• Numerous depictions of Hermes as a shepherd god carrying a lamb on his shoulders (Hermes kriophoros) have been found throughout the Mediterranean world, and it is possible
    that the iconography of Hermes as “The Good Shepherd” had an influence on early Christianity, specifically in the description of Christ as “the Good Shepherd” in the Gospel of John.

  • 430 BC The association between Hermes and the underworld is related to his function as a god of boundaries (the boundary between life and death), but he is considered a psychopomp,
    a deity who helps guide souls of the deceased to the afterlife, and his image was commonly depicted on gravestones in classical Greece.

  • [56][57] Beginning around the turn of the 1st century AD, a process began by which, in certain traditions Hermes became euhemerised – that is, interpreted as a historical,
    mortal figure who had become divine or elevated to godlike status in legend.

  • Later, the epithet supplanted the original name itself and Hermes took over the roles as god of messengers, travelers, and boundaries, which had originally belonged to Pan,
    while Pan himself continued to be venerated by his original name in his more rustic aspect as the god of the wild in the relatively isolated mountainous region of Arcadia.

  • [25] This was probably his original function, and he may have been a late inclusion in the Olympic pantheon; Hermes is described as the “youngest” Olympian, and some myths,
    including his theft of Apollo’s cows, describe his initial coming into contact with celestial deities.

  • Two snakes coiled around a staff was also a symbol of the god Ningishzida, who, like Hermes, served as a mediator between humans and the divine (specifically, the goddess
    Ishtar or the supreme Ningirsu).

  • This is a pattern that would continue in later periods, as worship of Hermes almost always took place within temples and sanctuaries primarily dedicated to goddesses, including
    Hera, Demeter, Hecate, and Despoina.

  • [64][65] The 10th-century Suda attempted to further Christianize the figure of Hermes, claiming that “He was called Trismegistus on account of his praise of the trinity, saying
    there is one divine nature in the trinity.

  • Phidias left a statue of a famous Hermes Logios and Praxiteles another, also well known, showing him with the baby Dionysus in his arms.

  • [49][50] An epithet of Thoth found in the temple at Esna, “Thoth the great, the great, the great”,[51] became applied to Hermes beginning in at least 172 BC.

  • Barracco Museum, Rome Hermes was known as the patron god of flocks, herds, and shepherds, an attribute possibly tied to his early origin as an aspect of Pan.

  • [3] A further Roman Imperial-era syncretism came in the form of Hermanubis, the result of the identification of Hermes with the Egyptian god of the dead, Anubis.

  • The cult of Hermes flourished in Attica, and many scholars writing before the discovery of the Linear B evidence considered Hermes to be a uniquely Athenian god.

  • [54] In art, the Roman Mercury continued the style of depictions found in earlier representations of both Hermes and Turms, a young, beardless god with winged shoes and/or
    hat, carrying the caduceus.

  • [22][23] It is likely that Hermes is a pre-Hellenic god, though the exact origins of his worship, and its original nature, remain unclear.

  • His role as a god of boundaries, a messenger, and a psychopomp also remained unchanged following his adoption into the Roman religion (these attributes were also similar to
    those in the Etruscan’s worship of Turms).

  • [33][better source needed] A similar-appearing but distinct symbol is the Rod of Asclepius, associated with the patron of medicine and son of Apollo, Asclepius, which bears
    only one snake.

  • The name of the spring was Hermes’ stream and the fish in it were not caught, being considered sacred to the god.

  • [25] In the context of these herms, by the Classical period Hermes had come to be worshiped as the patron god of travelers and sailors.

  • The two gods were worshiped as one at the Temple of Thoth in Khemenu, a city which became known in Greek as Hermopolis.

  • The Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes,[139] which tells the story of the god’s birth and his subsequent theft of Apollo’s sacred cattle, invokes him as the one “of many shifts (polytropos),
    blandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods.

  • [138] In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing Prometheus’s act of giving fire to man, every god gave her a
    gift, and Hermes’ gifts were lies, seductive words, and a dubious character.

  • [58] In the Middle Ages[edit] Though worship of Hermes had been almost fully suppressed in the Roman Empire following the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius
    I in the 4th century AD, Hermes continued to be recognized as a mystical or prophetic figure, though a mortal one, by Christian scholars.

  • [37] As a messenger god[edit] In association with his role as a psychopomp and god who is able to easily cross boundaries, Hermes is prominently worshiped as a messenger,
    often described as the messenger of the gods (since he can convey messages between the divine realms, the underworld, and the world of mortals).

