feng shui


  • Feng shui sometimes called Chinese geomancy, is an ancient Chinese traditional practice which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.

  • [citation needed] The Form branch was originally concerned with the location and orientation of tombs (Yin House feng shui), which was of great importance.

  • “[85] Feng shui may require social influence or money because experts, architecture or design changes, and moving from place to place is expensive.

  • [citation needed] List of specific feng shui branches Ti Li (Form Branch)[edit] Popular Xingshi Pai “forms” methods[edit] • Luan Tou Pai, Pinyin: luán tóu pài, (environmental
    analysis without using a compass) • Xing Xiang Pai, Pinyin: xíng xiàng pài, (Imaging forms) • Xingfa Pai, Pinyin: xíng fǎ pài Liiqi Pai (Compass Branch)[edit] Popular Liiqi Pai “Compass” methods[edit] San Yuan Method, (Pinyin: sān yuán pài)
    • Dragon Gate Eight Formation, (Pinyin: lóng mén bā fǎ) • Xuan Kong, (time and space methods) • Xuan Kong Fei Xing (Flying Stars methods of time and directions) • Xuan Kong Da Gua, (“Secret Decree” or 64 gua relationships) • Xuan Kong Mi Zi,
    (Mysterious Space Secret Decree) • Xuan Kong Liu Fa, (Mysterious Space Six Techniques) • Zi Bai Jue, (Purple White Scroll) San He Method, (environmental analysis using a compass) • Accessing Dragon Methods • Ba Zhai, (Eight Mansions) • Yang
    Gong Feng Shui, • Water Methods • Local Embrace Others • Yin House Feng Shui, (Feng Shui for the deceased) • Four Pillars of Destiny, (a form of hemerology) • Zi Wei Dou Shu, (Purple Star Astrology) • I-Ching, (Book of Changes) • Qi Men Dun
    Jia, (Mysterious Door Escaping Techniques) • Da Liu Ren, (Divination: Big Six Heavenly Yang Water Qi) • Tai Yi Shen Shu, (Divination: Tai Yi Magical Calculation Method) • Date Selection, (Selection of auspicious dates and times for important
    events) • Chinese Palmistry, (Destiny reading by palm reading) • Chinese Face Reading, (Destiny reading by face reading) • Major & Minor Wandering Stars (Constellations) • Five phases, (relationship of the five phases or wuxing) • BTB Black
    (Hat) Tantric Buddhist Sect (Westernised or Modern methods not based on Classical teachings) • Symbolic Feng Shui, (New Age Feng Shui methods that advocate substitution with symbolic (spiritual, appropriate representation of five elements)
    objects if natural environment or object/s is/are not available or viable) • Pierce Method of Feng Shui ( Sometimes Pronounced : Von Shway ) The practice of melding striking with soothing furniture arrangements to promote peace and prosperity
    Contemporary uses of traditional feng shui After Richard Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China in 1972, feng shui practices became popular in the United States.

  • [28] Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon (zhinan zhen)—though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood
    the differences.

  • [citation needed] Western forms of feng shui More recent forms of feng shui simplify principles that come from the traditional branches, and focus mainly on the use of the

  • [34] The Five Elements or Forces (wu xing) – which, according to the Chinese, are metal, earth, fire, water, and wood – are first mentioned in Chinese literature in a chapter
    of the classic Book of History.

  • One scholar writes that in contemporary Western societies, however, “feng shui tends to be reduced to interior design for health and wealth.

  • [citation needed] Foundational concepts Definition and classification[edit] The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human-built environment on spots with
    good qi, an imagined form of “energy”.

  • They devised a test in which the same dwelling was visited by five different feng shui consultants: each produced a different opinion about the dwelling, showing there is
    no consistency in the professional practice of feng shui.

  • [11] During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and it was used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing.

  • Popular in farming communities for centuries, it was built on the idea that the ghosts of ancestors and other independent, intangible forces, both personal and impersonal,
    affected the material world, and that these forces needed to be placated through rites and suitable burial places, which the feng shui practitioner would assist with for a fee.

  • [citation needed] Aspirations Method[edit] The Eight Life Aspirations style of feng shui is a simple system which coordinates each of the eight cardinal directions with a
    specific life aspiration or station such as family, wealth, fame, etc., which come from the Bagua government of the eight aspirations.

  • “[70] Sycee-shaped incense used in feng shui After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, feng shui was officially considered a “feudalistic superstitious
    practice” and a “social evil” according to the state’s ideology and was discouraged and even banned outright at times.

  • [65] At Singapore Polytechnic and other institutions, professionals including engineers, architects, property agents and interior designers, take courses on feng shui and
    divination every year, a number of whom become part-time or full-time feng shui consultants.

  • [64] In particular, they use feng shui in the bedroom, where a number of techniques involving colors and arrangement are thought to promote comfort and peaceful sleep.

  • [8][9] In 2005, Hong Kong Disneyland acknowledged feng shui as an important part of Chinese culture by shifting the main gate by twelve degrees in their building plans.

