Had Both Legs Amputated”. Daily News. Kingsport, Tennessee. Reuters. April 13, 1994. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
61. ^ Jump up to:a b Weinstein, Henry; Brazil, Jeff (June 16, 1996). “Ella
Fitzgerald, Jazz’s First Lady of Song, Dies”. Los Angeles Times. pp. 1–3. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
62. ^ Nicholson 2004, pp. 67–68.
63. ^ Nicholson 2004, pp. 173–175.
64. ^ “This Green and Pleasant Land” by Bryan Greene, in Poverty and
Race, p. 3.
65. ^ “Awards”. Ella Fitzgerald. April 7, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
66. ^ Hershorn, Tad (2011). Norman Granz: The Man Who Used Jazz for Justice. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26782-4.
67. ^ Jump up to:a b
Jessica Bissett Perea. “Fitzgerald, Ella.” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. October 10, 2017. [1][permanent dead link]
68. ^ Bill, Reed (2010). Hot from Harlem: Twelve African American Entertainers, 1890–1960.
McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-5726-7.
69. ^ “Post Civil War: Freedmen and Civil Rights”. National Archives. August 15, 2016. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
70. ^ Bush, George (December 11, 1992).
“Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medals of Freedom | The American Presidency Project”. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
71. ^ “The Foundation.” Ella Fitzgerald, Universal Music Enterprises, www.ellafitzgerald.com/foundation.
72. ^
Wilson, John S. “A Tribute to Fitzgerald With Heart and Soul.” The New York Times, The New York Times, February 11, 1990, [2].
73. ^ Easterling, Michael. “Celebrating 100 Years of Song”, Breakthroughs, City of Hope, April 24, 2017, www.cityofhope.org/celebrating-ella-fitzgerald.
74. ^
Bishop, Elizabeth, and Robert Giroux. One Art: Letters. Pimlico, 1996.
75. ^ Wong, Hannah. “‘First Lady of Song’ LC Collection Tells Ella Fitzgerald Story”. LOC. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
76. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Ella Fitzgerald”. grammy.com.
The Recording Academy. Retrieved March 12, 2022.
77. ^ “Calendar & Events: Spring Sing: Gershwin Award”. UCLA. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011.
78. ^ Rockwell, John (June 15, 1986). “Half a Century of Song with the Great ‘Ella'”.
The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
79. ^ “Partial List of Harvard Honorary Degrees”. Harvard University. Archived from the original on August 5, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
80. ^ “France Gall”. Radio Swizz Jazz. Archived from the original
on April 7, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
81. ^ Graff, Gary (October 30, 2012). “Rod Stewart: I Thought Christmas Album Was ‘Beneath Me'”. Billboard. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
82. ^ “Behind the Scenes”. eddwight.com. Ed Dwight Studios,
Inc. Archived from the original on August 9, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
83. ^ “New Stamp Honors First Lady of Song”. WHSV News 3. January 9, 2007. Archived from the original on September 5, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
84. ^ Batty, David
(April 25, 2013). “Google celebrates Ella Fitzgerald with doodle on 96th birthday”. Guardian. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
85. ^ Smith, Patrick (April 25, 2013). “Ella Fitzgerald celebrated in Google Doodle; ‘The Queen of Jazz’ Ella Fitzgearld
is commemorated with a Google Doodle on what would have been her 96th birthday”. The Telegraph Online. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
86. ^ “Ella at 100, Ella Fitzgerald – The First Lady of Song”. BBC
Radio 2 – Bbc.co.uk. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
2. Gourse, Leslie (1998). The Ella Fitzgerald Companion. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-6916-7.
3. Hemming, Roy; Hajdu, David (1991). Discovering great singers of classic pop :
a new listener’s guide to the sounds and lives of the top performers and their recordings, movies, and videos. New York: Newmarket Press. ISBN 978-1-55704-148-7. OCLC 1033645473.
4. Johnson, J. Wilfred (2001). Ella Fitzgerald: An Annotated Discography.
McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0906-1.
5. Nicholson, Stuart (1996). Ella Fitzgerald: 1917–1996. London: Indigo. ISBN 978-0-575-40032-0.
6. Nicholson, Stuart (2004). Ella Fitzgerald : the complete biography. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-78813-0.
OCLC 884745086. OCLC 1033559908, 884645602.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zenat_el3ain/3697780051/’]