  • This name is always recorded alongside those of several goddesses, including Potnija, Posidaeja, Diwja, Hera, Pere, and Ipemedeja, indicating that his worship was strongly
    connected to theirs.

  • [70][71] Pausanias wrote that during his time, at Megalopolis people could see the ruins of the temple of Hermes Acacesius.

  • The inclusion of phallic imagery associated with Hermes and placed, in the form of herma, at the entrances to households may reflect a belief in ancient times that Hermes
    was a symbol of the household’s fertility, specifically the potency of the male head of the household in producing children.

  • [25] By the 5th century BC, Hermai were also in common use as grave monuments, emphasizing Hermes’ role as a chthonic deity and psychopomp.

  • [38][better source needed] As a messenger and divine herald, he wears winged sandals (or, in Roman art influenced by Etruscan depictions of Turms, a winged cap).

  • [25] In the Hellenistic period[edit] Hermes Fastening his Sandal, early Imperial Roman marble copy of a Lysippan bronze (Louvre Museum) As Greek culture and influence spread
    following the conquests of Alexander the Great, a period of syncretism or interpretatio graeca saw many traditional Greek deities identified with foreign counterparts.

  • At all times, however, through the Hellenistic periods, Roman, and throughout Western history into the present day, several of his characteristic objects are present as identification,
    but not always all together.

  • [53] In the Roman period[edit] As early as the 4th century BC, Romans had adopted Hermes into their own religion, combining his attributes and worship with the earlier Etruscan
    god Turms under the name Mercury.

  • [33][better source needed] Hermes’ sandals, called pédila by the Greeks and talaria by the Romans, were made of palm and myrtle branches but were described as beautiful, golden
    and immortal, made a sublime art, able to take the roads with the speed of wind.

  • [36] In Athens, herms were placed outside houses, both as a form of protection for the home, a symbol of male fertility, and as a link between the household and its gods with
    the gods of the wider community.

  • [29] According to a theory that has received considerable scholarly acceptance, Hermes originated as a form of the god Pan, who has been identified as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European
    pastoral god [30][31][original research?]

  • [84] Hermes (Diactoros, Angelos)[85] the messenger,[86] is in fact only seen in this role, for Zeus, from within the pages of the Odyssey.

  • The identification of Odin as Mercury was probably also influenced by a previous association of a more Odin-like Celtic god as the “Celtic Mercurius”.

  • [25] This is illustrated by a 3rd-century BC example of a letter sent by the priest Petosiris to King Nechopso, probably written in Alexandria c. 150 BC, stating that Hermes
    is the teacher of all secret wisdoms, which are accessible by the experience of religious ecstasy.

  • In this hymn, Hermes is invoked as a god “of many shifts” (polytropos), associated with cunning and thievery, but also a bringer of dreams and a night guardian.

  • “[66] Temples and sacred places[edit] There are only three temples known to have been specifically dedicated to Hermes during the Classical Greek period, all of them in Arcadia.

  • However, the reasons for this interpretation appear to go beyond superficial similarities: Both gods are connected to the dead (Mercury as psychopomp and Odin as lord of the
    dead in Valhalla), both were connected to eloquent speech, and both were associated with secret knowledge.

  • [25] A section of the agora in Athens became known as the Hermai, because it was filled with a large number of herms, placed there as votive offerings by merchants and others
    who wished to commemorate a personal success in commerce or other public affair.

  • [41] In Hesiod’s The Works and Days, Hermes’ is depicted giving Pandora the gifts of lies, seductive words, and a dubious character.

  • Frothingham thought the god to have existed as a Mesopotamian snake-god, similar or identical to Ningishzida, a god who served as mediator between humans and the divine, especially
    Ishtar, and who was depicted in art as a Caduceus.

  • [39] As a shepherd god[edit] Kriophoros Hermes (which takes the lamb), late-Roman copy of Greek original from the 5th century BC.

  • In this context, Hermes became a god associated with the Athenian empire and its expansion, and of democracy itself, as well as all of those closely associated with it, from
    the sailors in the navy, to the merchants who drove the economy.

  • [14] In Roman mythology and religion many of Hermes’ characteristics belong to Mercury,[15] a name derived from the Latin merx, meaning “merchandise,” and the origin of the
    words “merchant” and “commerce.

  • Hermes is regarded as “the divine trickster,”[10] about which the Homeric Hymn to Hermes offers the most well-known account.