  • [48] Feng shui has nonetheless found many uses.

  • They play a very important part in Chinese thought: ‘elements’ meaning generally not so much the actual substances as the forces essential to human life.

  • [3][4] Historically, as well as in many parts of the contemporary Chinese world, feng shui was used to orient buildings and spiritually significant structures such as tombs,
    as well as dwellings and other structures.

  • [75] Learning in order to practice feng shui is still somewhat considered taboo.

  • Compass Branch[edit] The Compass branch is a collection of more recent feng shui techniques based on the Eight Directions, each of which is said to have unique qi.

  • [77] Skeptics charge that evidence for its effectiveness is based primarily upon anecdote and users are often offered conflicting advice from different practitioners, though
    feng shui practitioners use these differences as evidence of variations in practice or different branches of thought.

  • Literature, as well as archaeological evidence, provide some idea of the origins and nature of feng shui techniques.

  • [42] Traditional feng shui Traditional feng shui is an ancient system based upon the observation of heavenly time and earthly space.

  • [citation needed] While the goal of Chinese medicine is to balance yin and yang in the body, the goal of feng shui has been described as aligning a city, site, building, or
    object with yin-yang force fields.

  • [73] In 21st century mainland China less than one-third of the population believe in feng shui, and the proportion of believers among young urban Chinese is said to be even

  • Contemporary feng shui[edit] One critic called the situation of feng shui in today’s world “ludicrous and confusing,” asking “Do we really believe that mirrors and flutes
    are going to change people’s tendencies in any lasting and meaningful way?”

  • After the death of Mao Zedong and the end of the Cultural Revolution, the official attitude became more tolerant but restrictions on feng shui practice are still in place
    in today’s China.

  • [72] During the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) feng shui was classified as one of the so-called Four Olds that were to be wiped out.

  • There have been frequent crackdowns on feng shui practitioners on the grounds of “promoting feudalistic superstitions” such as one in Qingdao in early 2006 when the city’s
    business and industrial administration office shut down an art gallery converted into a feng shui practice.

  • Others charge that it has been reinvented and commercialized by New Age entrepreneurs,[47] or are concerned that much of the traditional theory has been lost in translation,
    not given proper consideration, frowned upon, or scorned.

  • As a Catholic missionary, Ricci strongly criticized the “recondite science” of geomancy along with astrology as yet another superstitio absurdissima of the heathens: “What
    could be more absurd than their imagining that the safety of a family, honors, and their entire existence must depend upon such trifles as a door being opened from one side or another, as rain falling into a courtyard from the right or from
    the left, a window opened here or there, or one roof being higher than another?

  • [6] Qi (ch’i)[edit] A traditional turtle-back tomb of southern Fujian, surrounded by an omega-shaped ridge protecting it from the “noxious winds” from the three sides[33]
    Qi (pronounced “chee”, “cee”, or “tsee”) is a movable positive or negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui.

  • [citation needed] Some users of feng shui may be trying to gain a sense of security or control, for example by choosing auspicious numbers for their phones or favorable house

  • [45] It also considers the time of important events such as the birth of the resident and the building of the structure.

  • [86] Others, however, practice less expensive forms of feng shui, including hanging special (but cheap) mirrors, forks, or woks in doorways to deflect negative energy.

  • Feng shui has also become another New Age “energy” scam with arrays of metaphysical products…offered for sale to help you improve your health, maximize your potential, and
    guarantee fulfillment of some fortune cookie philosophy.

  • [citation needed] Early instruments and techniques[edit] A feng shui spiral at Chinatown station (Los Angeles Metro) Some of the foundations of feng shui go back more than
    3,500 years[18] before the invention of the magnetic compass.

  • [32] Feng shui is classified as a pseudoscience since it exhibits a number of classic pseudoscientific aspects such as making claims about the functioning of the world which
    are not amenable to testing with the scientific method.

  • Landscape ecologists often find traditional feng shui an interesting study.

  • From ancient times, landscapes and bodies of water were thought to direct the flow of the universal Qi – “cosmic current” or energy – through places and structures.

  • [51] Some researchers interpret the presence of these woods as indicators that the “healthy homes,”[52] sustainability [53] and environmental components of traditional feng
    shui should not be easily dismissed.

  • Nevertheless, it is reported that feng shui has gained adherents among Communist Party officials according to a BBC Chinese news commentary in 2006,[76] and since the beginning
    of Chinese economic reforms the number of feng shui practitioners is increasing.

  • [43] Modern practitioners of feng shui draw from several branches in their own practices.

  • It has become increasingly visible through ‘feng shui consultants’ and corporate architects who charge large sums of money for their analysis, advice and design.

  • “[84] Feng shui practitioners in China have found officials that are considered superstitious and corrupt easily interested, despite official disapproval.

  • “[47] Robert T. Carroll sums up the charges: …feng shui has become an aspect of interior decorating in the Western world and alleged masters of feng shui now hire themselves
    out for hefty sums to tell people such as Donald Trump which way his doors and other things should hang.

