• Europe[edit] Greece[edit] Main article: Greek historiography Further information: Ancient Greek literature Reproduction of part of a tenth-century copy of Thucydides’s History
    of the Peloponnesian War The earliest known systematic historical thought and methodologies emerged in ancient Greece and wider Greek world, a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the
    Mediterranean region.

  • According to 20th-century historian Richard Hofstadter:[59] The historians of the nineteenth century worked under the pressure of two internal tensions: on one side there
    was the constant demand of society—whether through the nationstate, the church, or some special group or class interest—for memory mixed with myth, for the historical tale that would strengthen group loyalties or confirm national pride; and
    against this there were the demands of critical method, and even, after a time, the goal of writing “scientific” history.

  • The now lost history of Alexander’s campaigns by the diadoch Ptolemy I (367–283 BC) may represent the first historical work composed by a ruler.

  • [32] China[edit] The Shitong, published around 710 by the Tang Chinese historian Liu Zhiji (661–721), was the first work to provide an outline of the entire tradition of Chinese
    historiography up to that point, and the first comprehensive work on historical criticism, arguing that historians should be skeptical of primary sources, rely on systematically gathered evidence, and should not treat previous scholars with
    undue deference.

  • [15] Middle Ages to Renaissance[edit] Christendom[edit] See also: Christendom, Hagiography, Medieval literature, Medieval ecclesiastic historiography, and Ethiopian historiography
    A page of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People Christian historical writing arguably begins with the narrative sections of the New Testament, particularly Luke-Acts, which is the primary source for the Apostolic Age, though
    its historical reliability is disputed.

  • [19] An example of this type of writing is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which was the work of several different writers: it was started during the reign of Alfred the Great
    in the late 9th century, but one copy was still being updated in 1154.

  • Autograph writing of Ibn Khaldun, pioneer of historiography, cultural history, and the philosophy of history Islamic world[edit] See also: Historiography of early Islam, Muqaddimah,
    and Muslim historians Muslim historical writings first began to develop in the 7th century, with the reconstruction of the Prophet Muhammad’s life in the centuries following his death.

  • In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, but this style tended to hamper the analysis of events
    and causes.

  • Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature
    and science, as well.

  • The tradition of logography in Archaic Greece preceded the full narrative form of historiography, in which logographers such as Hecataeus of Miletus provided prose compilations
    about places in geography and peoples in an early form of cultural anthropology, as well as speeches used in courts of law.

  • While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder (234–149 BC), was written in Latin, in a conscious effort
    to counteract Greek cultural influence.

  • “[7] History Antiquity[edit] Further information: Ancient history, Prehistory, Protohistory, and Written history Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need,
    and the “telling of history” has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.

  • Scholars discuss historiography by topic — the historiography of the United Kingdom, of WWII, of the pre-Columbian Americas, of early Islam, and of China — and different approaches
    to the work and the genres of history, such as political history and social history.

  • Bust of Thucydides, Hellenistic copy of a 4th-century BC work The generation following Herodotus witnessed a spate of local histories of the individual city-states (poleis),
    written by the first of the local historians who employed the written archives of city and sanctuary.

  • Historiography was more recently defined as “the study of the way history has been and is written—the history of historical writing”, which means that, “When you study ‘historiography’
    you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians.

  • During the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, historiography in the Western world was shaped and developed by figures such as Voltaire, David Hume, and Edward Gibbon, who
    among others set the foundations for the modern discipline.

  • [58] 19th century[edit] Japanese print depicting Thomas Carlyle’s horror at the burning of his manuscript The French Revolution: A History The tumultuous events surrounding
    the French Revolution inspired much of the historiography and analysis of the early 19th century.

  • This established the notion of using dynastic boundaries as start- and end-points, and most later Chinese histories would focus on a single dynasty or group of dynasties.

  • It is the one English history which may be regarded as definitive.

  • It reduced the original’s 249 chapters to just 59, and for the rest of imperial Chinese history would be the first history book most people ever read.

