gene delivery


  • Viruses are a particularly effective form of gene delivery because the structure of the virus prevents degradation via lysosomes of the DNA it is delivering to the nucleus
    of the host cell.

  • Agrobacterium[edit] A. tumefaciens attaching itself to a carrot cell In plants the DNA is often inserted using Agrobacterium-mediated recombination,[21] taking advantage of
    the Agrobacteriums T-DNA sequence that allows natural insertion of genetic material into plant cells.

  • This vector overcomes traditional barriers to gene delivery by combining E. coli with a synthetic polymer to create a vector that maintains plasmid DNA while having an increased
    ability to avoid degradation by target cell lysosomes.

  • [14][15] Physical[edit] Artificial gene delivery can be mediated by physical methods which uses force to introduce genetic material through the cell membrane.

  • Gene delivery is the process of introducing foreign genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, into host cells.

  • [3] This requires foreign DNA to be synthesized as part of a vector, which is designed to enter the desired host cell and deliver the transgene to that cell’s genome.

  • Chemical[edit] Chemical based methods of gene delivery can use natural or synthetic compounds to form particles that facilitate the transfer of genes into cells.

  • [18] Sonoporation allows for the entry of genetic material into cells.

  • Virus mediated gene delivery utilizes the ability of a virus to inject its DNA inside a host cell and takes advantage of the virus’ own ability to replicate and implement
    their own genetic material.

  • When genes are delivered to bacteria or plants the process is called transformation and when it is used to deliver genes to animals it is called transfection.

  • The solution, along with the DNA, is encapsulated by the cells and a small amount of DNA can be integrated into the genome.

  • Plants cells can also be transformed using electroporation, which uses an electric shock to make the cell membrane permeable to plasmid DNA.

  • [11] Most cells require some sort of intervention to make the cell membrane permeable to DNA and allow the DNA to be stably inserted into the hosts genome.

  • Viruses can only deliver very small pieces of DNA into the cells, it is labor-intensive and there are risks of random insertion sites, cytopathic effects and mutagenesis.

  • [30] Viral vector based gene delivery uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material to the host cell.

  • Biolistics[edit] A gene gun uses biolistics to insert DNA into cells Another method used to transform plant cells is biolistics, where particles of gold or tungsten are coated
    with DNA and then shot into young plant cells or plant embryos.

  • DNA microarrays used in a variety of next-gen sequencing can identify thousands of genes simultaneously, with analytical software looking at gene expression patterns, and
    orthologous genes in model species to identify function.

  • [5] Chemical vectors usually enter cells by endocytosis and can protect genetic material from degradation.

  • [9] Methods There are a variety of methods available to deliver genes to host cells.

  • [19][20] Photoporation[edit] Photoporation is when laser pulses are used to create pores in a cell membrane to allow entry of genetic material.

  • However, there are drawbacks to using viruses to deliver genes into cells.

  • [31] This has allowed a variety of possible vectors to be identified for use in gene therapy.

  • There are many different methods of gene delivery for various types of cells and tissues.


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