He created one of his major works La Danse specially for Shchukin as part of a two painting commission, the other painting being Music (1910).
The Pierre Matisse Gallery, which was active from 1931 until 1989, represented and exhibited many European artists and a few Americans and Canadians in New York often for
the first time.
 Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the
opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.
This “return to order” is characteristic of much post-World War I art, and can be compared with the neoclassicism of Picasso and Stravinsky as well as the return to traditionalism
American art collector Albert C. Barnes convinced Matisse to produce a large mural for the Barnes Foundation, The Dance II, which was completed in 1932; the Foundation owns
several dozen other Matisse paintings.
 The Musée Matisse in Nice, a municipal museum, has one of the world’s largest collections of Matisse’s works, tracing his artistic beginnings and his evolution through
to his last works.
Gertrude attributed the beginnings of the Saturday evening salons to Matisse, remarking: More and more frequently, people began visiting to see the Matisse paintings—and the
Cézannes: Matisse brought people, everybody brought somebody, and they came at any time and it began to be a nuisance, and it was in this way that Saturday evenings began.
Matisse was allowed to exhibit along with other former Fauves and Cubists whom Hitler had initially claimed to despise, though without any Jewish artists, all of whose works
had been purged from all French museums and galleries; any French artists exhibiting in France had to sign an oath assuring their “Aryan” status—including Matisse.
 He moved to the hilltop of Vence, France in 1943, where he produced his first major cut-out project for his artist’s book titled Jazz.
 Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, completing The Slave in 1903.
 Although the paper cut-out was Matisse’s major medium in the final decade of his life, his first recorded use of the technique was in 1919 during the design of decor
for the Le chant du rossignol, an opera composed by Igor Stravinsky.
Matisse worked on this painting for several months and documented the progress with a series of 22 photographs, which he sent to Etta Cone.
After summarizing his career, Matisse refers to the possibilities the cut-out technique offers, insisting “An artist must never be a prisoner of himself, prisoner of a style,
prisoner of a reputation, prisoner of success…” The number of independently conceived cut-outs steadily increased following Jazz, and eventually led to the creation of mural-size works, such as Oceania the Sky and Oceania the Sea of 1946.
 The decline of the Fauvist movement after 1906 did not affect the career of Matisse; many of his finest works were created between 1906 and 1917, when he was an active
part of the great gathering of artistic talent in Montparnasse, even though he did not quite fit in, with his conservative appearance and strict bourgeois work habits.
He visited Morocco in 1912 and again in 1913 and while painting in Tangier he made several changes to his work, including his use of black as a colour.
At this point, Matisse still thought of the cut-outs as separate from his principal art form.
Finishing his last painting in 1951 (and final sculpture the year before), Matisse utilized the paper cut-out as his sole medium for expression up until his death.
One key difference between them is that Matisse drew and painted from nature, while Picasso was more inclined to work from imagination.
 Henri Matisse, The Moroccans, 1915–16, oil on canvas, 181.3 x 279.4 cm, Museum of Modern Art While numerous artists visited the Stein salon, many of these artists
were not represented among the paintings on the walls at 27 rue de Fleurus.
In 1942, Pierre held an exhibition in New York, “Artists in Exile,” which was to become legendary.
After viewing a large exhibition of Islamic art in Munich in 1910, he spent two months in Spain studying Moorish art.
 Recent exhibitions Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs was exhibited at London’s Tate Modern, from April to September 2014.
 The show then traveled to New York’s Museum of Modern Art, where it was on display through 10 February 2015.
When ill health in his final years prevented him from painting, he created an important body of work in the medium of cut paper collage.
His son Pierre, the art dealer in New York, helped the Jewish and anti-Nazi French artists he represented to escape occupied France and enter the United States.
 He also worked as a graphic artist and produced black-and-white illustrations for several books and over one hundred original lithographs at the Mourlot Studios in Paris.
 Matisse’s son Pierre Matisse (1900–1989) opened a modern art gallery in New York City during the 1930s.
 Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired.
 Contemporaries of Leo and Gertrude Stein, Matisse and Picasso became part of their social circle and routinely joined the gatherings that took place on Saturday evenings
at 27 rue de Fleurus.
Although he was never a member of the resistance, it became a point of pride to the occupied French that one of their most acclaimed artists chose to stay, though of course,
being non-Jewish, he had that option.
• In Michael Ondaatje’s Running in the Family, there is a section called ‘Don’t talk to me about Matisse’ • In Henry Miller’s Tropic of Cancer there are multiple pages lionizing
the works and importance of “the bright sage” Matisse, his hero.
When talking about his work, Matisse mentioned that, while his mobility was limited, he could wander through gardens in the form of his artwork.
Inspired by a similar “event cinema” produced by the Met, Grabsky started his series to simulate the experience of strolling through an art exhibit.
 According to art historian Hilary Spurling, “their public exposure, followed by the arrest of his father-in-law, left Matisse as the sole breadwinner for an extended
family of seven.
 In 1952, he established a museum dedicated to his work, the Matisse Museum in Le Cateau, and this museum is now the third-largest collection of Matisse works in France.
“ During 1902 to 1903, Matisse adopted a style of painting that was comparatively somber and concerned with form, a change possibly intended to produce saleable works
during this time of material hardship.
 When the painting that was singled out for special condemnation, Matisse’s Woman with a Hat, was bought by Gertrude and Leo Stein, the embattled artist’s morale improved
Painting and sculpture had become physical challenges, so he turned to a new type of medium.
