franz liszt


  • [42] On some occasions, Liszt took part in Rome’s musical life.

  • He gave up touring, and in order to earn money, Liszt gave lessons on playing piano and composition, often from early morning until late at night.

  • [citation needed] During those twelve years, he also helped raise the profile of the exiled Wagner by conducting the overtures of his operas in concert, Liszt and Wagner would
    have a profound friendship that lasted until Wagner’s death in Venice in 1883.

  • [58] Following the death of Liszt’s father in 1827 and his hiatus from life as a touring virtuoso, Liszt’s playing likely gradually developed a more personal style.

  • Berlioz’s music made a strong impression on Liszt, especially later when he was writing for orchestra.

  • At some concerts, Liszt could not find musicians to share the program with and so was among the first to give solo piano recitals in the modern sense of the word.

  • The term was coined by the publisher Frederick Beale, who suggested it for Liszt’s concert at the Hanover Square Rooms in London on 9 June 1840,[62] even though Liszt had
    already given concerts by himself by March 1839.

  • Finally, Liszt had ample time to compose and during the next 12 years revised or produced those orchestral and choral pieces upon which his reputation as a composer mainly

  • Liszt’s inclusion in the Diabelli project (he was described in it as “an 11-year-old boy, born in Hungary”) was almost certainly at the instigation of Czerny, his teacher,
    and also a participant.

  • He gave lessons to a number of pianists, including the great virtuoso Hans von Bülow, who married Liszt’s daughter Cosima in 1857 (years later, she would marry Richard Wagner).

  • The largest and best-known portion of Liszt’s music is his original piano work.

  • [16] Touring Europe[edit] Earliest known photograph of Liszt (1843) by Hermann Biow For the next eight years Liszt continued to tour Europe, spending holidays with the countess
    and their children on the island of Nonnenwerth on the Rhine in the summers of 1841 and 1843.

  • [19] During this period, Liszt read widely to overcome his lack of general education, and he soon came into contact with many of the leading authors and artists of his day,
    including Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine and Heinrich Heine.

  • Two years later, he was asked to do the same in Budapest at the Hungarian Music Academy.

  • [citation needed] In spite of the conditions under which Liszt had been appointed as “Königlicher Rat”, he neither directed the orchestra of the National Theatre nor permanently
    settled in Hungary.

  • Moreover, his great fame as a pianist, which he would continue to enjoy long after he had officially retired from the concert stage, was based mainly on his accomplishments
    during this time.

  • [59] Repertoire[edit] Liszt giving a concert for Emperor Franz Joseph I on a Bösendorfer piano During his years as a traveling virtuoso, Liszt performed an enormous amount
    of music throughout Europe,[60] but his core repertoire always centered on his own compositions, paraphrases, and transcriptions.

  • [22] He was also forming a friendship with a third composer who influenced him, Frédéric Chopin; under his influence, Liszt’s poetic and romantic side began to develop.

  • By July 1840, the British newspaper The Times could still report: His performance commenced with Handel’s Fugue in E minor, which was played by Liszt with avoidance of everything
    approaching meretricious ornament and indeed scarcely any additions, except a multitude of appropriate harmonies, casting a glow of color over the beauties of the composition and infusing into it a spirit which from no other hand it ever before

  • [citation needed] Adolescence[edit] After his father’s death in 1827, Liszt moved to Paris;[15] for the next five years, he lived with his mother in a small apartment.

  • [35] On 14 March 1842, Liszt received an honorary doctorate from the University of Königsberg—an honor unprecedented at the time and an especially important one from the perspective
    of the German tradition.

  • Liszt himself came in March 1876 to give some lessons and a charity concert.

  • Debussy in later years described Liszt’s pedalling as “like a form of breathing.”

  • He is best known for his piano music, but he also wrote for orchestra and for other ensembles, almost always including keyboard.

  • Liszt bore the expense of publishing the transcription himself and played it many times to help popularize the original score.

  • [citation needed] While his work for the Beethoven monument and the Hungarian National School of Music is well known, he also gave generously to the building fund of Cologne
    Cathedral, the establishment of a Gymnasium at Dortmund, and the construction of the Leopold Church in Pest.

  • While it has since been referred to as the “flying trapeze” school of piano playing, this generation also solved some of the most intractable problems of piano technique,
    raising the general level of performance to previously unimagined heights.