  • [33][34][better source needed] Among these objects is a wide-brimmed hat, the petasos, widely used by rural people of antiquity to protect themselves from the sun, and that
    in later times was adorned with a pair of small wings; sometimes this hat is not present, and may have been replaced with wings rising from the hair.

  • [25] Mercury became one of the most popular Roman gods, as attested by the numerous shrines and depictions in artwork found in Pompeii.

  • [26] The absorbing (“combining”) of the attributes of Hermes to Thoth developed after the time of Homer amongst Greeks and Romans; Herodotus was the first to identify the
    Greek god with the Egyptian (Hermopolis) (Plutarch and Diodorus also did so), although Plato thought the gods were dissimilar (Friedlander 1992).

  • [55] Hermes on an antique fresco from Pompeii The Romans identified the Germanic god Odin with Mercury, and there is evidence that Germanic peoples who had contact with Roman
    culture also accepted this identification.

  • [25] As a chthonic deity, the worship of Hermes also included an aspect relating to fertility, with the phallus being included among his major symbols.

  • [33] In the Roman period, additional temples to Hermes (Mercury) were constructed across the Empire, including several in modern-day Tunisia.

  • “[43] The word polutropos (“of many shifts, turning many ways, of many devices, ingenious, or much wandering”) is also used to describe Odysseus in the first

  • It is also possible that since the beginning he has been a deity with shamanic attributes linked to divination, reconciliation, magic, sacrifices, and initiation and contact
    with other planes of existence, a role of mediator between the worlds of the visible and invisible.

  • [13] His attributes had previously influenced the earlier Etruscan god Turms, a name borrowed from the Greek “herma”.

  • Hermes instructed Odysseus to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; he also told Calypso of Zeus’ order to free Odysseus from her island to allow him to continue his journey
    back home.

  • Main article: Herm (sculpture) Main article: Liminal deity In Ancient Greece, Hermes was a phallic god of boundaries.

  • [25] As a chthonic and fertility god[edit] Beginning with the earliest records of his worship, Hermes has been understood as a chthonic deity (heavily associated with the
    earth and/or underworld).

  • [52] The figure of Hermes Trismegistus would later absorb a variety of other esoteric wisdom traditions and become a major component of Hermeticism, alchemy, and related traditions.

  • According to St. Augustin, the Latin name “Mercury” may be a title derived from “medio currens”, in reference to Hermes’ role as a mediator and messenger who moves between

  • [80][81] Kriophoros[edit] Main article: Kriophoros In ancient Greek culture, kriophoros (Greek) or criophorus, the “ram-bearer,”[82] is a figure that commemorates the solemn
    sacrifice of a ram.

  • In Classical and Hellenistic Greece, Hermes was usually depicted as a young, athletic man lacking a beard.

  • This function of Hermes explains why some images in temples and other vessels show him as a teenager.

  • [25] One of the oldest places of worship for Hermes was Mount Cyllene in Arcadia, where some myths say he was born.

  • [48] This led to Hermes gaining the attributes of a god of translation and interpretation, or more generally, a god of knowledge and learning.

  • Numerous books of wisdom and magic (including astrology, theosophy, and alchemy) were attributed to this “historical” Hermes, usually identified in his Alexandrian form of
    Hermes Trismegistus.

  • [96] Dolios (“tricky”)[97][edit] No cult to Hermes Dolios existed in Attica, and so this form of Hermes seems to have existed in speech only.

  • Several ex-votos found in his temples revealed his role as initiator of young adulthood, among them soldiers and hunters, since war and certain forms of hunting were seen
    as ceremonial initiatory ordeals.