Selected works: Paris, 1901–1910 • Luxembourg Gardens, 1901, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia • Dishes and Fruit, 1901, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia •
A Glimpse of Notre-Dame in the Late Afternoon, 1902, Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York • Nu (Carmelita), 1904, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston • Luxe, Calme et Volupté, 1904, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France • Landscape at Collioure,
1905, Museum of Modern Art, New York City • Open Window, Collioure, 1905, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. • Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark • Le bonheur de vivre, 1905–6,
Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania • Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt, 1906, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark • The Young Sailor II, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City • Vase, Bottle and Fruit, 1906,
Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia • Blue Nude, 1907, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland • La coiffure, 1907, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany • Madras Rouge, The Red Turban, 1907, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania (Exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show) • Le Luxe II, 1907–08, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark • Les trois baigneuses (Three Bathers), 1907, Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minneapolis • Bathers with a Turtle,
1908, Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis • Game of Bowls, 1908, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia • La Danse (first version), 1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York City • Still Life with Dance, 1909, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg,
Russia • La Danse (second version), 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia • Les Capucines (Nasturtiums with The Dance II), 1910–12, Pushkin Museum, Moscow, Russia • Music, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia Sculpture •
Henri Matisse, 1900–1904, Le Serf (The Serf, Der Sklave), bronze • Henri Matisse, 1905, Sleep, wood, exhibition Blue Rose, 1907, location unknown • Henri Matisse, 1906–07, Nu couché, I (Reclining Nude, I), bronze, exhibited at Montross Gallery,
New York, 1915 • Henri Matisse, 1907, Awakening, plaster, exhibition Salon of the Golden Fleece 1908 • Henri Matisse, 1908, Figure décorative, bronze Gertrude Stein, Académie Matisse, and the Cone sisters Around April 1906, Matisse met Pablo
Picasso, who was 11 years his junior.
He discovered “a kind of paradise” as he later described it, and decided to become an artist, deeply disappointing his father.
An earlier version of La Danse (1909) is in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
In addition, Gertrude Stein’s two American friends from Baltimore, the Cone sisters Claribel and Etta, became major patrons of Matisse and Picasso, collecting hundreds of
their paintings and drawings.
 Goldfish in aquariums also became a frequently recurring theme in Matisse’s art following his trip to Morocco.
 Early life and education Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in Northern France on New Year’s Eve in 1869, the oldest son of a wealthy grain
 Matisse’s first solo exhibition was at Ambroise Vollard’s gallery in 1904, without much success.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French visual artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
“ But Matisse’s work of the time also encountered vehement criticism, and it was difficult for him to provide for his family.
Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris • The Yellow Curtain, 1915, Museum of Modern Art, New York • Auguste Pellerin II, 1916–17, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris • The Painter
and His Model (Le Peintre dans son atelier), 1916–17, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris • Three Sisters and The Rose Marble Table (Les Trois sœurs à La Table de marbre rose), 1917, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia • Portrait de famille (The
Music Lesson), 1917, oil on canvas, 245.1 x 210.8 cm, Barnes Foundation After Paris In 1917, Matisse relocated to Cimiez on the French Riviera, a suburb of the city of Nice.
 The intense colourism of the works he painted between 1900 and 1905 brought him notoriety as one of the Fauves (French for “wild beasts”).
The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by Van Gogh, and Cézanne’s Three Bathers.
However, these cut-outs were conceived as designs for stencil prints to be looked at in the book, rather than as independent pictorial works.
His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art.
The subjects painted most frequently by both artists were women and still lifes, with Matisse more likely to place his figures in fully realised interiors.
 Legacy The first painting of Matisse acquired by a public collection was Still Life with Geraniums (1910), exhibited in the Pinakothek der Moderne.
 Many of Matisse’s paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac’s essay, “D’Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme”.
During the first decade of the twentieth century, the Americans in Paris—Gertrude Stein, her brothers Leo Stein, Michael Stein, and Michael’s wife Sarah—were important collectors
and supporters of Matisse’s paintings.
 The show was the largest and most extensive of the cut-outs ever mounted, including approximately 100 paper maquettes—borrowed from international public and private collections—as
well as a selection of related drawings, prints, illustrated books, stained glass, and textiles.
 Matisse was visiting Paris when the Nazis invaded France in June 1940, but managed to make his way back to Nice.
Barnes Foundation • Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, 1913, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg • La glace sans tain (The Blue Window), 1913, Museum of Modern Art • Woman on a
High Stool, 1914, Museum of Modern Art, New York City • View of Notre-Dame, 1914, Museum of Modern Art • Les poissons rouges (Interior with a Goldfish Bowl), Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris • French Window at Collioure,
 Being bedridden for three months resulted in his developing a new art form using paper and scissors.
 In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and then went on a trip to Corsica.
According to David Rockefeller, Matisse’s final work was the design for a stained-glass window installed at the Union Church of Pocantico Hills near the Rockefeller estate
north of New York City.
In 1917, he relocated to a suburb of Nice on the French Riviera, and the more relaxed style of his work during the 1920s gained him critical acclaim as an upholder of the
classical tradition in French painting.
 In 1896, Matisse, an unknown art student at the time, visited the Australian painter John Russell on the island of Belle Île off the coast of Brittany.
After Bourgeois left the position to join a convent in 1944, Matisse sometimes contacted her to request that she model for him.
However, it was only after his operation that, bedridden, Matisse began to develop the cut-out technique as its own form, rather than its prior utilitarian origin.
 In that year, he painted the most important of his works in the neo-Impressionist style, Luxe, Calme et Volupté.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/prayitnophotography/6690926183/’]