Feng shui sometimes called Chinese geomancy, is an ancient Chinese traditional practice which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
 The Form branch was originally concerned with the location and orientation of tombs (Yin House feng shui), which was of great importance.
“ Feng shui may require social influence or money because experts, architecture or design changes, and moving from place to place is expensive.
 List of specific feng shui branches Ti Li (Form Branch) Popular Xingshi Pai “forms” methods • Luan Tou Pai, Pinyin: luán tóu pài, (environmental
analysis without using a compass) • Xing Xiang Pai, Pinyin: xíng xiàng pài, (Imaging forms) • Xingfa Pai, Pinyin: xíng fǎ pài Liiqi Pai (Compass Branch) Popular Liiqi Pai “Compass” methods San Yuan Method, (Pinyin: sān yuán pài)
• Dragon Gate Eight Formation, (Pinyin: lóng mén bā fǎ) • Xuan Kong, (time and space methods) • Xuan Kong Fei Xing (Flying Stars methods of time and directions) • Xuan Kong Da Gua, (“Secret Decree” or 64 gua relationships) • Xuan Kong Mi Zi,
(Mysterious Space Secret Decree) • Xuan Kong Liu Fa, (Mysterious Space Six Techniques) • Zi Bai Jue, (Purple White Scroll) San He Method, (environmental analysis using a compass) • Accessing Dragon Methods • Ba Zhai, (Eight Mansions) • Yang
Gong Feng Shui, • Water Methods • Local Embrace Others • Yin House Feng Shui, (Feng Shui for the deceased) • Four Pillars of Destiny, (a form of hemerology) • Zi Wei Dou Shu, (Purple Star Astrology) • I-Ching, (Book of Changes) • Qi Men Dun
Jia, (Mysterious Door Escaping Techniques) • Da Liu Ren, (Divination: Big Six Heavenly Yang Water Qi) • Tai Yi Shen Shu, (Divination: Tai Yi Magical Calculation Method) • Date Selection, (Selection of auspicious dates and times for important
events) • Chinese Palmistry, (Destiny reading by palm reading) • Chinese Face Reading, (Destiny reading by face reading) • Major & Minor Wandering Stars (Constellations) • Five phases, (relationship of the five phases or wuxing) • BTB Black
(Hat) Tantric Buddhist Sect (Westernised or Modern methods not based on Classical teachings) • Symbolic Feng Shui, (New Age Feng Shui methods that advocate substitution with symbolic (spiritual, appropriate representation of five elements)
objects if natural environment or object/s is/are not available or viable) • Pierce Method of Feng Shui ( Sometimes Pronounced : Von Shway ) The practice of melding striking with soothing furniture arrangements to promote peace and prosperity
Contemporary uses of traditional feng shui After Richard Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China in 1972, feng shui practices became popular in the United States.
 Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon (zhinan zhen)—though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood
 Western forms of feng shui More recent forms of feng shui simplify principles that come from the traditional branches, and focus mainly on the use of the
 The Five Elements or Forces (wu xing) – which, according to the Chinese, are metal, earth, fire, water, and wood – are first mentioned in Chinese literature in a chapter
of the classic Book of History.
One scholar writes that in contemporary Western societies, however, “feng shui tends to be reduced to interior design for health and wealth.
 Foundational concepts Definition and classification The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human-built environment on spots with
good qi, an imagined form of “energy”.
They devised a test in which the same dwelling was visited by five different feng shui consultants: each produced a different opinion about the dwelling, showing there is
no consistency in the professional practice of feng shui.
 During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and it was used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing.
Popular in farming communities for centuries, it was built on the idea that the ghosts of ancestors and other independent, intangible forces, both personal and impersonal,
affected the material world, and that these forces needed to be placated through rites and suitable burial places, which the feng shui practitioner would assist with for a fee.
 Aspirations Method The Eight Life Aspirations style of feng shui is a simple system which coordinates each of the eight cardinal directions with a
specific life aspiration or station such as family, wealth, fame, etc., which come from the Bagua government of the eight aspirations.
“ Sycee-shaped incense used in feng shui After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, feng shui was officially considered a “feudalistic superstitious
practice” and a “social evil” according to the state’s ideology and was discouraged and even banned outright at times.
 At Singapore Polytechnic and other institutions, professionals including engineers, architects, property agents and interior designers, take courses on feng shui and
divination every year, a number of whom become part-time or full-time feng shui consultants.
 In particular, they use feng shui in the bedroom, where a number of techniques involving colors and arrangement are thought to promote comfort and peaceful sleep.
 In 2005, Hong Kong Disneyland acknowledged feng shui as an important part of Chinese culture by shifting the main gate by twelve degrees in their building plans.
 Feng shui has nonetheless found many uses.
They play a very important part in Chinese thought: ‘elements’ meaning generally not so much the actual substances as the forces essential to human life.
