Musical education Sometime between the ages of seven and nine, Handel accompanied his father to Weissenfels, where he came under the notice of one whom Handel thereafter
always regarded throughout life as his benefactor, Duke Johann Adolf I.
John Beard appeared for the first time as one of Handel’s principal singers and became Handel’s permanent tenor soloist for the rest of Handel’s life.
Early biographers solved the problem by making the year of the trip 1696, then noting that at the age of 11 Handel would need a guardian, so they have Handel’s father or a
friend of the family accompany him, all the while puzzling over why the elder Handel, who wanted Handel to become a lawyer, would spend the sum to lead his son further into the temptation of music as a career.
 Other early chamber works were printed in Amsterdam in 1724 as opus 1, but it is impossible to tell which are early works in their original form, rather than later re-workings
by Handel, a frequent practice of his.
Burrows dates this trip to 1702 or 1703 (after his father’s death) and concluded that since Handel (through a “friend and relation” at the Berlin court) turned down Frederick’s
offer to subsidise his musical education in Italy (with the implicit understanding that he would become a court musician on his return), Handel was no longer able to expect preferment (whether as a musician, lawyer or otherwise) within Brandenburg-Prussia.
Mainwaring writes that Georg Händel was “alarmed” at Handel’s very early propensity for music,[i] “took every measure to oppose it”, including forbidding any musical instrument
in the house and preventing Handel from going to any house where they might be found.
 Whether Handel remained there, and if he did for how long, is unknown, but many biographers suggest that he was withdrawn from school by his father, based on the characterization
of him by Handel’s first biographer, John Mainwaring.
 The piece was a great success and it encouraged Handel to make the transition from writing Italian operas to English choral works.
 After nine years the Royal Academy of Music ceased to function but Handel soon started a new company.
 What is more, according to Mainwaring, Handel began composing, at the age of nine, church services for voice and instruments “and from that time actually did compose
a service every week for three years successively.
 It was German custom for friends and family to compose funeral odes for a substantial burgher like Georg, and young Handel discharged his duty with a poem dated 18
February and signed with his name and (in deference to his father’s wishes) “dedicated to the liberal arts.
 In 1728, John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera, which made fun of the type of Italian opera Handel had popularised in London, premiered at Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre and ran
for 62 consecutive performances, the longest run in theatre history up to that time.
“ Early chamber works do exist, but it is difficult to date any of them to Handel’s time in Halle.
“ Halle compositions Although Mainwaring records that Handel wrote weekly when assistant to Zachow and as probationary organist at Domkirche part of his duty was
to provide suitable music,[q] no sacred compositions from his Halle period can now be identified.
“ Mainwaring ends this chapter of Handel’s life by concluding that three or four years had been enough to allow Handel to surpass Zachow, and Handel had become “impatient
for another situation”; “Berlin was the place agreed upon.
In his next works, Handel changed his course.
 In 1719, the Duke of Chandos became one of the composer’s important patrons and a primary subscriber to his new opera company, the Royal Academy of Music, though his
patronage declined after Chandos lost large sums of money in the South Sea Bubble, which burst in 1720 in one of history’s greatest financial cataclysms.
 The problem with Mainwaring as an authority for this date, however, is that he tells of how Handel’s father communicated with the “king”[n] during Handel’s stay, declining
the Court’s offer to send Handel to Italy on a stipend and that his father died “after his return from Berlin.
Since he was attracted to secular, dramatic music (by meeting the Italians Bononcini and Attilio Ariosti and through the influence of Telemann), Hamburg, a free city with
an established opera company, was the logical choice.
 The question remains, however, why Handel rejected the King’s offer, given that Italy was the centre of opera.
 Despite the problems the Opera of the Nobility was causing him at the time, Handel’s neighbour in Brook Street, Mary Delany, reported on a party she invited Handel to
at her house on 12 April 1734 where he was in good spirits: I had Lady Rich and her daughter, Lady Cath.
 Handel House, birthplace of Handel The arts and music, however, flourished only among the higher strata (not only in Halle but throughout Germany), of which Handel’s
family was not a member.