  • [11] Adam began teaching him the piano at age seven, and Franz began composing in an elementary manner when he was eight.

  • In 1871, the Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Andrássy made a new attempt writing on 4 June 1871, to the Hungarian King (the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I), requesting an
    annual grant of 4,000 Gulden and the rank of a “Königlicher Rat” (“Crown Councillor”) for Liszt, who in return would permanently settle in Budapest, directing the orchestra of the National Theatre as well as musical institutions.

  • One of the most detailed descriptions of his playing from that time comes from the winter of 1831–32 when he was earning a living primarily as a teacher in Paris.

  • Towards the end of 1823 or early 1824, Liszt’s first composition was published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli (now S. 147), which appeared as Variation 24 in Part II
    of Vaterländischer Künstlerverein.

  • With a diverse body of work spanning more than six decades, he is considered to be one of the most prolific and influential composers of his era and remains one of the most
    popular composers in modern concert piano repertoire.

  • [citation needed] In 1873, on the occasion of Liszt’s 50th anniversary as a performing artist, the city of Budapest instituted a “Franz Liszt Stiftung” (“Franz Liszt Foundation”),
    to provide stipends of 200 Gulden for three students of the academy who had shown excellent abilities with regard to Hungarian music.

  • Most of the concerts were shared with other artists, so Liszt also often accompanied singers, participated in chamber music, or performed works with an orchestra in addition
    to his own solo part.

  • [16] For the next four years, Liszt and the countess lived together.

  • [citation needed] The countess returned to Paris with the children, while Liszt gave six concerts in Vienna, then toured Hungary.

  • Nevertheless, the July Revolution of 1830 inspired him to sketch a Revolutionary Symphony based on the events of the “three glorious days,” and he took a greater interest
    in events surrounding him.

  • [44] Liszt was invited back to Weimar in 1869 to give master classes in piano playing.

  • Liszt’s public debut in Vienna on 1 December 1822, at a concert at the “Landständischer Saal”, was a great success.

  • After the concerts, a group of wealthy sponsors (probably including composer Elise Schlick)[12] offered to finance Franz’s musical education in Vienna.

  • [29] He was seen as handsome[4][30][31] by many, with the German poet Heinrich Heine writing concerning his showmanship during concerts: “How powerful, how shattering was
    his mere physical appearance”.

  • Although Liszt arrived in Rome on 21 October, the marriage was made impossible by a letter that had arrived the previous day to the Pope himself.

  • [16] Liszt wrote his Three Concert Études between 1845 and 1849.

  • [57] His repertoire then consisted primarily of pieces in the style of the brilliant Viennese school, such as concertos by Hummel and works by his former teacher Czerny, and
    his concerts often included a chance for the boy to display his prowess in improvisation.

  • [2] Regarded as one of the greatest pianists of all time, he toured Europe during the 1830s and 1840s, often playing for charity.

  • [n 3] In the spring of 1823, when his one-year leave of absence came to an end, Adam Liszt asked Prince Esterházy in vain for two more years.

  • The second was a “cabinet organ”, a large concert harmonium built in Detroit and Boston by Mason & Hamlin and given to Liszt in 1877.

  • Franz also found exposure to music through attending mass as well as traveling Romani bands that toured the Hungarian countryside.

  • His piano works are often marked by their difficulty.

  • After one or two concerts of his students, by the beginning of spring, he left.

  • In letters to friends, Liszt announced that he would retreat to a solitary living.

  • Carl Czerny said Liszt was a natural who played according to feeling, and reviews of his concerts especially praise the brilliance, strength, and precision in his playing.

  • Adam Liszt, therefore, took his leave of the Prince’s services.

  • Equally important for Liszt was Urhan’s earnest championship of Schubert, which may have stimulated his own lifelong devotion to that composer’s music.

  • [citation needed] It was planned that the couple would marry in Rome, on 22 October 1861, Liszt’s 50th birthday.

  • Many witnesses later testified that Liszt’s playing raised the mood of audiences to a level of mystical ecstasy.

  • The relative obscurity of the vast majority of his works may be explained by the immense number of pieces he composed, and the level of technical difficulty which was present
    in much of his composition.

  • After the first performance, the Offertory was added, and, two years later, the Gradual.