  • His account in De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas[67] tells about feng shui masters (geologi, in Latin) studying prospective construction sites or grave sites “with reference
    to the head and the tail and the feet of the particular dragons which are supposed to dwell beneath that spot.”

  • [66] Criticisms Traditional feng shui[edit] Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), one of the founding fathers of Jesuit China missions, may have been the first European to write about
    feng shui practices.


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• Zhuang, Xue Ying; Gorlett, Richard T. (1997). “Forest and forest succession in Hong Kong, China”. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 13 (6): 857–866. doi:10.1017/S0266467400011032. hdl:10722/42380. JSTOR 2560242. S2CID 83846505.
and online[edit]
• Carroll, Robert T. “Feng Shui”. The Skeptic’s Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
• Vierra, Monty (March 1997). “Harried by “Hellions” in Taiwan”. Skeptical Inquirer.
• Vyse, Stuart (May 2020). “Superstition and Real Estate”.
Skeptical Inquirer.
• Brandmaier, Werner. “Feng Shui”. Institute of Feng Shui. Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2021-07-09. practitioner, turned to dowsing.
• Cheung Ngam Fung, Jacky (2007). “History of Feng Shui”.
Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. not really archived. Moreover the sentence to be proven is rather void
• Field, Stephen L. (1998). “Qimancy: Chinese Divination by Qi”. Archived from the original on 2017-02-23.
• Penn; Teller (2003-03-07).
“Feng Shui/Bottled Water”. IMDb. Bullshit!. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
• “Chang Liang (pseudonym), 14 January 2005, What Does Superstitious Belief of ‘Feng Shui’ Among School Students Reveal?”. Zjc.zjol.com.cn. 2005-01-31. Archived from the original
on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
• “Earth’s Inconstant Magnetic Field”. NASA Science. 2003-12-29. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
• “蔡达峰 – Cao Dafeng”. Fudan.edu.cn. Archived from the original on 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
• “Feng Shui
course gains popularity”. Asiaone.com. 2009-02-06. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
Traditional China[edit]
• 陳久金 (Chen Jiujin); 張敬國 (Zhang Jingguo) (1989). “含山出土玉片圖形試考 (Hanshan chutu yupian taxing shikao)” [A preliminary analysis of
the iconography in the jade fragments from the excavation site in Hanshan]. 文物 (Wenwu) [Cultural Relics, Beijing]. 4: 14–17.
• 殷涤非 (Yin Difei) (May 1978). “西汉汝阴侯墓出土的占盘和天文仪器 (Xi-Han Ruyinhou mu chutu de zhanpan he tianwen yiqi)” [The divination boards
and astronomical instrument from the tomb of the Marquis of Ruyin of the Western Han]. 考古 (Kaogu) [Archaeology, Beijing]. 12: 338–343.
• 嚴敦傑 (Yan Dunjie) (May 1978). “關於西漢初期的式盤和占盤(Guanyu Xi-Han chuqi de shipan he zhanpan)” [On the cosmic boards
and divination boards from the early Western Han period]. 考古 (Kaogu) [Archaeology, Beijing]. 12: 334–337.
• “武则天挖坟焚尸真相:迷信风水镇压反臣” [The truth about Wu Zetian digging graves and burning corpses]. 星岛环球网, 文史 [Sing Tao Global Network, Culture and History].
Archived from the original on 2009-12-23. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
• “丧心病狂中国历史上六宗罕见的辱尸事” [Six rare humiliation incidents in Chinese history]. Archived from the original on 2007-08-17. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
• 倪方六(Ni Fangliu ) (October 2009). 中国人盗墓史(挖出正史隐藏的盗墓狂人)
[The history of Chinese tomb robbers]. 上海锦绣文章出版社 (Shanghai Jinxiu Articles Publishing House). ISBN 978-7-5452-0319-6.. The “Ming Sizong robbed Li Zicheng’s ancestral grave” section can be read at 凤凰网读书频道. ifeng.com. Archived from the original on
2016-02-03. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
• “蒋介石挖毛泽东祖坟的玄机” [The mystery of Chiang Kai-shek digging Mao Zedong’s ancestor’s grave]. 中华命理风水论坛 [Chinese Numerology and Fengshui Forum]. 2010-06-13. Archived from the original on 2010-06-20.
Post-1949 China[edit]
• 2001
“風水迷信”困擾中國當局” [Feng Shui Superstitions Troubles Chinese Authorities]. BBC News. 9 March 2001. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
• 2006 Jiang Xun (11 April 2006). “透視:從”巫毒娃娃”到風水迷信” [Focus on China: From Voodoo Dolls to Feng Shui Superstitions] (in Chinese).
BBC Chinese service. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
• 2010 Moore, Malcolm (2010-12-16). “Hong Kong government spends millions on feng shui”. The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11.
• 2013 Levin, Dan (10 May 2013). “China
Officials Seek Career Shortcut With Feng Shui”. The New York Times.
• 2005 Holson, Laura M. (25 April 2005). “The Feng Shui Kingdom”. The New York Times..
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/maf04/14107161906/’]