High Gothic flying buttresses Metz Cathedral (1220–) High Gothic west front, Reims Cathedral (1211–) Early English and High Gothic See also: High Gothic and Early
Gothic architecture Following the destruction by fire of the choir of Canterbury Cathedral in 1174, a group of master builders was invited to propose plans for the reconstruction.
 Perpendicular is sometimes called Third Pointed and was employed over three centuries; the fan-vaulted staircase at Christ Church, Oxford built around 1640.
 At the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, the choir was reconstructed between 1140 and 1144, drawing together for the first time the developing Gothic architectural features.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (1420–1436) by Filippo Brunelleschi, inspired by the Pantheon, Rome, was one of the first Renaissance landmarks, but it also employed Gothic
technology; the outer skin of the dome was supported by a framework of twenty-four ribs.
 Flamboyant Gothic east end, Prague Cathedral (1344–) Perpendicular Gothic east end, Henry VII Chapel (c. 1503–12) Late Gothic: flamboyant and perpendicular See
also: Flamboyant and Perpendicular Gothic Central Europe began to lead the emergence of a new, international flamboyant style with the construction of a new cathedral at Prague (1344–) under the direction of Peter Parler.
The resulting structure of the choir of Canterbury Cathedral is considered the first work of Early English Gothic.
Typically, these typologies are identified as: • c.1130–c.1240 Early to High Gothic and Early English • c.1240–c.1350 Rayonnant and Decorated Style • c.1350–c.1500 Late
Gothic: flamboyant and perpendicular • Early Gothic: Abbey church of Saint-Denis, west façade (1135–40) • Early Gothic: Nave of Sens Cathedral (1135–1176) • Early English; choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–80) • Early Gothic; Nave of Notre-Dame
de Paris (1185–1200) • High Gothic; Chartres Cathedral choir (1210-1250) • Rayonnant: West front of Strasbourg Cathedral (1277-1490) • Rayonnant: Sainte-Chapelle upper level (1238-1248) • Rayonnant- Angel’s Choir of Lincoln Cathedral (14th
c.) • Perpendicular Gothic; Choir of York Minister (1361-1405) • Flamboyant; “Butter Tower” of Rouen Cathedral (1488-1506) History Early Gothic See also: Early Gothic architecture Norman architecture on either side of the English Channel
developed in parallel towards Early Gothic.
 Gothic architecture began in the earlier 12th century in northwest France and England and spread throughout Latin Europe in the 13th century; by 1300, a first “international
style” of Gothic had developed, with common design features and formal language.
But it was a strange misapplication of the term to use it for the pointed style, in contradistinction to the circular, formerly called Saxon, now Norman, Romanesque, &c. These
latter styles, like Lombardic, Italian, and the Byzantine, of course belong more to the Gothic period than the light and elegant structures of the pointed order which succeeded them.
(Drawing by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc) The Gothic rib vault was one of the essential elements that made possible the great height and large windows of the Gothic style.
 According to a 19th-century correspondent in the London journal Notes and Queries, Gothic was a derisive misnomer; the pointed arcs and architecture of the later Middle
Ages was quite different from the rounded arches prevalent in late antiquity and the period of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy: There can be no doubt that the term ‘Gothic’ as applied to pointed styles of ecclesiastical architecture was used
at first contemptuously, and in derision, by those who were ambitious to imitate and revive the Grecian orders of architecture, after the revival of classical literature.
When he was appointed Surveyor of the Fabric at Westminster Abbey in the year 1698, he expressed his distaste for the Gothic style in a letter to the bishop of Rochester:
Nothing was thought magnificent that was not high beyond Measure, with the Flutter of Arch-buttresses, so we call the sloping Arches that poise the higher Vaultings of the Nave.
Rather, he saw that the Gothic style had developed over time along the lines of a changing society, and that it was thus a legitimate architectural style in and of its own.
 However, the first buildings to be considered fully Gothic are the royal funerary abbey of the French kings, the Abbey of Saint-Denis (1134–44), and the archiepiscopal
cathedral at Sens (1143–63) They were the first buildings to systematically combine rib vaulting, buttresses, and pointed arches.
 Sens Cathedral was influential in its strongly vertical appearance and in its three-part elevation, typical of subsequent Gothic buildings, with a clerestory at the top
supported by a triforium, all carried on high arcades of pointed arches.
