enlargement of the european union


  • Although eventually trying to limit the number of members, and after encouragement from the US, the EU pursued talks with ten countries and a change of mind[clarification
    needed] by Cyprus and Malta helped to offset slightly the influx of large poorer member states from Central and Eastern Europe.

  • This is based on the 1993 “Copenhagen criteria” agreed as it became clear many former Eastern Bloc countries would apply to join: Membership requires that candidate country
    has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights, respect for and protection of minorities, the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure
    and market forces within the Union.

  • First enlargement[edit] Main article: 1973 enlargement of the European Communities Interactive map of the enlargement and evolution of the European Union, excluding Greenland
    and Algeria The United Kingdom, which had refused to join as a founding member, changed its policy following the Suez crisis and applied to be a member of the Communities.

  • The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.

  • [14] The reasons for the first member states to apply, and for them to be accepted, were primarily economic while the second enlargement was more political.

  • [61] The official EU media (the speeches of the European Commission) frequently referred to the enlargement to the CEE region as “an historical opportunity” and “morally imperative”,
    which reflected the desire of the EU to admit these countries as members, even though they were less developed than the Western European countries.

  • The EU struggled to deal with the sudden reunification of Germany with the addition of its poorer 17 million people and, while keeping its monetary union project on track,
    it was still at that early stage pointing the EFTA countries in the direction of the EEA rather than full membership.

  • The EU’s predecessor, the European Economic Community,[1] was founded with the Inner Six member states in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force.

  • [92][93] Abandoned enlargement negotiations[edit] Several sovereign states have previously submitted applications for membership to the EU but are no longer on the agenda:
    • Norway has completed membership negotiations twice, in 1972 and 1994, but both times membership was rejected in a referendum.

  • Eastern enlargement[edit] Further information: 2004 enlargement of the European Union and 2007 enlargement of the European Union In the late 1980’s These countries wanted
    to consolidate their democracies through joining Western world international organisations (including participation in European integration) which would ensure the newly emerged democracies.

  • The process from application for association agreement through accession has taken far longer, as much as several decades (Turkey, for example, first applied for association
    in the 1950s and has yet to conclude accession negotiations).

  • Some countries, such as the UK, immediately opened their job market to the accession states, whereas most others placed temporary restrictions on the rights of work of the
    citizens of these states to their countries.

  • The Copenhagen criteria stated in 1993 that a country must be a democracy, operate a free market, and be willing to adopt the entire body of EU law already agreed upon.

  • Before a country applies for membership it typically signs an association agreement to help prepare the country for candidacy and eventual membership.

  • These steps are primarily presided over by the European Commission (Enlargement Commissioner and DG Enlargement), but the actual negotiations are technically conducted between
    the Union’s Member States and the candidate country.

  • [37] This request was rejected by all the member countries in 1964; Spain was not a democracy at the time, and thus unable to enter the EEC.

  • The EU has also preferred these states to integrate via the EEA rather than full membership as the EEC wished to pursue monetary integration and did not wish for another round
    of enlargement to occupy their attention.

  • Once the negotiations are complete, a Treaty of Accession will be signed, which must then be ratified by all of the member states of the Union, as well as the institutions
    of the Union, and the candidate country.

  • Negotiations are typically a matter of the candidate country convincing the EU that its laws and administrative capacity are sufficient to execute European law, which can
    be implemented as seen fit by the member states.

  • The European Commission is sensitive to the issue, which was addressed in a speech by the EU’s High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini at the European Parliament
    Plenary Session on the Western Balkan Strategy: “shared, unequivocal, concrete perspective for European Union integration for each and every one of the six partners.

  • This term is also used to refer to the intensification of co-operation between EU member states as national governments allow for the gradual harmonisation of national laws.

  • To join the EU, a state needs to fulfil economic and political conditions called the Copenhagen criteria (after the Copenhagen summit in June 1993), which require a stable
    democratic government that respects the rule of law, and its corresponding freedoms and institutions.

  • The years subsequent to the EU accession will lead to extensive dialogues between policy-makers, governments, and European citizens about the path for a constructive development.

  • However, the EU’s desire to accept these countries’ membership applications was less than rapid.

  • [40] As part of the deal for British entry, France agreed to allow the EEC its own monetary resources.

  • [43] Austria, Finland, and Sweden were neutral in the Cold War so membership of an organisation developing a common foreign and security policy would be incompatible with

  • Albania and the several successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have all adopted EU integration as an aim of foreign policy.

  • [2][3] The European Council endorsed starting negotiations with North Macedonia and Albania on 26 March 2020, and they could join after 2025.