  • [42] Rome, Weimar, Budapest[edit] Liszt, photo (mirror-imaged) by Franz Hanfstaengl, June 1870 The 1860s were a period of great sadness in Liszt’s private life.

  • There were several further occasions of similar kind, but in comparison with the duration of Liszt’s stay in Rome, they were exceptions.

  • “Années de pèlerinage” contains some pieces which are loose transcriptions of Liszt’s own earlier compositions; the first “year” recreates his early pieces of “Album d’un
    voyageur”, while the second book includes a resetting of his own song transcriptions once separately published as “Tre sonetti di Petrarca” (“Three sonnets of Petrarch”).

  • [27] Since he often appeared three or four times a week in concert, it could be safe to assume that he appeared in public well over a thousand times during this eight-year

  • This anthology, commissioned by Anton Diabelli, includes 50 variations on his waltz by 50 different composers (Part II), Part I being taken up by Beethoven’s 33 variations
    on the same theme, which are now separately better known simply as his Diabelli Variations, Op.

  • He had many discussions with the Abbé de Lamennais, who acted as his spiritual father, and also with Chrétien Urhan, a German-born violinist who introduced him to the Saint-Simonists.

  • [citation needed] During this period he acted as conductor at court concerts and on special occasions at the theatre.

  • [65] This instrument is not in a playable condition now, and in 2011, at the order of Klassik Stiftung Weimar, a modern builder, Paul McNulty, made a copy of the Boisselot
    piano which is now on display next to the original Liszt’s instrument.

  • [9] In a radical departure from his earlier compositional styles, many of Liszt’s later works also feature experiments in atonality, foreshadowing the serialist movement of
    the 20th century.

  • Last years[edit] Liszt in March 1886, four months before his death, photographed by Nadar Liszt fell down the stairs of a hotel in Weimar on 2 July 1881.

  • [n 6] In his Baccalaureus letter to George Sand from the beginning of 1837, Liszt admitted that he had done so to gain applause and promised to follow both the letter and
    the spirit of a score from then on.

  • From then until the end of his life, he made regular journeys between Rome, Weimar, and Budapest, continuing what he called his “vie trifurquée” or tripartite existence.

  • [39] By retiring from the concert platform at 35, while still at the height of his powers, Liszt succeeded in keeping the legend of his playing untarnished.

  • It is known that Liszt was using Boisselot pianos in his Portugal tour[64] and then later in 1847 in a tour to Kiev and Odessa.