He saw Teofane by Antonio Lotti, and engaged members of the cast for the Royal Academy of Music, founded by a group of aristocrats to assure themselves a constant supply of
baroque opera or opera seria.
 Overhearing this performance and noting the youth of the performer caused the Duke, whose suggestions were not to be disregarded, to recommend to Georg Händel that Handel
be given musical instruction.
“I used to write like the devil in those days”, Handel recalled much later.
In turn, Handel’s music forms one of the peaks of the “high baroque” style, bringing Italian opera to its highest development, creating the genres of English oratorio and
organ concerto, and introducing a new style into English church music.
“ Burrows notes that, like his father, Handel was able to accept royal (and aristocratic) favours without considering himself a court servant; and so, given the embarrassed
financial condition of his mother, Handel set off for Hamburg to obtain experience while supporting himself.
[j] Somehow Handel made his way to the court organ in the palace chapel of the Holy Trinity, where he surprised everyone with his playing.
He had strong competition from John Frederick Lampe; The Dragon of Wantley was first performed at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket in London on 16 May 1737.
It is said the compositions spurred reconciliation between Handel and the king, supposedly annoyed by the composer’s abandonment of his Hanover post.
Handel travelled to Italy to engage new singers and also composed seven more operas, among them the comic masterpiece Partenope and the “magic” opera Orlando.
 Royal Academy of Music (1719–34) Main article: Royal Academy of Music (company) “The Chandos portrait of Georg Friedrich Händel” by James Thornhill, c.
1720 In May 1719, The 1st Duke of Newcastle, the Lord Chamberlain, ordered Handel to look for new singers.
Since the late 1960s, interest in Handel’s music has grown.
“ Another work, which he wrote for The 1st Duke of Chandos, the owner of Cannons, was Acis and Galatea: during Handel’s lifetime, it was his most performed work.
 Handel started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera.
After his success with Messiah (1742), he never composed an Italian opera again.
For the first time, Handel allowed Gioacchino Conti, who had no time to learn his part, to substitute arias.
Zachow would be the only teacher that Handel ever had.
Telemann recalled forty years later in an autobiography for Mattheson’s Grundlage: “The writing of the excellent Johann Kuhnau served as a model for me in fugue and counterpoint;
but in fashioning melodic movements and examining them Handel and I were constantly occupied, frequently visiting each other as well as writing letters.
 Modern biographers either accept the year as 1698, since most reliable older authorities agree with it,[o] and discount what Mainwaring says about what took place during
the trip or assume that Mainwaring conflated two or more visits to Berlin, as he did with Handel’s later trips to Venice.
[k] When Zachow discovered the talent of Handel, he introduced him “to a vast collection of German and Italian music, which he possessed, sacred and profane, vocal and instrumental
compositions of different schools, different styles, and of every master”.
 Around this same time, Handel made the acquaintance of Telemann.
Mr. Handel was in the best humour in the world, and played lessons and accompanied Strada and all the ladies that sang from seven o’clock till eleven.
 University Perhaps to fulfil a promise to his father or simply because he saw himself as “dedicated to the liberal arts”, on 10 February 1702 Handel matriculated
at the University of Halle.
[e] Even the smaller churches all had “able organists and fair choirs”,[f] and humanities and the letters thrived (Shakespeare was performed in the theatres early in the 17th
Handel received his training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712, where he spent the bulk of his career and became a naturalised
British subject in 1727.
Handel left for Rome and since opera was (temporarily) banned in the Papal States, composed sacred music for the Roman clergy.
In July 1717 Handel’s Water Music was performed more than three times on the River Thames for King George I and his guests.
 Deidamia, his last opera, a co-production with the Earl of Holderness, was performed three times in 1741.
Handel gave up the opera business, while he enjoyed more success with his English oratorios.
On Boxing Day he began the composition of Serse, the only comic opera that Handel ever wrote and worked with Elisabeth Duparc.
In London Arrival In June 1710, Handel became Kapellmeister to German prince George, the Elector of Hanover, but left at the end of the year.
 In these three oratorios Handel laid the foundation for the traditional use of the chorus which marks his later oratorios.
The musicologist Winton Dean wrote that “Handel was not only a great composer; he was a dramatic genius of the first order.