  • The movement westward of some of the labour force of the newly acceded countries that occurred in the aftermath of the enlargement initially spawned clichés among the public
    opinion and media of some western countries (such as the “Polish plumber”), despite the generally conceded benefit to the economies concerned.

  • The plan envisages that all six applicants could achieve accession as members of the European Union after 2025.

  • The entire process, from application for membership to membership has typically taken about a decade, although some countries, notably Sweden, Finland, and Austria have been
    faster, taking only a few years.

  • The EU and NATO offered a guarantee of this, and the EU was also seen as vital to ensuring the economic success of those countries.

  • [12] Former Commission President Romano Prodi favoured granting “everything but institutions” to the EU’s neighbour states, allowing them to co-operate deeply while not adding
    strain on the EU’s institutional framework.

  • In June 2022 Bosnia and Herzegovina recognised as potential candidates and were asked to complete additional reforms before becoming official candidates for membership.

  • [13] A later French President, François Mitterrand, opposed Greek, Spanish and Portuguese membership, fearing that the former dictatorships were not ready and that the countries’
    inclusion would reduce the union to a free-trade area.

  • However France made that concession only as Britain’s small agriculture sector would ensure that Britain would be a net contributor to the Common Agricultural Policy dominated
    EEC budget.

  • To assess progress achieved by countries in preparing for accession to the European Union, the European Commission submits regular reports (yearly) to the European Council.

  • — Excerpt from the Copenhagen Presidency conclusions[5] In December 1995, the Madrid European Council revised the membership criteria to include conditions for member country
    integration through the appropriate adjustment of its administrative structures: since it is important that European Community legislation be reflected in national legislation, it is critical that the revised national legislation be implemented
    effectively through appropriate administrative and judicial structures.

  • Morocco’s application was turned down as it was not considered European;[citation needed] Turkey’s application was considered eligible on the basis of the 1963 Ankara Association
    Agreement but the opinion of the Commission on the possible candidate status was by then negative.

  • These, like the countries joining in 2004, faced a series of restrictions as to their citizens not fully enjoying working rights on the territory of some of the older EU members.

  • These six members, dubbed the ‘Inner Six’ (as opposed to the ‘outer seven’ who formed the European Free Trade Association who were suspicious of such plans for integration)
    went on to sign the Treaties of Rome establishing two further communities, together known as the European Communities when they merged their executives in 1967.

  • The European Council set out the conditions for EU membership in June 1993 in the so-called Copenhagen criteria (see Criteria above for details).

  • [citation needed] Turkey received candidate status in 1999 and began full membership negotiations in 2005, which were still in progress as of 2021.

  • On 18 October 2019, France vetoed starting of negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia, citing problems with the current enlargement process.

  • On 6 February 2018, the European Commission published its expansion plan,[82] which covers the six Western Balkan countries.

  • The Community later became the European Union in 1993 by virtue of the Maastricht Treaty, and established standards for new entrants so their suitability could be judged.

  • [13] However the Norwegian government lost a national referendum on membership and hence did not accede with the others on 1 January 1973.

  • However, with the EEA’s credibility dented following rejection by businesses and Switzerland, the EU agreed with full membership.

  • In May 2018, Bulgaria—holding the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union—hosted a summit on the Western Balkans, which aimed to facilitate accession by the
    six, including enhanced regional security cooperation and regional connectivity.

  • The year 1985, however, saw the first time a territory voted to leave the Community, when Greenland was granted home rule by Denmark and the territory used its new powers
    and voted to withdraw from the Community (see member state territories).

  • When a country formally applies for membership, the Council asks the commission to prepare an opinion on the country’s readiness to begin negotiations.