The earliest examples of the pointed arch in Europe date from before the Holy War in the year 1095; this is widely regarded as proof that the Gothic style could not have possibly
been derived from Saracen architecture.
However many of the elements of Islamic and Armenian architecture that have been cited as influences on Gothic architecture also appeared in Late Roman and Byzantine architecture,
the most noticeable example being the pointed arch and flying buttress.
Giorgio Vasari used the term “barbarous German style” in his Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, and in the introduction to the Lives
he attributes various architectural features to the Goths, whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, and erecting new ones in this style.
 In the 12th century First Pointed phase of Gothic architecture, also called the Lancet style and before the introduction of tracery in the windows in later styles,
lancet windows predominated Gothic building.
The Spanish architecture from the Moors could have influenced the emergence Gothic style long before the Crusades took place.
 These also became a common feature of Gothic cathedrals.
 Rouen Cathedral (begun 1185) was rebuilt from Romanesque to Gothic with distinct Norman features, including a lantern tower, deeply moulded decoration, and high pointed
 Other characteristics of the High Gothic were the development of rose windows of greater size, using bar-tracery, higher and longer flying buttresses, which could reach
up to the highest windows, and walls of sculpture illustrating biblical stories filling the façade and the fronts of the transept.
 Instead of a triforium, Early English churches usually retained a gallery.
Their builders abandoned the traditional plans and introduced the new Gothic elements from Saint-Denis.
With the development of Renaissance architecture in Italy during the mid-15th century, the Gothic style was supplanted by the new style, but in some regions, notably England
and Belgium, Gothic continued to flourish and develop into the 16th century.
 Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel Influences The Gothic style of architecture was strongly influenced by the Romanesque architecture which
preceded it; by the growing population and wealth of European cities, and by the desire to express local grandeur.
 French Gothic churches were heavily influenced both by the ambulatory and side-chapels around the choir at Saint-Denis, and by the paired towers and triple doors on the
 In Germany, some Italian elements were introduced at the Fugger Chapel of St Anne’s Church, Augsburg, (1510–1512) combined with Gothic vaults; and others appeared in
the Church of St. Michael in Munich, but in Germany Renaissance elements were used primarily for decoration.
 In central Europe, the High Gothic style appeared in the Holy Roman Empire, first at Toul (1220–), whose Romanesque cathedral was rebuilt in the style of Reims Cathedral;
then Trier’s Liebfrauenkirche parish church (1228–), and then throughout the Reich, beginning with the Elisabethkirche at Marburg (1235–) and the cathedral at Metz (c.1235–).
 Some elements of Gothic style appeared very early in England.
But, without citing many authorities, such as Christopher Wren, and others, who lent their aid in depreciating the old mediaeval style, which they termed Gothic, as synonymous
with every thing that was barbarous and rude, it may be sufficient to refer to the celebrated Treatise of Sir Henry Wotton, entitled The Elements of Architecture, … printed in London so early as 1624.
 High Gothic (c. 1194–1250) was a brief but very productive period, which produced some of the great landmarks of Gothic art.
 In Gothic architecture, particularly in the later Gothic styles, they became the most visible and characteristic element, giving a sensation of verticality and pointing
upward, like the spires.
 Most of the characteristics of later Early English were already present in the lower chevet of Saint-Denis.
 The first cathedral built entirely in the new style was Sens Cathedral, begun between 1135 and 1140 and consecrated in 1160.
 When Vasari wrote, Italy had experienced a century of building in the Vitruvian architectural vocabulary of classical orders revived in the Renaissance and seen as evidence
of a new Golden Age of learning and refinement.
One of the builders who is believed to have worked on Sens Cathedral, William of Sens, later travelled to England and became the architect who, between 1175 and 1180, reconstructed
the choir of Canterbury Cathedral in the new Gothic style.
“ To support the vaults He also introduced columns with capitals of carved vegetal designs, modelled upon the classical columns he had seen in Rome.
 Rayonnant Gothic west front Strasbourg Cathedral (1276–) Rayonnant Gothic and Decorated Style See also: Rayonnant and Decorated Gothic Rayonnant Gothic maximized
the coverage of stained glass windows such that the walls are effectively entirely glazed; examples are the nave of Saint-Denis (1231–) and the royal chapel of Louis IX of France on the Île de la Cité in the Seine – the Sainte-Chapelle (c.1241–8).