Works Cited

[‘o German: [ˈlɪst]; Hungarian: Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈlist ˈfɛrɛnt͡s]. Liszt’s Hungarian passport spelled his given name as “Ferencz”. An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which
was 36 years after Liszt’s death) changed the letter “cz” to simply “c” in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt’s given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as “Ferenc”. From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt;
he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage
fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard’s son was Franz von Liszt.
o ^ His birthplace is now a museum. Throughout his life, he claimed to be Magyar, rather than German and referred to Hungary as his homeland.
When later in his life he gave charity concerts in Hungary, he sometimes appeared wearing national dress (Walker 1987, p. 48).
o ^ At a second concert on 13 April 1823, Beethoven was reputed to have kissed Liszt on the forehead. While Liszt himself
told this story later in life, this incident may have occurred on a different occasion. Regardless, Liszt regarded it as a form of artistic christening (Searle, 11:29).
o ^ See: Prahács 1966, p. 353, n. 1 to letter 221
o ^ For example, see: Duverger,
Franz Liszt, p. 140.
o ^ See Berlioz’s essay about Beethoven’s Trios and Sonatas, in: Musikalische Streifzüge, transl. Ely Ellès, Leipzig 1912, pp. 52ff
o ^ Compare his letter to Louise von Welz of 13 December 1875, in: Bülow, Hans von: Briefe,
Band 5, ed. Marie von Bülow, Leipzig 1904, p. 321.
o ^ For example, compare Raabe 1931, p. 127, and Walker 1987, p. 408.
o ^ Compare the discussion in: Mueller, Rena Charin: Liszt’s “Tasso” Sketchbook: Studies in Sources and Revisions, PhD dissertation,
New York University 1986, pp. 118ff.
o ^ Translated from French, after: Liszt & d’Agoult 1934, p. 411
o ^ The inscription “In magnis et voluisse sat est” (“In great things, to have wished them is sufficient”) had in Liszt’s youth been correlated
with his friend Felix Lichnowski.
o ^ Liszt wrote to the cover of the manuscript, “Darf man solch ein Ding schreiben oder anhören?” (“Is it allowed to write such a thing or to listen to it?”)
o ^ See the letter by Berlioz to Liszt of 28 April
1836, in: Berlioz, Hector: Correspondance générale II, 1832–1842, éditée sous la direction de Pierre Citron, Paris 1975, p. 295.
o ^ For example, see Liszt’s letter to J. W. von Wasielewski of 9 January 1857, in: La Mara (ed.): Liszts Briefe, Band
1, translated by Constance Bache, No. 171.
o ^ See: La Mara (ed.) Liszts Briefe, Band 1, translated to English by Constance Bache, No. 2.
o ^ See: Göllerich n.d., pp. 131ff. According to Göllerich’s note, his catalog was the most complete one
which until then existed.
o ^ See: Nohl n.d., pp. 112ff. The book includes the facsimile of a letter by Liszt to Nohl of 29 September 1881, in which Liszt approved the catalog. Liszt’s letter also includes his suggestions with regard to the order
of the names.
o ^ See: Stradal 1929, p. 158
o ^ For example, see: Ramann 1983, p. 341.
o Leon Botstein, What makes Franz Liszt still important, accessed 28 October 2022
o ^ Searle, 11:29.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Walker 1987, p. 290.
o ^ Jump
up to:a b Hensher, Philip (29 July 2016). “Franz Liszt: Musician, Celebrity, Superstar by Oliver Hilmes review – a man who transformed music”. The Guardian.
o ^ Dobney, Jason. “Nineteenth-Century Classical Music”. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
o ^
Jump up to:a b Burton-Hill, Clemency. “Forget the Beatles – Liszt was music’s first ‘superstar'”. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
o ^ Trippett, David (31 October 2021), Cormac, Joanne (ed.), “Liszt and Wagner”, Liszt in Context (1 ed.), Cambridge University
Press, pp. 38–47, doi:10.1017/9781108378253.007, ISBN 978-1-108-37825-3, S2CID 239204179, retrieved 5 February 2023
o ^ Searle, 11:28–29.
o ^ Chang, Joanne Chew-Ann (16 December 2021). The bridge to modernism : Franz Lizst and the late piano music
(Thesis thesis). Indiana University.
o ^ Genealogy of the Liszt family: Marriage of Maria Anna Lager and Adam Liszt:
o ^ Ramann 1882, p. 23.
o ^ Liszt, Franz; Street-Klindworth, Agnes (2000). Franz Liszt and Agnes Street-Klindworth:
A Correspondence, 1854-1886. Pendragon Press. ISBN 978-1-57647-006-0.
o ^ Ramann 1882, p. 45-46.
o ^ Williams 1990, p. 4-5.
o ^ Schonberg 1997, p. 198.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Searle, 11:30