Works Cited

[‘1. Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford University Press. pp. 296–7. ISBN 978-0-19-509539-5. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
2. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.56; also Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.14.
3. ^ Jump
up to:a b Schjødt, J. P. Mercury–Wotan–Óðinn: One or Many?. Myth, Materiality, and Lived Religion, 59.
4. ^ Burkert, p. 158.
5. ^ Powell, Barry B. (2015). Classical Myth (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson. pp. 177–190. ISBN 978-0-321-96704-6.
6. ^ Lay,
p. 3.
7. ^ Powell, pp. 179, 295
8. ^ Burkert, pp. 157–158.
9. ^ Burkert, p. 158. Iris has a similar role as divine messenger.
10. ^ Burkert, p. 156.
11. ^ Homer, 1–512, as cited in Powell, pp. 179–189
12. ^ Austin, M. Hellenistic world
from Alexander to the Roman conquest: a selection of ancient sources in translation. Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 137.
13. ^ The Latin word cādūceus is an adaptation of the Greek κηρύκειον kērykeion, meaning “herald’s wand (or staff)”,
deriving from κῆρυξ kēryx, meaning “messenger, herald, envoy”. Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon; Stuart L. Tyson, “The Caduceus”, The Scientific Monthly, 34.6 (1932:492–98), p. 493.
14. ^ Combet-Farnoux, Bernard (1980). “Turms étrusque et
la fonction de « minister » de l’Hermès italique”. Mercure romain : Le culte public de Mercure et la fonction mercantile à Rome de la République archaïque à l’époque augustéenne. École française de Rome. pp. 171–217.
15. ^ Bullfinch’s Mythology
(1978), Crown Publishers, p. 926.
16. ^ Powell, p. 178
17. ^ Jump up to:a b c Beekes, R.S.P. (2010). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek. Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4.
18. ^ Joann
Gulizio, Hermes and e-m-a2 (PDF), University of Texas, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013, retrieved 26 November 2011
19. ^ Jump up to:a b Greek History and the Gods. Grand Valley State University (Michigan).
20. ^ Powell, p.177
21. ^
Davies, Anna Morpurgo & Duhoux, Yves. Linear B: a 1984 survey. Peeters Publishers, 1985, p. 136.
22. ^ Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, ed. Félix Guirand & Robert Graves, Hamlyn, 1968, p. 123.
23. ^ Debroy, Bibek (2008). Sarama and her Children:
The Dog in the Indian Myth. Penguin Books India. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-14-306470-1.
24. ^ Frothingham, A.L. (1916). “Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake-God, and of the Caduceus I”. AJA 20.2, 175‐211.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
o p q r RADULOVI, IFIGENIJA; VUKADINOVI, SNEŽANA; SMIRNOVBRKI, ALEKSANDRA – Hermes the Transformer Ágora. Estudos Clássicos em debate, núm. 17, 2015, pp. 45–62 Universidade de Aveiro. Aveiro, Portugal. [1] (PDF link)
26. ^ Petrūska Clarkson (1998).
Counselling Psychology: Integrating Theory, Research, and Supervised Practice. Psychology Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-415-14523-7.
27. ^ Walter J. Friedlander (1992). The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine. ABC-CLIO.
p. 69. ISBN 978-0-313-28023-8..
28. ^ Jacques Derrida (2004). Dissemination. A&C Black. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-8264-7696-8.
29. ^ Danubian Historical Studies, 2, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1988, p. 32.
30. ^ H. Collitz, “Wodan, Hermes und Pushan,” Festskrift
tillägnad Hugo Pipping pȧ Hans sextioȧrsdag den 5 November 1924 1924, pp 574–587.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford
University Press. pp. 411 and 434. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.
32. ^ West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth (PDF). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 281–283. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
33. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1867. pp. 411–413.
34. ^ Müller, Karl Otfried. Ancient art and its remains:
or, A manual of the archæology of art. B. Quaritch, 1852. pp. 483–488.
35. ^ Brown, Norman Oliver (1990). Hermes the Thief. ISBN 978-0-940262-26-3.
36. ^ Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard University Press)
37. ^ Thucydides, History
of the Peloponnesian War, 6.27.
38. ^ Jump up to:a b W. Blackwood Ltd. (Edinburgh). Blackwood’s Edinburgh magazine, Volume 22; Volume 28. Leonard Scott & Co. 1849.
39. ^ Jump up to:a b Rochester Institute of Technology. “Greek Gods”. Rochester
Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013.
40. ^ Freeman, J. A., Jefferson, L. M., & Jensen, R. M. (2015). The Good Shepherd and the Enthroned Ruler: A Reconsideration of Imperial Iconography in the Early Church. The Art
of Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress.