 Historically, as well as in many parts of the contemporary Chinese world, feng shui was used to orient buildings and spiritually significant structures such as tombs,
as well as dwellings and other structures.
 Learning in order to practice feng shui is still somewhat considered taboo.
Compass Branch The Compass branch is a collection of more recent feng shui techniques based on the Eight Directions, each of which is said to have unique qi.
 Skeptics charge that evidence for its effectiveness is based primarily upon anecdote and users are often offered conflicting advice from different practitioners, though
feng shui practitioners use these differences as evidence of variations in practice or different branches of thought.
Literature, as well as archaeological evidence, provide some idea of the origins and nature of feng shui techniques.
 Traditional feng shui Traditional feng shui is an ancient system based upon the observation of heavenly time and earthly space.
 While the goal of Chinese medicine is to balance yin and yang in the body, the goal of feng shui has been described as aligning a city, site, building, or
object with yin-yang force fields.
 In 21st century mainland China less than one-third of the population believe in feng shui, and the proportion of believers among young urban Chinese is said to be even
Contemporary feng shui One critic called the situation of feng shui in today’s world “ludicrous and confusing,” asking “Do we really believe that mirrors and flutes
are going to change people’s tendencies in any lasting and meaningful way?”
After the death of Mao Zedong and the end of the Cultural Revolution, the official attitude became more tolerant but restrictions on feng shui practice are still in place
in today’s China.
 During the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) feng shui was classified as one of the so-called Four Olds that were to be wiped out.
There have been frequent crackdowns on feng shui practitioners on the grounds of “promoting feudalistic superstitions” such as one in Qingdao in early 2006 when the city’s
business and industrial administration office shut down an art gallery converted into a feng shui practice.
Others charge that it has been reinvented and commercialized by New Age entrepreneurs, or are concerned that much of the traditional theory has been lost in translation,
not given proper consideration, frowned upon, or scorned.
As a Catholic missionary, Ricci strongly criticized the “recondite science” of geomancy along with astrology as yet another superstitio absurdissima of the heathens: “What
could be more absurd than their imagining that the safety of a family, honors, and their entire existence must depend upon such trifles as a door being opened from one side or another, as rain falling into a courtyard from the right or from
the left, a window opened here or there, or one roof being higher than another?
 Qi (ch’i) A traditional turtle-back tomb of southern Fujian, surrounded by an omega-shaped ridge protecting it from the “noxious winds” from the three sides
Qi (pronounced “chee”, “cee”, or “tsee”) is a movable positive or negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui.
 Some users of feng shui may be trying to gain a sense of security or control, for example by choosing auspicious numbers for their phones or favorable house
 It also considers the time of important events such as the birth of the resident and the building of the structure.
 Others, however, practice less expensive forms of feng shui, including hanging special (but cheap) mirrors, forks, or woks in doorways to deflect negative energy.
Feng shui has also become another New Age “energy” scam with arrays of metaphysical products…offered for sale to help you improve your health, maximize your potential, and
guarantee fulfillment of some fortune cookie philosophy.
 Early instruments and techniques A feng shui spiral at Chinatown station (Los Angeles Metro) Some of the foundations of feng shui go back more than
3,500 years before the invention of the magnetic compass.
 Feng shui is classified as a pseudoscience since it exhibits a number of classic pseudoscientific aspects such as making claims about the functioning of the world which
are not amenable to testing with the scientific method.
Landscape ecologists often find traditional feng shui an interesting study.
From ancient times, landscapes and bodies of water were thought to direct the flow of the universal Qi – “cosmic current” or energy – through places and structures.
 Some researchers interpret the presence of these woods as indicators that the “healthy homes,” sustainability  and environmental components of traditional feng
shui should not be easily dismissed.
Nevertheless, it is reported that feng shui has gained adherents among Communist Party officials according to a BBC Chinese news commentary in 2006, and since the beginning
of Chinese economic reforms the number of feng shui practitioners is increasing.
 Modern practitioners of feng shui draw from several branches in their own practices.
It has become increasingly visible through ‘feng shui consultants’ and corporate architects who charge large sums of money for their analysis, advice and design.
“ Feng shui practitioners in China have found officials that are considered superstitious and corrupt easily interested, despite official disapproval.
“ Robert T. Carroll sums up the charges: …feng shui has become an aspect of interior decorating in the Western world and alleged masters of feng shui now hire themselves
out for hefty sums to tell people such as Donald Trump which way his doors and other things should hang.
His account in De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas tells about feng shui masters (geologi, in Latin) studying prospective construction sites or grave sites “with reference
to the head and the tail and the feet of the particular dragons which are supposed to dwell beneath that spot.”
 Criticisms Traditional feng shui Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), one of the founding fathers of Jesuit China missions, may have been the first European to write about
feng shui practices.
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