) Ferdinando, who had a keen interest in opera, was trying to make Florence Italy’s musical capital by attracting the leading talents of his day.
With his opera Rinaldo, based on La Gerusalemme Liberata by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso, Handel enjoyed great success, although it was composed quickly, with many borrowings
from his older Italian works.
 Much of this copying was entered into a notebook that Handel maintained for the rest of his life.
“ But since Georg Händel died in 1697, either the date of the trip or Mainwaring’s statements about Handel’s father must be in error.
One of these, Zadok the Priest, has been played at every British coronation ceremony since.
Although it has since disappeared, the notebook has been sufficiently described to understand what pieces Zachow wished Handel to study.
 Mattheson, however, summarised his opinion of Handel’s church cantatas written in Halle: “Handel in those days set very, very long arias and sheerly unending cantatas
which, while not possessing the proper knack or correct taste, were perfect so far as harmony is concerned.
In 1737, he had a physical breakdown, changed direction creatively, and addressed the middle class and made a transition to English choral works.
 Early education Halle, copper engraving, 1686 Early in his life Handel is reported to have attended the Gymnasium in Halle, where the headmaster, Johann Praetorius
[de], was reputed to be an ardent musician.
In cooperation with John Rich he started his third company at Covent Garden Theatre.
Zachow, Mainwaring asserts, was “often” absent, “from his love of company, and a cheerful glass”, and Handel, therefore, performed on organ frequently.
 Saul and Israel in Egypt, both from 1739, head the list of great, mature oratorios, in which the da capo aria became the exception and not the rule.
 Alcina, his last opera with a magic content, and Alexander’s Feast or the Power of Music based on John Dryden’s Alexander’s Feast starred Anna Maria Strada del Pò and
As noted by music historian David Hunter, 32 per cent of the subscribers and investors in the Royal Academy of Music, or their close family members, held investments in the
RAC as well.
 Although both John Hawkins and Charles Burney credited this tale, Schoelcher found it nearly “incredible” and a feat of “poetic imagination” and Lang considers it
one of the unproven “romantic stories” that surrounded Handel’s childhood.
 However, since the middle of the war the city had been under the administration of the Duke of Saxony, and soon after the end of the war he would bring musicians trained
in Dresden to his court in Weissenfels.
 Opera at Covent Garden (1734–41) Interior of the Covent Garden Theatre in London In 1733, the Earl of Essex received a letter with the following sentence: “Handel
became so arbitrary a prince, that the Town murmurs.”
 But Handel had to have had some experience with the keyboard to have made the impression in Weissenfels that resulted in his receiving formal musical training.
[‘”Handel” entry in Collins English Dictionary gives the common variant “George Frederick” (used in his will and on his funeral monument) alongside the pronunciation of his last name. The spelling “Frideric” is used on his 1727 application for British
2. ^ According to baptismal records in Halle’s parish church, the Lutheran Marktkirche Unser Lieben Frauen. The records of that church also show that the family name was spelled on various occasions at least four other ways: Hendel,
Händeler, Hendeler and Hendtler, but most commonly Händel. In Italy he spelled it Hendel, as it is pronounced in German. From the time he arrived in England, however, he consistently signed his name as George Frideric Handel.
3. ^ Handel’s tomb
in Westminster has the Old Style birth date of February XXIIII, MDCLXXXIV, giving the day of his baptism and using its Annunciation style of counting the new year from 25 March.
4. ^ Georg Händel (senior) was the son of a coppersmith, Valentin
Händel (1582–1636), who had emigrated from Eisleben in 1608 with his first wife Anna Belching, the daughter of a master coppersmith. They were Protestants and chose reliably Protestant Saxony over Silesia, a Habsburg possession, as religious tensions
mounted in the years before the Thirty Years’ War.
5. ^ Among the court musicians of Halle were Samuel Scheidt (who also was organist at the Moritzkirche), William Brade and Michael Praetorius.
6. ^ Halle also was noted for the quality
of its organ-builders. In 1712, Bach was intrigued by the organ at Marktkirche, and applied for the position that Zachow, Handel’s teacher, vacated. He decided on Weimar, however.