41. ^ Jump up to:a b Homer. The Iliad. The Project Gutenberg Etext. Trans. Samuel Butler.
42. ^ Jump up to:a b Hesiod. Works And Days. ll. 60–68. Trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914.
43. ^ Jump up
to:a b Hymn to Hermes 13.
44. ^ Jump up to:a b Homeric hymn to Hermes
45. ^ Jump up to:a b “First Inventors… Mercurius [Hermes] first taught wrestling to mortals.” – Hyginus, Fabulae 277.
46. ^ Neville, Bernie. Taking Care of Business in the
Age of Hermes. Trinity University, 2003. pp. 2–5.
47. ^ Padel, Ruth. In and Out of the Mind: Greek Images of the Tragic Self. Princeton University Press, 1994. pp. 6–9.
48. ^ Bailey, Donald, “Classical Architecture” in Riggs, Christina (ed.),
The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt (Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 192.
49. ^ Jump up to:a b M-L von Franz (1980). Projection and Re-Collection in Jungian Psychology: Reflections of the Soul. Open Court Publishing, 1985. ISBN 0-87548-417-4.
50. ^
Jacobi, M. (1907). Catholic Encyclopedia: “Astrology”, New York: Robert Appleton Company.
51. ^ Hart, G., The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, 2005, Routledge, second edition, Oxon, p 158
52. ^ Copenhaver, B. P., “Hermetica”,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992, p xiv.
53. ^ Fowden, G., “The Egyptian Hermes”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987, p 216
54. ^ Beard, Pompeii: The Life of a Roman Town at 295–298
55. ^ Combet-Farnoux, Bernard (1980). “Turms
étrusque et la fonction de « minister » de l’Hermès italique”. Mercure romain : Le culte public de Mercure et la fonction mercantile à Rome de la République archaïque à l’époque augustéenne. École française de Rome. pp. 171–217.
56. ^ Plutarch,
De Iside et Osiride 61
57. ^ Diodorus, Bibliotheca historica i.18, 87
58. ^ Faivre, A. (1995). The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus. Red Wheel/Weiser.
59. ^ Heiser, James D. (2011). Prisci Theologi and the Hermetic Reformation
in the Fifteenth Century (1st ed.). Malone, Tex.: Repristination Press. ISBN 978-1-4610-9382-4.
60. ^ Jafar, Imad (2015). “Enoch in the Islamic Tradition”. Sacred Web: A Journal of Tradition and Modernity. XXXVI.
61. ^ Yates, F., “Giordano Bruno
and the Hermetic Tradition”, Routledge, London, 1964, pp 14–18 and pp 433–434
62. ^ Hanegraaff, W. J., “New Age Religion and Western Culture”, SUNY, 1998, p 360
63. ^ Yates, F., “Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition”, Routledge, London, 1964,
p 27 and p 293
64. ^ Yates, F., “Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition”, Routledge, London, 1964, p52
65. ^ Copenhaver, B.P., “Hermetica”, Cambridge University Press, 1992, p xlviii
66. ^ Copenhaver, Hermetica, p. xli
67. ^ Lucian of Samosata.
The Works of Lucian of Samosata. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. Volume 1, p. 107.
68. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 2:21
69. ^ Johnston, Sarah Iles. Initiation in Myth, Initiation in Practice. IN Dodd, David Brooks & Faraone, Christopher A. Initiation in
ancient Greek rituals and narratives: new critical perspectives. Routledge, 2003. pp. 162, 169.
70. ^ FG Moore, The Roman’s World, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1936, ISBN 0-8196-0155-1.
71. ^ “Aventine” in V Neskow, The Little Black Book of Rome:
The Timeless Guide to the Eternal City, Peter Pauper Press, Inc., 2012, ISBN 1-4413-0665-X.
72. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.30.6
73. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.16.1
74. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.22.4
75. ^
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.22.2
76. ^ Scanlon, Thomas Francis. Eros and Greek athletics. Oxford University Press, 2002. pp. 92–93.
77. ^ Mike Dixon-Kennedy (1998). Encyclopedia of Greco-Roman Mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-57607-094-9.
78. ^
Jump up to:a b c d The Facts on File: Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend.
79. ^ Homeric Hymn 29 to Hestia.
80. ^ Suda, kappa.2660
81. ^ Ormand, Kirk (2012). A Companion to Sophocles. Wiley Blackwell. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-119-02553-5.
82. ^
MA De La Torre, A Hernández, The Quest for the Historical Satan, Fortress Press, 2011, ISBN 0-8006-6324-1.
83. ^ Euripides, Iphigenia in Aulis 1301.
84. ^ Perseus – Tufts University
85. ^ R Davis-Floyd; P Sven Arvidson (1997). Intuition: The
Inside Story : Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Psychology Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-91594-6.
86. ^ Jump up to:a b New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology (New (fifth impression) ed.). Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. 1972 [1968]. p. 123. ISBN