  • Though works such as the 13th century Kebra Nagast blended Christian mythology with historical events in its narrative, the first proper biographical chronicle on an Emperor
    of Ethiopia was made for Amda Seyon I (r. 1314–1344), depicted as a Christian savior of his nation in conflicts with the Islamic Ifat Sultanate.

  • By contrast, the term “historiography” is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events.

  • This work is considered much more accessible than the “Official Histories” for the Six dynasties, Tang dynasty, and Five Dynasties, and in practice superseded those works
    in the mind of the general reader.

  • [27] Historians of the medieval Islamic world also developed an interest in world history.

  • For example, Christian writers often included summaries of important historical events prior to the period covered by the work.

  • In this genre a history opens with a chronological outline of court affairs, and then continues with detailed biographies of prominent people who lived during the period in

  • These included Gregory of Tours and more successfully Bede, who wrote both secular and ecclesiastical history and who is known for writing the Ecclesiastical History of the
    English People.

  • Whereas Sima’s had been a universal history from the beginning of time down to the time of writing, his successor Ban Gu wrote an annals-biography history limiting its coverage
    to only the Western Han dynasty, the Book of Han (96 AD).

  • His work superseded the older style of the Spring and Autumn Annals, compiled in the 5th century BC, the Bamboo Annals, the Classic of History, and other court and dynastic
    annals that recorded history in a chronological form that abstained from analysis and focused on moralistic teaching.

  • This has been the burden of historians in the accumulation of data and the development of theories that gave historians many aspects of Philippine history that were left unexplained.

  • He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political

  • Historiography is the study of the methods used by historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension, the term historiography is any body of historical
    work on a particular subject.

  • In this limited sense, “ancient history” begins with the written history of early historiography in Classical Antiquity, established in 5th century BC Classical Greece.

  • [52] He also argued that the quest for liberty was the highest standard for judging the past, and concluded that after considerable fluctuation, England at the time of his
    writing had achieved “the most entire system of liberty, that was ever known amongst mankind”.

  • [8] The earliest known fully narrative critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484–425 BC) who became known as the “father of

  • [8] However, most historical writers in these early civilizations were not known by name, and their works usually did not contain narrative structures or detailed analysis.

  • [42] The pre-colonial Philippines widely used the abugida system in writing and seals on documents, though it was for communication and no recorded writings of early literature
    or history.

  • The central role of the Bible in Christianity is reflected in the preference of Christian historians for written sources, compared to the classical historians’ preference
    for oral sources and is also reflected in the inclusion of politically unimportant people.

  • [11] Biography, although popular throughout antiquity, was introduced as a branch of history by the works of Plutarch (c. 45 – 125 AD) and Suetonius (c. 69 – after 130 AD)
    who described the deeds and characters of ancient personalities, stressing their human side.

  • His short biographies of leading scientists explored the process of scientific change and he developed new ways of seeing scientists in the context of their times by looking
    at how they interacted with society and each other—he paid special attention to Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton and William Harvey.

  • Voltaire described the history of certain ages that he considered important, rather than describing events in chronological order.

  • [31] East Asia[edit] Japan[edit] Main article: Historiography of Japan Further information: Japanese literature The earliest works of history produced in Japan were the Rikkokushi
    (Six National Histories), a corpus of six national histories covering the history of Japan from its mythological beginnings until the 9th century.

  • During the Middle Ages, medieval historiography included the works of chronicles in medieval Europe, the Ethiopian Empire in the Horn of Africa, Islamic histories by Muslim
    historians, and the Korean and Japanese historical writings based on the existing Chinese model.

  • [8] Although Herodotus’ overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he also attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events.

  • [60] Carlyle’s style of historical writing stressed the immediacy of action, often using the present tense.

  • They wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers.

  • [8] He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon (c. 431 – 355 BC) introduced autobiographical elements
    and biographical character studies in his Anabasis.

  • [25] While royal biographies existed for individual Ethiopian emperors authored by court historians who were also clerical scholars within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the
    reigns of Iyasu II (r. 1730–1755) and Iyoas I (r. 1755–1769) were the first to be included in larger general dynastic histories.