7. ^ This barber, Andreas Berger, happened to be the son-in-law
of English émigré William Brade, court musician to Augustus in Weissenfels.
8. ^ Both Landon and Hogwood point out and to the extent possible correct the more obvious misstatements of facts and dates and inconsistencies of Mainwaring. See Landon
1984, pp. 9–19; Hogwood 1984, pp. 11–17.
9. ^ Schoelcher suggests that Handel’s “doctor” father observed Handel making musical sounds even before he could talk and this in the eyes of the son of a coppersmith “discovered instincts of so low an
10. ^ The year and purpose of the visit and why the meeting occurred are variously given. Schoelcher and Bone have it that Handel was seven and they were visiting a son by Georg’s first marriage, who was in service to the Duke.
Friedrich Chrysander states that they were visiting the younger Handel’s nephew, Carl (ten years his senior) who was the Duke’s valet. Lang writes that Handel was nine and Handel’s father, holding a court position, must have frequently travelled
to Weissenfels, where the Duke had established a residence after Prussia had annexed the city of Halle. Young Handel was taken along because he could be cared for by relatives of his late wife.
11. ^ “His cantatas, often highly dramatic, are
distinguished by very imaginative choral writing, colorful orchestration, and skillful handling of the concerted element.”
12. ^ Handel not only applied Kerll’s techniques and phrases in later compositions, he imported an entire movement composed
by Kerll into Israel in Egypt.
13. ^ Both Landon and Hogwood point out and to the extent possible correct the more obvious misstatements of facts and dates and inconsistencies of Mainwaring. See Landon 1984, pp. 9–19; Hogwood 1984, pp. 11–17.
There was no “king” in Berlin until 18 January 1701 when Frederick III, the Elector of Brandenburg, became Frederick I, the first King in Prussia.
15. ^ Among the careful authorities who accepted the trip taking place in 1698 were Handel’s
friend Johann Mattheson and Burney.
16. ^ Records of the Marktkirche show that he took communion there in April of the years 1701–03.
17. ^ Handel was required by the terms of his appointment, among other things, “to play the organ
fittingly at Divine Service, and for this purpose to pre-intone the prescribed Psalms and Spiritual Songs, and to have due care to whatever might be needful to the support of beautiful harmony …”
18. ^ The first mention of Handel from the time
he took his last communion at the Marktkirche on 23 April is in Mattheson’s annotated translation of Mainwaring (published in 1761) where he writes that he met Handel in the Organ loft of the Church of St. Mary Magdalena in Hamburg. In his
earlier Grunlage (published in 1740), he fixes the date as 9 July.
19. ^ Mainwaring gives the cryptic explanation that since he had to earn a living from his profession, he had to find a place less distant than Berlin. Given that Hamburg’s
opera house was second only to Berlin’s in repute, “it was resolved to send him thither on his own bottom, and chiefly with a view to improvement.” The passage suggests that Handel had already determined on secular dramatic music as a career,
but who it was “to send him thither” is not explained.
20. ^ In 2000, the upper stories of 25 Brook Street were leased to the Handel House Trust, and after extensive restoration, the Handel House Museum opened to the public, with events including
concerts of baroque music.
21. Hogwood 1984, p. 1.
22. ^ Hicks 1998, p. 614.
23. ^ George Frederic Handel, Westminster Abbey
24. ^ “British Citizen by Act of Parliament: George Frideric Handel”. Parliament.uk. 14 April 2009. Archived from
the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
25. ^ Burrows 2007
26. ^ Hicks 2013
27. ^ Buelow 2004, p. 476.
28. ^ Dean 1969, p. 19.
29. ^ Deutsch 1955, p. 1
30. ^ Adams & Hofestädt 2005, pp. 144–46.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b c Adams
& Hofestädt 2005, p. 144.
32. ^ Adams & Hofestädt 2005, p. 144; Burrows 1994, p. 1.
33. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 1.
34. ^ Jump up to:a b c Lang 1966, p. 20.
35. ^ Burrows 1994, pp. 1–2.
36. ^ Lang 1966, pp. 25–26.
37. ^ Jump up to:a b Lang 1966,
38. ^ Adams & Hofestädt 2005, pp. 144–45.