87. ^ Jump up to:a b c Norman Oliver Brown (1990). Hermes the Thief: The Evolution of a Myth. Steiner Books. pp. 3–10. ISBN 978-0-940262-26-3.
88. ^ Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin (1976). Études mithriaques: actes du 2e Congrès International,
Téhéran, du 1er au 8 september 1975. BRILL, 1978. ISBN 90-04-03902-3.
89. ^ Krell, Jonathan F. “Mythical patterns in the art of Gustave Moreau: The primacy of Dionysus” (PDF). Crisolenguas. Vol. 2, no. 2.
90. ^ The Chambers Dictionary. Allied
Publishers. 1998. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
91. ^ Reece, Steve, “Σῶκος Ἐριούνιος Ἑρμῆς (Iliad 20.72): The Modification of a Traditional Formula,” Glotta: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache 75 (1999–2000) 259–280, understands Sokos
as a metanalysis of a word ending in -s plus Okus “swift,” and Eriounios as related to Cyprian “good-running.” [2]
92. ^ Wrongly, according to Reece, Steve, “A Figura Etymologica in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes,” Classical Journal 93.1 (1997) 29–39.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b Lang, Mabel (1988). Graffiti in the Athenian Agora (PDF). Excavations of the Athenian Agora (rev. ed.). Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical
Studies at Athens. p. 7. ISBN 0-87661-633-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
94. ^ Ehrenberg, Victor (1951). The People of Aristophanes: A Sociology of Old Attic Comedy. B. Blackwell.
95. ^ Jump up to:a
b c Aristophanes[clarification needed]
96. ^ S. Hornblower; A. Spawforth (2014). The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Oxford Reference, Oxford University Press. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-19-870677-9.
97. ^ P Young-Eisendrath, The Cambridge
Companion to Jung, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-521-68500-1.
98. ^ I Polinskaya, citing Robert Parker (2003): I Polinskaya, A Local History of Greek Polytheism: Gods, People and the Land of Aigina, 800–400 BCE (p. 103), BRILL, 2013,
ISBN 90-04-26208-3.
99. ^ An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time – Volume 5 (p. 34), 1779.
100. ^ L Kahn-Lyotard, Greek and Egyptian Mythologies (edited by Y Bonnefoy), University of Chicago Press, 1992, ISBN 0-226-06454-9.
101. ^
Meletinsky, Introduzione (1993), p. 131.
102. ^ N. O. Brown, Hermes the Thief: The Evolution of a Myth
103. ^ NW Slater, Spectator Politics: Metatheatre and Performance in Aristophanes, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8122-3652-1.
104. ^
“[T]he thief praying…”: W Kingdon Clifford, L Stephen, F Pollock
105. ^ William Stearns Davis – A Victor of Salamis: A Tale of the Days of Xerxes, Leonidas, and Themistocles, Wildside Press LLC, 2007, ISBN 1-4344-8334-7.
106. ^ A Brown, A New
Companion to Greek Tragedy, Taylor & Francis, 1983, ISBN 0-389-20396-3.
107. ^ F Santi Russell, Information Gathering in Classical Greece, University of Michigan Press, 1999.
108. ^ JJ Ignaz von Döllinger, The Gentile and the Jew in the courts
of the Temple of Christ: an introduction to the history of Christianity, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green, 1862.
109. ^ EL Wheeler, Stratagem and the Vocabulary of Military Trickery, BRILL, 1988, ISBN 90-04-08831-8.
110. ^ R Parker,
Polytheism and Society at Athens, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-921611-8.
111. ^ Athenaeus, The learned banqueters, Harvard University Press, 2008.
112. ^ I Ember, Music in painting: music as symbol in Renaissance and baroque painting,
Corvina, 1984.
113. ^ Pausanias, 7.27.1
114. ^ Plutarch (trans. William Reginald Halliday), The Greek questions of Plutarch.
115. ^ S Montiglio, Silence in the Land of Logos, Princeton University Press, 2010, ISBN 0-691-14658-6.
116. ^ J Pòrtulas,
C Miralles, Archilochus and the Iambic Poetry (page 24).
117. ^ John H. Riker (1991). Human Excellence and an Ecological Conception of the Psyche. SUNY Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4384-1736-3.
118. ^ Andrew Samuels (1986). Jung and the Post-Jungians.
Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-7102-0864-4.
119. ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1995). Amoral Politics: The Persistent Truth of Machiavellism. SUNY Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7914-2279-3.
120. ^ Homerus (2010). Three Homeric Hymns: To Apollo,
Hermes, and Aphrodite. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45158-1.
121. ^ L Hyde, Trickster Makes this World: Mischief, Myth and Art, Canongate Books, 2008.
AND MYTHOLOGICAL. Transcribed from the 1899 George Allen edition.
123. ^ Jump up to:a b R López-Pedraza, Hermes and His Children, Daimon, 2003, p. 25, ISBN 3-85630-630-7.
124. ^ The Homeric Hymns (pp. 76–77), edited by AN Athanassakis, JHU Press,
2004, ISBN 0-8018-7983-3.