Works Cited

[‘o Applications to the European Coal and Steel Community, European Communities and European Union depending on date.
o ^ Due to veto of UK application.
o ^ On 3 October 1990, East Germany joined West Germany through the process of German reunification;
since then, the reunited Germany has been a single member state.
o ^ Due to the election of new government.
o ^ Due to veto of UK application.
o ^ Due to election of new government in October 1996. Resumed following another election of a new
government in September 1998.
o ^ By the European Council.
o ^ Referred to as “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” by the EU before 2019.
o ^ Due to veto of UK application.
o ^ By Norway after a referendum.
o ^ By Norway after a referendum.
o ^
By the European Council.
o ^ Due to public opinion.
o ^ By France.
o ^ 1998 GDP per capita multiplied by 1998 population[48]
o ^ the average between the EIU estimate (used by the OECD)[51] and the UNECE estimate (used by the Council of Europe)[52]
o ^
The Nations in Transit score comprises 8 categories: political process, civil society, independent media, governance and public administration, rule of law, privatization, macroeconomics and microeconomics. Each category is assigned a score from 1
(highest) to 7 (lowest). Thus, the greater the final score (8 to 56), the more authoritarian the country. In 1998, the most authoritarian of the 10 EU candidates was Romania: with a score of 33, Romania was even more authoritarian than Russia (32).[59]
o ^
Until the reunification of Germany in 1990 the de jure status of West Berlin was that of French, UK and US occupied zones with West German civilian administration. The treaties applied fully during 1952–1990 over the West German and French responsibilities,
and during 1973–1990 over the UK responsibilities. From 3 October 1990 West Berlin was fully integrated in the Federal Republic of Germany along with East Germany.[65][66]
o ^ Renamed French Polynesia on 1957-07-22
o ^ Jump up to:a b c The New
Hebrides was a condominium between the United Kingdom and France until its independence in 1980, and was generally considered to be an overseas territory of both countries
o ^ Became part of India on 1954-07-21
o ^ Adélie Land, Crozet Islands,
Kerguelen Islands and Saint-Paul-and-Amsterdam Islands merged to become the French Southern and Antarctic Lands on 1955-08-06. All territories were already outside the ECSC and the merged territory retained the same status
o ^ Renamed Togo on 1958-02-22
o ^
Renamed Sudanese Republic on 1958-11-24
o ^ Jump up to:a b Senegal and the Sudanese Republic merged on 1959-04-04 to create the Mali Federation
o ^ Renamed Malagasy Republic on 1958-10-14
o ^ Renamed Congo on 1958-11-28
o ^ Renamed French
Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967
o ^ Became independent as the Kingdom of Ruanda and the Kingdom of Burundi
o ^ Annexed by Indonesia in 1962
o ^ Including the County of Greenland, which later gained home rule and left the EC
o ^
The UK co-administered the condominium of the Canton and Enderbury Islands with the USA, until the UK merged it with its Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony on 1975-01-01 to create its Gilbert Islands colony. As such it ceased to be a condominium, but
the USA continued to claim it until 1979
o ^ Renamed Belize on 1973-06-01
o ^ Renamed the British Solomon Islands on 1976-01-02
o ^ Renamed South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in 1985
o ^ Split into the Gilbert Islands (which was
merged with the Canton and Enderbury Islands) and Ellice Island on 1975-01-01
o ^ British Sovereign Base Areas on the island of Cyprus
o ^ Legally a British colony until independence in 1980
o ^ The island of Barbuda became a separate territory
from Antigua on 1976-12-23
o ^ Jump up to:a b The island of Mayotte became a separate territory in 1974, and chose to remain with France, rather than become independent
o ^ Jump up to:a b Anguilla stayed a British colony, while Saint Christopher
and Nevis became independent as St. Kitts and Nevis
o ^ Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda merged to become independent as Antigua and Barbuda
o ^ Although Aruba was only added to the OCT list with the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam in
1999, it was considered an OCT by the European Communities since leaving the Netherlands Antilles: “De eilandgebieden zullen dus de rechten en plichten van de LGO-status van het Land de Nederlandse Antillen overnemen, wanneer dat opgeheven wordt.
Hetzelfde gebeurde in 1986 toen Aruba van eilandgebied van de Nederlandse Antillen een apart Land binnen het Koninkrijk werd. Hoewel de LGO-bijlage pas in 1999 aan deze situatie werd aangepast, heeft de Europese Gemeenschap Aruba van het begin af
aan als LGO behandeld.” in: Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs[69]
o ^ Jump up to:a b The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on 10 October 2010 and contained the islands of Aruba (which left the Netherlands Antilles in 1986), Bonaire, Curacao, Sint Maarten,
Saba and Sint Eustatius. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries in the Kingdom of Netherlands, and remain overseas territories of the European Union. Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba, also known as the BES islands, are special municipalities
of the Netherlands, and remained legally overseas territories
o ^ De jure a Portuguese colony under Indonesian occupation until 1999
o ^ Jump up to:a b Transferred to China
o ^ Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy were part of Guadeloupe and thus
already part of the EU. On 2007-02-22, they became separate territories but France retained application of EU law there, and their EU OMR status was confirmed in the Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force on 2009-01-01.
o ^ The Scattered islands
in the Indian Ocean became part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands on 2007-02-22. Both territories were already EU OCTs and the merged territory retained the same status.
o ^ Both Georgia and Kosovo are also recognised as potential candidates
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/svenikolov/5923649444/’]