39. ^ Landon 1984, p. 9.
40. ^ Deutsch 1955, p. 6.
41. ^ Deutsch 1955, p. 2; Landon 1984, p. 9.
42. ^ Dreyhaupt 1755, p. 625.
43. ^ Maitland & Squire 1890, p. 277.
44. ^ Landon 1984, p.
10; Schoelcher 1857, p. 7 n.1.
45. ^ Schoelcher 1857, p. 3.
46. ^ Mainwaring 1760, pp. 4–5.
47. ^ Mainwaring 1760, p. 5.
48. ^ Schoelcher 1857, p. 4.
49. ^ Jump up to:a b c Lang 1966, p. 11.
50. ^ Dent 2004, pp. 3–4.
51. ^ Jump up to:a
b c Schoelcher 1857, p. 5.
52. ^ Schoelcher 1857, p. 4; Bone 1914, p. 141.
53. ^ Chrysander 1858: Buch 1: 2. Kindheit.
54. ^ Schoelcher 1857, pp. 4–5; Bone 1914, p. 141; Lang 1966, p. 11.
55. ^ Lang 1966, p. 11; Bone 1914, p. 141; Schoelcher
1857, p. 5.
56. ^ Lang 1966, pp. 11–12.
57. ^ Lang 1966, p. 12; Landon 1984, p. 15. See also Seiffert, Max (1905). “Preface to Volumes 21, 21 (Zachow)”. Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härte.
58. ^ Schoelcher 1857, pp. 5–6.
See also Bone 1914, pp. 141–42.
59. ^ Jump up to:a b Schoelcher 1857, p. 6.
60. ^ Lang 1966, p. 12.
61. ^ Lang 1966, p. 14.
62. ^ Lang 1966, pp. 13–16.
63. ^ Mainwaring 1760, p. 15.
64. ^ Mainwaring 1760, p. 16.
65. ^ Jump up to:a b
Mainwaring 1760, p. 18.
66. ^ Schoelcher 1857, p. 6; Deutsch 1955, pp. 5–6 (inscription on Georg Händel’s tombstone).
67. ^ Jump up to:a b Lang 1966, p. 19.
68. ^ Deutsch 1955, pp. 6–8 (containing the poem and English translation).
Landon 1984, p. 30 n.5.
70. ^ Mainwaring 1760, pp. 24–25.
71. ^ Jump up to:a b Mainwaring 1760, p. 29.
72. ^ Jump up to:a b Lang 1966, p. 166.
73. ^ Schoelcher 1857, pp. 6–7.
74. ^ Landon 1984, p. 31 n.8.
75. ^ Landon 1984, p. 31 n.7.
Landon 1984, pp. 31 n.7 & 53.
77. ^ Dean 1982, p. 2; Deutsch 1955, p. 8.
78. ^ Lang 1966, p. 20; Dent 2004, p. 2
79. ^ Lang 1966, pp. 20–21.
80. ^ Lang 1966, p. 21.
81. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 10; Deutsch 1955, pp. 8, 9, 10.
82. ^ Dent 2004,
83. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 20.
84. ^ Burrows 1994, pp. 10–11 translating Mattheson 1740, p. 359.
85. ^ Jump up to:a b Deutsch 1955, p. 9.
86. ^ Lang 1966, p. 22 n.2.
87. ^ Lang 1966, p. 22 translating Mattheson 1740, p. 93.
88. ^ Deutsch
1955, p. 4 n.1.
89. ^ Jump up to:a b Lang 1966, p. 23.
90. ^ Hogwood 1984, p. 21.
91. ^ Best 1985, pp. 486–89.
92. ^ Deutsch 1955, p. 10.
93. ^ Mattheson 1740, pp. 29, 191.
94. ^ Mainwaring 1760, pp. 27–28.
95. ^ Burrows 1994, pp. 11–13.
Lang 1966, p. 26.
97. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 12.
98. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 18
99. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 19
100. ^ Harris 2001, p. 37.
101. ^ Annette Landgraf, David Vickers, The Cambridge Handel Encyclopedia, Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 2
Burrows 1994, pp. 29–30
103. ^ Mainwaring 1760, p. 52.