125. ^ Aristophanes, The Frogs of Aristophanes, with Notes and Critical and Explanatory, Adapted to the Use of Schools and Universities, by T. Mitchell, John Murray, 1839.
126. ^ GS Shrimpton, Theopompus The Historian,
McGill-Queens, 1991.
127. ^ RA Bauslaugh, The Concept of Neutrality in Classical Greece, University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 0-520-06687-1.
128. ^ Fiske 1865.
129. ^ CO Edwardson (2011), Women and Philanthropy, tricksters and soul: re-storying
otherness into crossroads of change, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010, p. 60.
130. ^ The Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies: Ithaca August 2009, Conference Paper, page 12 [3].
131. ^ The Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies: Ithaca August
2009, p. 12.
132. ^ Luke Roman; Monica Roman (2010). Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology. Infobase Publishing. pp. 232ff. ISBN 978-1-4381-2639-5.
133. ^ Sourced originally in R Davis-Floyd, P Sven Arvidson (1997).
134. ^ Raffaele Pettazzoni
(1956). The All-knowing God. Arno Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-405-10559-3.
135. ^ CS Wright, J Bolton Holloway, RJ Schoeck – Tales within tales: Apuleius through time, AMS Press, 2000, p. 23.
136. ^ John Fiske (1865). Myths and Myth-makers: Old
Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology. Houghton, Mifflin. p. 67.
137. ^ “Circular Pyxis”. The Walters Art Museum.
138. ^ Homer. The Odyssey. Plain Label Books, 1990. Trans. Samuel Butler. pp. 40, 81–82, 192–195.
139. ^
“The conventional attribution of the Hymns to Homer, in spite of linguistic objections, and of many allusions to things unknown or unfamiliar in the Epics, is merely the result of the tendency to set down “masterless” compositions to a well-known
name…”: Andrew Lang, THE HOMERIC HYMNS A NEW PROSE TRANSLATION AND ESSAYS, LITERARY AND MYTHOLOGICAL. Transcribed from the 1899 George Allen edition. Project Gutenberg.
140. ^ Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 919. Quoted in God of Searchers. The Theoi
Project: Greek Mythology.
141. ^ Aesop. Fables 474, 479, 520, 522, 563, 564. Quoted in God of Dreams of Omen; God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games, Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
142. ^ Orphic Hymn 57 to Chthonian Hermes Aeschylus.
Libation Bearers. Cited in Guide of the Dead. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
143. ^ Orphic Hymn 28 to Hermes. Quoted in God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
144. ^ Phlegon of Tralles. Book
of Marvels, 2.1. Quoted in Guide of the Dead. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
145. ^ Apollodorus, 1.6.2.
146. ^ Apollodorus, 3.4.3.
147. ^ Apollodorus, E.3.2.
148. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.12.
149. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.2.
150. ^ Yao, Steven
G. (2002). Translation and the Languages of Modernism: Gender, Politics, Language. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-312-29519-6.
151. ^ Benstock, Shari (2010). Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940. University of Texas Press. p. 323. ISBN
152. ^ Nonnus. Dionysiaca. pp. 8. 220 ff.
153. ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 16
154. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.38.7.
155. ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 2
156. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 11. 301; Pausanias, Description
of Greece 4. 8. 6
157. ^ Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 2
158. ^ Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 256
159. ^ Hyginus, Fabula 160, makes Hermes the father of Pan.
160. ^ Karl Kerényi, Gods of the Greeks, 1951, p. 175, citing G. Kaibel, Epigrammata
graeca ex lapidibus collecta, 817, where the other god’s name, both father and son of Hermes, is obscured; according to other sources, Priapus was a son of Dionysus and Aphrodite.
161. ^ Apollodorus 1.9.16.
162. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophron 1176, 1211;
Heslin, p. 39
163. ^ Photius, Bibliotheca excerpts, 190.50
164. ^ Photius, Bibliotheca excerpts – GR
165. ^ Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 10
166. ^ Miller & Strauss Clay 2019, p. 133.
167. ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.12.
168. ^
Aelian, Varia Historia 10.18
169. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.53.4; Tripp, s.v. Acacallis.
170. ^ Pausanias, 2.3.10.
171. ^ daughter of Peneus
172. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad, 10. 266
173. ^ Eustathius on Homer, 804
174. ^ Pausanias,
175. ^ Pausanias, 10.17.5
176. ^ Most, p. 173, [= fr. 150.25-35 Merkelbach-West]
177. ^ This Gigas was the father of Ischenus, who was said to have been sacrificed during an outbreak of famine in Olympia; Tzetzes on Lycophron 42.