  • [8] His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history.

  • Two early figures stand out: Hippias of Elis, who produced the lists of winners in the Olympic Games that provided the basic chronological framework as long as the pagan classical
    tradition lasted, and Hellanicus of Lesbos, who compiled more than two dozen histories from civic records, all of them now lost.

  • This can be seen in the extensive inclusion of written sources in the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea around 324 and in the subjects it covers.

  • Rome[edit] Main article: Roman historiography Further information: Latin literature The Roman bust of historian Cato the Elder The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, writing
    at first in Greek, but eventually chronicling their history in a freshly non-Greek language.

  • [16] The growth of Christianity and its enhanced status in the Roman Empire after Constantine I (see State church of the Roman Empire) led to the development of a distinct
    Christian historiography, influenced by both Christian theology and the nature of the Christian Bible, encompassing new areas of study and views of history.

  • Christian historians also focused on development of religion and society.

  • [26] During the Renaissance, history was written about states or nations.

  • The latter work is now lost.

  • In the 19th-century historical studies became professionalized at universities and research centers along with a belief that history was like a science.

  • The Roman historian Sallust (86–35 BC) sought to analyze and document what he viewed as the decline of the Republican Roman state and its virtues, highlighted in his respective
    narrative accounts of the Catilinarian conspiracy and the Jugurthine War.

  • The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties — such as to their nation state — remains a debated question.

  • He also explored the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras.

  • Strabo (63 BC – c. 24 AD) was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places
    known to his era.

  • [5] Since the 1980s there has been a special interest in the memories and commemoration of past events—the histories as remembered and presented for popular celebration.

  • The first tentative beginnings of a specifically Christian historiography can be seen in Clement of Alexandria in the second century.

  • Nineteenth century historiography, especially among American historians, featured conflicting viewpoints that represented the times.

  • [18] Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages.

  • [20] While earlier pagan rulers of the Kingdom of Aksum produced autobiographical style epigraphic texts in locations spanning Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Sudan and in either Greek
    or the native Ge’ez script,[21] the 4th century AD Ezana Stone commemorating Ezana of Axum’s conquest of the Kingdom of Kush in Nubia also emphasized his conversion to Christianity (the first indigenous African head of state to do so).

  • [3] The research interests of historians change over time, and there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic, economic, and political history toward newer approaches,
    especially social and cultural studies.

  • [8] In 1084 the Song dynasty official Sima Guang completed the Zizhi Tongjian (Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government), which laid out the entire history of China from
    the beginning of the Warring States period (403 BC) to the end of the Five Dynasties period (959) in chronological annals form, rather than in the traditional annals-biography form.

  • Quantification and new approaches to history[edit] Main articles: Social history and Political history § United States: The new political history Social history, sometimes
    called the “new social history”, is a broad branch that studies the experiences of ordinary people in the past.

  • [156] Chicago historian William H. McNeill wrote The Rise of the West (1965) to show how the separate civilizations of Eurasia interacted from the very beginning of their
    history, borrowing critical skills from one another, and thus precipitating still further change as adjustment between traditional old and borrowed new knowledge and practice became necessary.

  • These authors, the former a medieval historian and the latter an early modernist, quickly became associated with the distinctive Annales approach, which combined geography,
    history, and the sociological approaches of the Année Sociologique (many members of which were their colleagues at Strasbourg) to produce an approach which rejected the predominant emphasis on politics, diplomacy and war of many 19th and early
    20th-century historians as spearheaded by historians whom Febvre called Les Sorbonnistes.

  • [94] For early modern Mexican history, the work of Marc Bloch’s student François Chevalier on the formation of landed estates (haciendas) from the sixteenth century to the
    seventeenth had a major impact on Mexican history and historiography,[95] setting off an important debate about whether landed estates were basically feudal or capitalistic.

  • The goal of the Annales was to undo the work of the Sorbonnistes, to turn French historians away from the narrowly political and diplomatic toward the new vistas in social
    and economic history.