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 131.
o ^ “Saint Cricq
– Details of 1828 romance between Franz Liszt and Countess Caroline de Saint-Cricq”.
o ^ Walker 1987, pp. 137–138.
o ^ The date is known from Liszt’s pocket calendar.
o ^ Walker 1987, pp. 161–167.
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 180.
o ^ Watson 2000,
p. 33.
o ^ For more details see: Bory 1930, pp. 50ff
o ^ Liszt, Franz (1978). Années de pèlerinage: Deuxième année, Italie (in English, German, and French). Ernst Herttrich, Hans-Martin Theopold. München: Henle. pp. III. ISMN 979-0-2018-0174-2.
OCLC 4906095.
o ^ Liszt, Franz (2020). Jost, Peter (ed.). “Années de pèlerinage – Première année, Suisse” (PDF). G. Henle Verlag. p. V-VI. Retrieved 28 January 2023.
o ^ Burkholder, J. Peter (2014). Northern Anthology of Western
Music. p. 417. ISBN 978-0-393-92162-5.
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 285.
o ^ Hilmes 2016, p. 71.
o ^ Gienow-Hecht, Jessica C. E (2009). Sound Diplomacy: Music and Emotions in Transatlantic Relations, 1850–1920. p. 62.
o ^ Burton-Hill, Clemency. “Forget
the Beatles – Liszt was music’s first ‘superstar'”.
o ^ Hilmes 2016, p. 73.
o ^ Huneker 1911, pp. 389–390.
o ^ Lipsius Biografie Fr. Liszt Porträt Klinkuht Musik Wesenberg St. Petersburg 1886[full citation needed]
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 289.
o ^
Searle & Buechner 2012, p. 131.
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 188.
o ^ “When Liszt Visited Istanbul”. Interlude. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
o ^ Searle, 11:31.
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 442.
o ^ Keller, Johanna (14 January 2001). “MUSIC; In
Search Of a Liszt To Be Loved”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Eckhardt, Mueller & Walker 2001
o ^ Burger 1986, 209.
o ^ Michael Fend, Michel Noiray: Musical education in Europe (1770–1914):
compositional, institutional, and political challenges (Volume II) p. 542
o ^ Jump up to:a b Eckhardt, Mueller & Walker 2001, 14:781
o ^ Walker 1997, p. [page needed].
o ^ Walker 1997, pp. 475–476.
o ^ Walker 1997, p. 508, p. 515 with n. 18..
o ^
Walker, Alan, ed. (2002). The Death of Franz Liszt: Based on the Unpublished Diary of his Pupil Lina Schmalhausen. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4076-2.[page needed][need quotation to verify]
o ^ Hinson, Maurice (1997). Meet the Great
Composers: Repertoire, Book 1. Alfred Music.
o ^ Burton-Hill, Clemency. “Forget the Beatles”. 17 August 2016. BBC. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
o ^ Davis, Peter G. (16 March 1987). “Hit Liszt”. New York. pp. 68, 75. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
o ^
After the golden age: romantic pianism and modern performance by Kenneth Hamilton, p. 83, Oxford University Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-19-517826-5
o ^ “Liszt at the Piano” by Edward Swenson, June 2006
o ^ “Die Bildagentur bpk ist ein zentraler Mediendienstleister
aller Einrichtungen der Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz sowie weiterer führender Kultureinrichtungen des In- und Auslands”. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
o ^ Review of a concert in Marseilles on 11 April
1826, reprinted in Eckhardt, Maria: Liszt à Marseille, in: Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientarum Hungaricae 24 (1982), p. 165
o ^ See Adam Liszt’s letter to Czerny of 29 July 1824, in Burger 1986, 36
o ^ Liszt, Franz (1971). Liszt – Technical
Exercises (Complete). Alfred Music Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7390-2212-2 – via Google Books.
o ^ “Liszt’s Recitals”, The Times, 2 July 1840. p. 6
o ^ Compare: Walker 1987
o ^ Compare: Saffle 1994, pp. 187ff
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 356.
o ^ Compare
Óváry: Ferenc Liszt, p. 147.[incomplete short citation]
o ^ Walker 1987, p. 409.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Walker 1987b, p. 77.
o ^ “Flügel, Kopie von Paul McNulty”. Klassik Stiftung Weimar (in German). Retrieved 2 February 2021.
o ^ Liszt, Franz
(2000). Franz Liszt and Agnes Street-Klindworth : a correspondence, 1854-1886. Agnes Street-Klindworth, Pauline Pocknell. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. p. 68. ISBN 1-57647-006-7. OCLC 41404712.
o ^ Jump up to:a b “The queen of instruments in Liszt’s
oeuvre”. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