178. ^
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.1
179. ^ a local nymph of the Arcadians
180. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 160.
181. ^ called the daughter of Palamedes but corrected by later sources as Epaphus
182. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 21.1.
183. ^
Homer, Iliad 16.183–186.
184. ^ Saon could also have been the son of Zeus and a local nymph; both versions in Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.48.2.
185. ^ Köppen, Johann Heinrich Just; Heinrich, Karl Friedrich; Krause, Johann Christian
Heinrich (1818). Erklärende Anmerkungen zu Homers Ilias. Vol. 2. pp. 72.
186. ^ According to Hesiod’s Theogony 507–509, Atlas’ mother was the Oceanid Clymene, later accounts have the Oceanid Asia as his mother, see Apollodorus, 1.2.3.
187. ^
According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
188. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p.
189. ^ According to Hesiod’s Theogony 886–890, of Zeus’ children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena “from his
head”, see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
190. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus’ severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
191. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
192. ^ A Stevens, On Jung, Taylor & Francis, 1990.
193. ^ Jump up to:a b Merritt, Dennis L. (1996–1997). “Jung and the Greening of Psychology and Education”. Oregon Friends of C.G.
Jung Newsletter. 6 (1): 9, 12, 13. (Online.)
194. ^ JC Miller, The Transcendent Function: Jung’s Model of Psychological Growth Through Dialogue With the Unconscious, SUNY Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7914-5977-2.
195. ^ Jump up to:a b c DA McNeely, Mercury
Rising: Women, Evil, and the Trickster Gods, Fisher King Press, 2011, p. 86, ISBN 1-926715-54-3.
196. ^ H Yoshida, Joyce and Jung: The “Four Stages of Eroticism” In a Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man, Peter Lang, 2006, ISBN 0-8204-6913-0.
197. ^
CG Jung, R Main, Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal, Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0-415-15509-6.
198. ^ HJ Hannan, Initiation Through Trauma: A Comparative Study of the Descents of Inanna and Persephone: Dreaming Persephone Forward, ProQuest, 2005,
ISBN 0-549-47480-3.
199. ^ R Main, Revelations of Chance: Synhronicity as Spiritual Experience, SUNY Press, 2007, ISBN 0-7914-7023-7.
200. ^ Gisela Labouvie-Viefn, Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender in the Life Course Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender
in the Life Course, Cambridge University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-521-46824-8.
201. ^ A Samuels (1986). Jung and the Post-Jungians. Taylor & Francis, 1986. ISBN 0-7102-0864-2.
202. ^ López-Pedraza 2003, p. 19.
203. ^ Allan Beveridge, Portrait of
the Psychiatrist as a Young Man: The Early Writing and Work of R.D. Laing, 1927–1960 (p. 88), International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry, OUP, ISBN 0-19-958357-9.
204. ^ Christopher Booker, The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories,
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004, ISBN 0-8264-5209-4.
2. Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press;
London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
3. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion, Harvard University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-674-36281-0.
4. Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary
and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
5. Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White,
Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
6. Hesiod, The Shield. Catalogue of Women. Other Fragments. Edited and translated by Glenn W. Most. Loeb Classical Library
503. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0674996236.
7. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PhD in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version
at the Perseus Digital Library.
8. Homer; The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
9. Lay,
M. G., James E. Vance Jr.; Ways of the World: A History of the World’s Roads and of the Vehicles That Used Them, Rutgers University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8135-2691-4.
10. Miller, John F.; Strauss Clay, Jenny (2019). Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-877734-2.
11. Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William
Heinemann Ltd. 1918. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
12. Tripp, Edward, Crowell’s Handbook of Classical Mythology, Thomas Y. Crowell Co; First edition (June 1970). ISBN 069022608X.
Photo credit:’]