  • [105] British debates[edit] Main article: Historiography of the United Kingdom Marxist historian E. H. Carr developed a controversial theory of history in his 1961 book What
    Is History?, which proved to be one of the most influential books ever written on the subject.

  • [120] Progressive historians[edit] Main article: Progressive historians The Progressive historians were a group of 20th century historians of the United States associated
    with a historiographical tradition that embraced an economic interpretation of American history.

  • A circle of historians inside the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) formed in 1946 and became a highly influential cluster of British Marxist historians, who contributed
    to history from below and class structure in early capitalist society.

  • [98] Noting the political upheavals in Europe and especially in France in 1968, Eric Hobsbawm argued that “in France the virtual hegemony of Braudelian history and the Annales
    came to an end after 1968, and the international influence of the journal dropped steeply.

  • To defenders of history as they knew it, the discipline was in crisis, and the pursuit of the new was a major cause.

  • Another treatise of Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, was salient in creating the socialist impetus in British politics from then on, e.g.

  • He opened the gates for a generation of labor historians, such as David Montgomery and Herbert Gutman, who made similar studies of the American working classes.

  • [168][169] British historian Heather Jones argues that the historiography of the First World War in recent years has been reinvigorated by the cultural turn.

  • [148] Most attempt full coverage of Spanish America and Brazil from the conquest to the modern era, focusing on institutional, political, social and economic history.

  • [125] New Left history[edit] Consensus history was rejected by New Left viewpoints that attracted a younger generation of radical historians in the 1960s.

  • [109] At the same time, Carr argued that the study of the facts may lead the historian to change his or her views.

  • The French Annales school radically changed the focus of historical research in France during the 20th century by stressing long-term social history, rather than political
    or diplomatic themes.

  • While some members of the group (most notably Christopher Hill and E. P. Thompson) left the CPGB after the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the common points of British Marxist
    historiography continued in their works.

  • In 1979, at a time when the new Social History was demanding a social-science model of analysis, Stone detected a move back toward the narrative.

  • [104] Daniel R. Meister argues that: Biography Studies is emerging as an independent discipline, especially in the Netherlands.

  • France: Annales school[edit] Main article: Annales school The 20th century saw the creation of a huge variety of historiographical approaches; one was Marc Bloch’s focus on
    social history rather than traditional political history.

  • The New Political History saw the application of social history methods to politics, as the focus shifted from politicians and legislation to voters and elections.

  • Arnold J. Toynbee’s ten-volume A Study of History, took an approach that was widely discussed in the 1930s and 1940s.

  • American history became a topic later in the 19th century.

  • As a result, quantification remained central to demographic studies, but slipped behind in political and social history as traditional narrative approaches made a comeback.

  • Friedrich Engels wrote The Peasant War in Germany, which analysed social warfare in early Protestant Germany in terms of emerging capitalist classes.

  • Historians of Latin America have contributed to various types of historical writing, but one major, innovative development in Spanish American history is the emergence of
    ethnohistory, the history of indigenous peoples, especially in Mexico based on alphabetic sources in Spanish or in indigenous languages.

  • [172] Scholarly journals The historical journal, a forum where academic historians could exchange ideas and publish newly discovered information, came into being in the 19th

  • [96][97] An eminent member of this school, Georges Duby, described his approach to history as one that relegated the sensational to the sidelines and was reluctant to give
    a simple accounting of events, but strived on the contrary to pose and solve problems and, neglecting surface disturbances, to observe the long and medium-term evolution of economy, society and civilisation.

  • Harvey J. Graff says: The case against the new mixed and confused a lengthy list of ingredients, including the following: history’s supposed loss of identity and humanity
    in the stain of social science, the fear of subordinating quality to quantity, conceptual and technical fallacies, violation of the literary character and biographical base of “good” history (rhetorical and aesthetic concern), loss of audiences,
    derogation of history rooted in “great men” and “great events”, trivialization in general, a hodgepodge of ideological objections from all directions, and a fear that new historians were reaping research funds that might otherwise come to
    their detractors.