104. ^ Dean & Knapp 1987, p. 129
105. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 38
106. ^ Dean & Knapp 1987, pp. 173, 180
107. ^ “Handel, George Frederick”. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016 – via
108. ^ Burrows, Donald; Coffey, Helen; Greenacombe, John; Hicks, Anthony (20 February 2014). George Frideric Handel: Volume 1, 1609–1725: Collected Documents. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107470118. Archived from the original
on 22 February 2018 – via Google Books.
109. ^ National Portrait Gallery, p. 88
110. ^ There is a tantalising suggestion by Handel’s biographer, Jonathan Keates, that he may have come to London in 1710 and settled in 1712 as a spy for the eventual
Hanoverian successor to Queen Anne, George I news.bbc.co.uk Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
111. ^ National Portrait Gallery, p. 92
112. ^ Dean & Knapp 1987, p. 286
113. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 77.
114. ^ Bukofzer 1947, pp. 333–35.
Rolland 1916, p. 71.
116. ^ Dean & Knapp 1987, p. 209
117. ^ Deutsch 1955, pp. 70–71
118. ^ “Handel’s Finances” Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine, on bbc.co.uk
119. ^ Hunter, David. “Handel and the Royal African Company”. Musicology
Now. American Musicological Society. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
120. ^ “Royal Academy of Music to ‘decolonise’ collection as composer linked to slave trade”. Classic FM. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
121. ^ Antonia Quirke, “In Search of the Black
Mozart: A Revealing Look at Handel’s Investment in the Slave Trade,” New Statesman (4 June 2015), ; David Hunter, “Handel Manuscripts and the Profits of Slavery: The ‘Granville’ Collection at the British Library and the First Performing Score
of Messiah Reconsidered,” in Notes 76, no. 1 (Sept 2019): 27ff ; “Artists respond to Handel’s investment in the transatlantic slave trade,” St Paul Chamber Orchestra Blog (11 December 2020) 
122. ^ Deutsch 1955, p. 89
123. ^ Dean 2006, p.
226 According to Dean they could not have reached London before 1716. In 1743, Smith wrote in a letter that he had been in Handel’s service for 24 years.
124. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 387
125. ^ Deutsch 1955, p. 194
126. ^ Imogen Levy (2 June 1953).
“Guide to the Coronation Service”. Westminster Abbey. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
127. ^ “George Frideric Handel – Zadok the Priest”. BBC. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
128. ^ “Stage Beauty”. www.stagebeauty.net.
theatrical monopoly in Banham, Martin The Cambridge guide to theatre pp. 1105 (Cambridge University Press, 1995) ISBN 0-521-43437-8
130. ^ Handel’s Compositions Archived 30 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine GFHandel.org, Retrieved 21 December
131. ^ Dent 2004, p. [page needed].
132. ^ Dent 2004, p. 33
133. ^ “Synopsis of Arianna in Creta”. Handelhouse.org. Handel House Museum. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
134. ^ Dean 2006, pp. 274–84
Dean 2006, p. 288
136. ^ Jump up to:a b CHRISSOCHOIDIS, I. (2008). HANDEL RECOVERING: FRESH LIGHT ON HIS AFFAIRS IN 1737. Eighteenth Century Music, 5(2), 237-244. doi:10.1017/S1478570608001504
137. ^ “Koninklijke speelklok van wereldklasse aangekocht”,
Museum Speelklok, 14 November 2016 (in Dutch); “Georg Friedrich Händel and the Braamcamp clock” by Erma Hermens, 22 November 2018
138. ^ Ditto, Charles (July–September 1997). “Handel’s Musical Clock Music”. Fontes Artis Musicae [Wikidata]. 44 (3):
266–280. JSTOR 23508494.
139. ^ A New Chronology of Venetian Opera and Related Genres, 1660–1760 by Eleanor Selfridge-Field, p. 492
140. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hicks 2013.
141. ^ Michael Cole (1993). “A Handel harpsichord” (PDF). Early Music. XXI
(February 1993): 99–110. doi:10.1093/em/XXI.1.99. illus.1 Single-manual harpsichord by William Smith (Bate Collection, University of Oxford)
142. ^ Marx 1998, p. 243.