 Wren claimed the inventors of the Gothic had seen the Saracen architecture during the Crusades, also called the Religious war or Holy War, organised by the Kingdom of
France in the year 1095: The Holy War gave the Christians, who had been there, an Idea of the Saracen Works, which were afterwards by them imitated in the West; and they refined upon it every day, as they proceeded in building Churches.
One of these was the Norman chevet, a small apse or chapel attached to the choir at the east end of the church, which typically had a half-dome.
 It was also influenced by theological doctrines which called for more light and by technical improvements in vaults and buttresses that allowed much greater height
and larger windows.
His aversion of the style was so strong that he refused to put a Gothic roof on the new St. Paul’s, despite being pressured to do so.
It had never been popular in Italy, and in the mid-15th century the Italians, drawing upon ancient Roman ruins, returned to classical models.
The first building in the High Gothic (French: Classique) was Chartres Cathedral, an important pilgrimage church south of Paris.
A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for churches and university buildings, into the 20th
He wrote: This we now call the Gothic manner of architecture (so the Italians called what was not after the Roman style) though the Goths were rather destroyers than builders;
I think it should with more reason be called the Saracen style, for these people wanted neither arts nor learning: and after we in the west lost both, we borrowed again from them, out of their Arabic books, what they with great diligence had
translated from the Greeks.
 • Eastern end of Wells Cathedral (begun 1175) • West front of Reims Cathedral, pointed arches within arches (1211–1275) • Lancet windows of transept of Salisbury Cathedral
(1220–1258) • Pointed arches in the arcades, triforium, and clerestory of Lincoln Cathedral (1185–1311) • A detail of the windows and galleries of the west front of Strasbourg Cathedral (1215–1439) Rib vaults Main article: Rib vault
Structure of an early six-part Gothic rib vault.
The builders simplified the elevation used at Notre Dame, eliminated the tribune galleries, and used flying buttresses to support the upper walls.
The pointed arch did not originate in Gothic architecture; they had been employed for centuries in the Near East in pre-Islamic as well as Islamic architecture for arches,
arcades, and ribbed vaults.
 Four-centred arches were often used, and lierne vaults seen in early buildings were developed into fan vaults, first at the latter 14th century chapter-house of Hereford
Cathedral (demolished 1769) and cloisters at Gloucester, and then at Reginald Ely’s King’s College Chapel, Cambridge (1446–1461) and the brothers William and Robert Vertue’s Henry VII Chapel (c. 1503–12) at Westminster Abbey.
A second “international style” emerged by 1400, alongside innovations in England and central Europe that produced both the perpendicular and flamboyant varieties.
‘French work’); the term Gothic was first applied contemptuously during the later Renaissance, by those ambitious to revive the architecture of classical antiquity.
 They were also sometimes used for more practical purposes, such as to bring transverse vaults to the same height as diagonal vaults, as in the nave and aisles of Durham
Cathedral, built in 1093.
According to these historians, the architecture of the Saint Hripsime Church near the Armenian religious seat Etchmiadzin was built in the fourth century A.D. and was repaired
 The new High Gothic churches competed to be the tallest, with increasingly ambitious structures lifting the vault yet higher.
 Tiercerons – decorative vaulting ribs – seem first to have been used in vaulting at Lincoln Cathedral, installed c.1200.
 The four-part vaults made it possible for the building to be even higher.
 The Flamboyant Gothic style was particularly known for such lavish pointed details as the arc-en-accolade, where the pointed arch over a doorway was topped by a pointed
sculptural ornament called a fleuron and by pointed pinnacles on either side.
In doing so, a new architectural style emerged that emphasized verticality and the effect created by the transmission of light through stained glass windows.
Periods Architecture “became a leading form of artistic expression during the late Middle Ages”.
The lantern tower was another common feature in Norman Gothic.
Suger reconstructed portions of the old Romanesque church with the rib vault in order to remove walls and to make more space for windows.
Thus the Gothic style, being in opposition to classical architecture, from that point of view was associated with the destruction of advancement and sophistication.
 Some Renaissance elements also appeared in Spain, in the new palace begun by Emperor Charles V in Granada, within the Alhambra (1485–1550), inspired by Bramante and Raphael,
but it was never completed.
 Lacey patterns of tracery continued to characterize continental Gothic building, with very elaborate and articulated vaulting, as at St Barbara’s, Kutná Hora (1512).
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that was prevalent in Europe from the late 12th to the 16th century, during the High and Late Middle Ages, surviving into the
17th and 18th centuries in some areas.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/lisacee/5647842237/’]