  • [123][124] In 1948 Hofstadter made a compelling statement of the consensus model of the U.S. political tradition: The fierceness of the political struggles has often been
    misleading: for the range of vision embraced by the primary contestants in the major parties has always been bounded by the horizons of property and enterprise.

  • E. P. Thompson pioneered the study of history from below in his work, The Making of the English Working Class, published in 1963.

  • The malleability of culture suggest to me that in order to understand its effect on policy, one needs also to study the dynamics of political economy, the evolution of the
    international system, and the roles of technology and communication, among many other variables.

  • For the early modern period, the emergence of Atlantic history, based on comparisons and linkages of Europe, the Americas, and Africa from 1450 to 1850 that developed as a
    field in its own right has integrated early modern Latin American history into a larger framework.

  • The basic thematic approach of this field was to analyse two major focal points: integration—how processes of world history have drawn people of the world together, and difference—how
    patterns of world history reveal the diversity of the human experience.

  • Thompson’s work was also significant because of the way he defined “class”.

  • General works on Latin American history have appeared since the 1950s, when the teaching of Latin American history expanded in U.S. universities and colleges.

  • [161] Memory studies[edit] See also: Social memory and Memory studies in historical Jesus research Memory studies is a new field, focused on how nations and groups (and historians)
    construct and select their memories of the past in order to celebrate (or denounce) key features, thus making a statement of their current values and beliefs.

  • [155] World history[edit] World history, as a distinct field of historical study, emerged as an independent academic field in the 1980s.

  • [129][130] It had major growth as a field in the 1960s and 1970s, and still is well represented in history departments.

  • [184][185] Approaches How a historian approaches historical events is one of the most important decisions within historiography.

  • [162][163] Historians have played a central role in shaping the memories of the past as their work is diffused through popular history books and school textbooks.

  • He then discusses the dramatic effect of Western civilization on others in the past 500 years of history.

  • [106] He presented a middle-of-the-road position between the empirical or (Rankean) view of history and R. G. Collingwood’s idealism, and rejected the empirical view of the
    historian’s work being an accretion of “facts” that they have at their disposal as nonsense.

  • Biography[edit] Further information: Biography Biography has been a major form of historiography since the days when Plutarch wrote the parallel lives of great Roman and Greek

  • Nicolas Barker argues that “more and more biographies command an ever larger readership”, as he speculates that biography has come “to express the spirit of our age”.

  • This Dutch School of biography is moving biography studies away from the less scholarly life writing tradition and towards history by encouraging its practitioners to utilize
    an approach adapted from microhistory.

  • 20th century[edit] See also: Category:Historiography by country 20th-century historiography in major countries is characterized by a move to universities and academic research

  • The term for these areas of interaction differ from one world historian to another and include world-system and ecumene.

  • The second era of the school was led by Fernand Braudel and was very influential throughout the 1960s and 1970s, especially for his work on the Mediterranean region in the
    era of Philip II of Spain.

  • [103] His books include Puritanism and Revolution (1958), Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution (1965 and revised in 1996), The Century of Revolution (1961), AntiChrist
    in 17th-century England (1971), The World Turned Upside Down (1972) and many others.

  • It focused on the forgotten history of the first working-class political left in the world in the late-18th and early-19th centuries.

  • [107][108] For this reason, Carr argued that Leopold von Ranke’s famous dictum (show what actually happened) was wrong because it presumed that the “facts” influenced what
    the historian wrote, rather than the historian choosing what “facts of the past” they intended to turn into “historical facts”.

  • The early journals were similar to those for the physical sciences, and were seen as a means for history to become more professional.

  • The second, and related, trend consistently considered a threshold of modern history that saw Latin America in the forefront is the development of nation-states.

  • Braudel developed the idea, often associated with Annalistes, of different modes of historical time: (motionless history) of historical geography, the history of social, political
    and economic structures, and the history of men and events, in the context of their structures.

  • [139] The historiography of the field has been more fragmented than unified, with historians of Spanish America and Brazil generally remaining in separate spheres.