143. ^ National Portrait Gallery, p. 157
144. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 15 Handels
Messiah. A distinguished authority on Handel discusses the origins, composition, and sources of one of the great choral works of western civilization.
145. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 26
146. ^ Marx 1998, p. 48.
147. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 66
148. ^ Larsen
1972, p. 49
149. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 40
150. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 33
151. ^ Burrows 1994, p. 217.
152. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 37
153. ^ National Portrait Gallery, p. 165
154. ^ Larsen 1972, pp. 16, 39–41
155. ^ Larsen 1972, p. 78
156. ^ Dent
2004, pp. 40–41
157. ^ Young 1966, p. 48
158. ^ Bone 1914, pp. 142–44.
159. ^ “G. F. Handel’s Compositions”. The Handel Institute. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
160. ^ “The Arrival of the Queen
of Sheba”. Britannica. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
161. ^ Burrows 1994, pp. 354–55
162. ^ Burrows 1994, pp. 297–98
163. ^ Young 1966, p. 56
164. ^ Dent 2004, p. 63
165. ^ Young 1966, p. 60
166. ^ The Letters and Writings of George Frideric
Handel by Erich H. Müller, 1935
167. ^ Jump up to:a b McGeary, Thomas (November 2009). “Handel as art collector: art, connoisseurship and taste in Hanoverian Britain”. Early Music. Oxford University Press. 37 (4): 533–576. doi:10.1093/em/cap107.
Mainwaring 1760, pp. 145–55.
169. ^ Dean 1982, p. 116.
170. ^ The Halle Handel Edition. “A short history of editing Handel”. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
171. ^ Handel, George Freidrich. Schering, Arnold;
Soldan, Kurt (eds.). Messiah: Oratorio in Three Parts, HWV 56. Leipzig: C.F. Peters. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
172. ^ Best, Terence, ed. Handel collections and their history, a collection of conference papers given by the international panel of distinguished
Handel scholars. Clarendon Press, 1993
173. ^ Prince Hoare, ed. (1820). Memoirs of Granville Sharp. Colburn. p. XII. …he had a voluminous collection of Handel’s scores…
174. ^ Jacob Simon (1985). Handel, a celebration of his life and times,
1685–1759. p. 239. National Portrait Gallery (Great Britain)
175. ^ “The Birth of British Music: Handel – The Conquering Hero”. BBC. 24 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017.
176. ^ Blyth, Alan (2007). Choral Music on Record.
Cambridge University Press. p. 82.
177. ^ “BBC Press Release”. Bbc.co.uk. 13 January 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
178. ^ Dent 2004, p. 23
179. ^ Jump up to:a b Young, Percy Marshall (1 April 1975) . Handel (Master Musician series). J.
M. Dent & Sons. p. 254. ISBN 0-460-03161-9.
180. ^ Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music, Oxford University Press, 2005, vol. 2, chapter 26, p. 329, ISBN 0-19-522271-7
181. ^ Alexander Silbiger, “Scarlatti Borrowings in Handel’s
Grand Concertos”, The Musical Times, v. 125, 1984, pp. 93–94
182. ^ A comprehensive bibliography through 2005 can be found in Mary Anne Parker, G. F. Handel: A Guide to Research, Routledge, 2005, ISBN 1-136-78359-8, pp. 114–135
183. ^ John H.
Roberts, “Why Did Handel Borrow?”, in Handel: Tercentary Collection, edited by Stanley Sadie and Anthony Hicks, Royal Musical Association, 1985, pp. 83–92, ISBN 0-8357-1833-6
184. ^ Auner Joseph H. (1996), “Schoenberg’s Handel Concerto and the
Ruins of Tradition”, Journal of the American Musicological Society’, and also Robert Schumann tried to compose an additional piece for a theme of Handel in his Album for the Young. 49: 264–313
185. ^ For All the Saints: A Calendar of Commemorations
for United Methodists, ed. by Clifton F. Guthrie (Order of Saint Luke Publications, 1995, ISBN 1-878009-25-7) p. 161.