o ^ “Yankee Gets Liszt Organ” (PDF). The Diapason. 2 (3): 2. February 1, 1911.
o ^ Walker, Alan (2011). Reflections on Liszt. Ithaca, New York. ISBN 978-0-8014-7758-4. OCLC 1002304037.
o ^
Rosen, Charles (23 February 2012). “The Super Power of Franz Liszt”. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
o ^ Gárdonyi, Zoltán (1985), “The Organ Music of Liszt” (PDF), The New Hungarian Quarterly (Winter 1985).
o ^ Jump up to:a
b Searle, 11:46
o ^ Watson 2000, p. 286.
o ^ Kennedy, 711.[incomplete short citation]
o ^ Jump up to:a b Spencer 2002, 1233
o ^ MacDonald, 18:429.
o ^ Cooper 1946, 29.
o ^ Temperley, 18:455.
o ^ Searle, “Orchestral Works”, 281;[incomplete
short citation] Walker 1987b, p. 357.
o ^ Walker 1987b, p. 304.
o ^ Life of Chopin by Franz Liszt. 1 August 2003. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
o ^ Elie Siegmeister, in The New Music Lover’s Handbook; Harvey House 1973, p. 222
o ^
Walker 1892, pp. 85ff.
o ^ Eckhardt, Mueller & Walker 2001, 14:780.
o ^ Mitchell, Charles P. The Great Composers on Film, 1913 through 2002. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2004, pp. 57, 293.
• Bory, Robert (1930). Une retraite romantique
en Suisse, Liszt et la Comtesse d’Agoult (in French). Lausanne. OCLC 407007685.
• Burger, Ernst (1986). Franz Liszt, Eine Lebenschronik in Bildern und Dokumenten. Munich. OCLC 924748359.
• Cooper, Martin (1946). “The Symphonies”. In Abraham,
Gerald (ed.). Music of Tchaikovsky. New York: W. W. Norton. OCLC 726172943.
• Eckhardt, Maria; Mueller, Maria Charnin; Walker, Alan (2001). “Liszt, Franz”. Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.48265. ISBN 978-1-56159-263-0.
• Göllerich,
August (n.d.). Musikerbiographien, Achter Band, Liszt, Zweiter Theil. Leipzig: Reclam. (1887–1888)
• Hilmes, Oliver (2016). Franz Liszt: Musician, Celebrity, Superstar. Translated by Spencer, Stewart. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-21946-3.
• Huneker,
James (1911). Franz Liszt. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
• Liszt, Franz; d’Agoult, Marie (1934). Ollivier, Daniel (ed.). Correspondence – 1840–1864. Vol. II. Paris.
• Nohl, Ludwig (n.d.). Musikerbiographien, Vierter Band, Liszt, Erster
Theil. Leipzig: Reclam. (1881–1882)
• Prahács, Margit, ed. (1966). Franz Liszt, Briefe aus ungarischen Sammlungen, 1835–1886. Budapest.
• Raabe, Peter (1931). Liszts Schaffen. Stuttgart and Berlin: Cotta.
• Ramann, Lina (1882). Franz Liszt,
Artist and Man: 1811-1840. London: W.H. Allen & Co. ISBN 978-1-330-07220-2.
• Ramann, Lina (1983). Seidl, Arthur (ed.). Lisztiana, Erinnerungen an Franz Liszt in Tagebuchblättern, Briefen und Dokumenten aus den Jahren 1873–1886/87 (text revision
by Friedrich Schnapp). Mainz.
• Sadie, Stanley, ed. (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (first ed.). London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-23111-1.
o MacDonald, Hugh, “Symphonic poem”, “Transformation, thematic”. In Sadie 1980
o Searle,
Humphrey, “Liszt, Franz”. In Sadie 1980
o Temperley, Nicholas, “Symphony: II. 19th century”. In Sadie 1980
• Saffle, Michael (1994). Liszt in Germany, 1840–1845. Franz Liszt Studies Series. Stuyvesant, New York: Pendragon Press.
• Schonberg,
Harold C. (1997). The Lives of the Great Composers (3rd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-349-10972-5.
• Searle, Humphrey; Buechner, Sara Davis (2012). The Music of Liszt. Chelmsford: Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0486487939.
• Spencer,
Piers (2002). “Symphonic poem [tone-poem]”. In Latham, Alison (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Music. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866212-9.
• Stradal, August (1929). Erinnerungen an Franz Liszt. Bern, Leipzig.
• Walker,
Alan (1987). Franz Liszt, The Virtuoso Years, 1811–1847 (revised ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801494214.
• Walker, Alan (1987b). Franz Liszt: The Weimar years, 1848–1861. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9721-6.
• Walker, Alan
(1997). Franz Liszt, The Final Years, 1861–1886. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801484537.
• Walker, Bettina (1892) [1890]. My Musical Experiences (new ed.). London: Richard Bentley & Son; Novello, Ewer & Co.
• Watson, Derek (2000) [1989]. Liszt.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-02-872705-9.
• Williams, Adrian (1990). Portrait of Liszt: By Himself and His Contemporaries. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-816150-9.
Photo credit:’]