  • [133] Meanwhile, “new” economic history became well-established.

  • Every historian uses one (or more) historiographical traditions, for example Marxist, Annales school, “total history”, or political history.

  • However much at odds on specific issues, the major political traditions have shared a belief in the rights of property, the philosophy of economic individualism, the value
    of competition; they have accepted the economic virtues of capitalist culture as necessary qualities of man.

  • Latin America’s importance to world history is notable but often overlooked.

  • Elton criticized Carr for his “whimsical” distinction between the “historical facts” and the “facts of the past”, arguing that it reflected “…an extraordinarily arrogant
    attitude both to the past and to the place of the historian studying it”.

  • U.S. approaches[edit] Main article: Historiography of the United States Classical and European history was part of the 19th-century grammar curriculum.

  • [136] Recently, as the newest approach in economic history “new history of capitalism” appeared.

  • As a traditionalist, he placed great emphasis on the role of individuals in history instead of abstract, impersonal forces.

  • In his preface to this book, Thompson set out his approach to writing history from below: I am seeking to rescue the poor stockinger, the Luddite cropper, the “obsolete” hand-loom
    weaver, the “Utopian” artisan, and even the deluded follower of Joanna Southcott, from the enormous condescension of posterity.


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(1983). “Mexican Rural History Since Chevalier: The Historiography of the Colonial Hacienda”. Latin American Research Review. 18 (3): 5–62. doi:10.1017/S0023879100021026. S2CID 253142396.
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the Horror of Discontinuity”. History Workshop Journal. 57: 161–174. CiteSeerX doi:10.1093/hwj/57.1.161. ISSN 1363-3554. S2CID 170657656. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017. Only Ariès was a true
conservative—indeed a royalist.
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of his first and most influential critics was the British philosopher, Michael Oakeshott, ‘What is History?’ (1961), in idem, What is History and Other Essays (Exeter, 2004), 325.
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Peter Novick, That noble dream: The ‘objectivity question’ and the American historical profession (Cambridge University Press, 1988) pp. 320–60 ISBN 978-0521357456
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Made it. Knopf. pp. xxxvi–xxxvii. ISBN 978-0307809667.
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dream: The “objectivity question” and the American historical profession (1988) pp. 415–68 ISBN 978-0521357456
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Bailyn, Atlantic History: Concept and Contours. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press 2005. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjz8180 The development of the field antedates this publication.
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“The Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies”. 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
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America 9th edition. New York: Oxford University Press 2013. ISBN 978-0190674670
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Did We Miss the Cultural Turn?”. History Compass. 12 (2): 178–186. doi:10.1111/hic3.12142.
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S. Berger and C. Lorenz, eds., Nationalizing the Past: Historians as Nation Builders in Modern Europe (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010). ISBN 978-0521294805
o ^ Translated as On collective memory (University of Chicago Press, 1992) ISBN 978-0226115962
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Richard Jensen, “‘No Irish Need Apply’: A Myth of Victimization”, Journal of Social History (2002) 36#2 pp. 405–429 online Archived 2005-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
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o ^ Case studies are examined in Jeffrey K. Olick, et al. eds. The Collective Memory Reader (2011) excerpt
and text search
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in Memory Studies”, History Compass 11/6 (2013): 458–473 online Archived 2015-09-21 at the Wayback Machine.
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and Development of Scholarly Historical Periodicals (1986) pp. 20–39 ISBN 978-0817351564
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o ^ Jump up to:a b Stieg, The Origin and Development
of Scholarly Historical Periodicals (1986) ch 4 ISBN 978-0817351564
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that history and metahistory are entirely separate: “Metahistory is continually present as the background of history. That which is metahistorical breaks up both the cosmic endless sequence of events and…”
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p. 118 “Sometimes the term Metahistory is also used. But it implies going beyond, a transcendence of history and in this sense it is equated with metaphysics and theology. Sometimes historical time is distinguished from metahistorical eternity.”

Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/blumenbiene/14145188939/’]