b. Adams, Aileen K.; Hofestädt, B. (August 2005). “Georg Händel (1622–97): The Barber-Surgeon Father of George Frideric Handel
(1685–1759)”. Journal of Medical Biography. 13 (3): 142–49. doi:10.1258/j.jmb.2005.04-49. PMID 16059526.
c. Best, Terence (November 1985). “Handel’s Chamber Music: Sources, Chronology and Authenticity”. Early Music. 13 (4): 476–499. doi:10.1093/em/13.4.476.
d. Bone, Philip J. (1914). The Guitar and Mandolin: Biographies of Celebrated Players and Composers for these Instruments. London: Schott & Co.
e. Buelow, George J. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana
University Press. ISBN 0-253-34365-8.
f. Bukofzer, Manfred F. (1947). ‘Music in the Baroque Era – From Monteverdi To Bach. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-09745-5.
g. Burrows, Donald (1994). Handel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816470-X.
Donald (2007). “Handel, George Frideric (1685–1759)”. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12192. Retrieved 10 January 2022. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
Friedrich (1858). G.F. Händel. Vol. 1. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. Consisting of three volumes (separately hosted online by zeno.org): Buch 1: Jugendzeit und Lehrjahre in Deutschland (1685–1706); Buch 2: Die große Wanderung (1707–1720).
Winton (1969). Handel and the Opera Seria. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-01438-1.
k. Dean, Winton (1982). The New Grove Handel. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-30086-2.
l. Dean, Winton; Knapp, John
Merrill (1987). Handel’s Operas, 1704–1726. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-816441-6.
m. Dean, Winton (2006). Handel’s Operas, 1726–1741. The Boydell Press. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
Edward Joseph (2004). Handel. R A Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4191-2275-4.
o. Deutsch, Otto Erich (1955). Handel: A Documentary Biography. London: Adam and Charles Black.
p. Dreyhaupt, Johann Christoph von (1755). Pagus neletici et nudzici oder
ausführliche diplomatisch-historische Beschreibun des … Saal-Creises. Vol. 2. Halle: Verlag des Waysenhauses.
q. Harris, Ellen T. (2001). Handel as Orpheus. Voice and Desire in the Chamber Cantatas. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
r. Hicks, Anthony (2013), “Handel, George Frideric”, Grove Music Online, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.40060, ISBN 978-1-56159-263-0
s. Hicks, Anthony (1998). “Handel, George Frederick”. In
Sadie, Stanley (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Vol. 2. London: Macmillan Publishers. pp. 614–26. ISBN 1-56159-228-5.
t. Hogwood, Christopher (1984). Handel. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01355-1.
u. Landon, H.C. Robbins (1984).
Handel and his World. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78498-6.
v. Lang, Paul Henry (1966). George Frideric Handel. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. LCCN 66011793/MN/r842.
w. Larsen, J. P. (1972). Handel’s Messiah. London: Adams and Charles
x. Leopold, Silke. Händel, Die Opern Bärenreiter 2009, ISBN 978-3-7618-1991-3
y. Mainwaring, John (1760). Memoirs of the Life of the Late George Frederic Handel. London: Printed for R. and J. Dodsley.
z. Maitland, J. A. Fuller;
Squire, W. Barclay (1890). “Handel, George Friederick”. In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney (eds.). Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. XXIV Haile–Harriott. New York: Macmillan and Co. pp. 277–91.
aa. Marx, Hans Joachim (1998). Händels Oratorien,
Oden und Serenaten: Ein Kompendium. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-27815-2.
bb. Mattheson, Johann (1740). Grundlage einer Ehren-pforte, woran der tüchtigsten Capellmeister, Componisten, Musikgelehrten, Tonkünstler &c. Leben, Wercke,
Verdienste &c. erscheinen sollen. Hamburg: For the author.
cc. Meynell, Hugo. The Art of Handel’s Operas, Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press (1986) ISBN 0-88946-425-1
dd. National Portrait Gallery. Handel. A Celebration of his Life and Times
ee. Rolland, Romain (1916) . Handel. Translated by Hull, A. Eaglefield. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
ff. Schoelcher, Victor (1857). The Life of Handel. Translated by Lowe, James. London: Robert Cocks & Co.
Percy Marshall (1966). Handel. New York: David White Company.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/biscotte/151385302/’]