Middle Ages Byzantine Athens Further information: Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greece, and Hellas (theme) The city was threatened by Saracen raids in the 8th–9th
centuries—in 896, Athens was raided and possibly occupied for a short period, an event which left some archaeological remains and elements of Arabic ornamentation in contemporary buildings—but there is also evidence of a mosque existing
in the city at the time.
 The Macedonian astronomer Andronicus of Cyrrhus subsequently designed the Tower of the Winds for the Roman forum, which mostly survives to the present day Under Roman
rule, Athens was given the status of a free city because of its widely admired schools.
Late Antiquity In the early 4th century AD, the eastern Roman empire began to be governed from Constantinople, and with the construction and expansion of the imperial city,
many of Athens’s works of art were taken by the emperors to adorn it.
Almost all of the most important Middle Byzantine churches in and around Athens were built during these two centuries, and this reflects the growth of the town in general.
Along with rest of Byzantine Greece, Athens was part of the series of feudal fiefs, similar to the Crusader states established in Syria and on Cyprus after the First Crusade.
Athens thus came under Roman rule.
Following a period of sharp decline under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Athens re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent and self-governing Greek
In this dialogue, a story is told about information given to Athenian leader Solon from Egyptian priests of the goddess Neith while he visited Egypt, according to which a
well advanced Athenian state was established 9,000 years prior to his time that preceded Egypt’s oldest kingdom by a thousand years.
Roman Athens Main articles: Roman Greece and Roman Empire The ruins of the Roman Agora, the second commercial centre of ancient Athens During the First Mithridatic War,
Athens was ruled by Aristion, a tyrant installed by Mithridates the Great.
Situated in southern Europe, Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the first millennium BC, and its cultural achievements during the 5th century BC laid the
foundations of Western civilization.
 Subsequently, the conquests of Alexander the Great widened Greek horizons and made the traditional Greek city state obsolete.
 The emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) banned the teaching of philosophy by pagans in 529, an event whose impact on the city is much debated, but is generally taken
to mark the end of the ancient history of Athens.
 In the great dispute over Byzantine Iconoclasm, Athens is commonly held to have supported the iconophile position, chiefly due to the role played by Empress Irene of
Athens in the ending of the first period of Iconoclasm at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
But then the Greek cities (including Athens and Sparta) turned against Thebes, whose dominance was stopped at the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC) with the death of its military-genius
In the later Roman period, Athens was ruled by the emperors continuing until the 13th century, its citizens identifying themselves as citizens of the Roman Empire (“Rhomaioi”).
Founding myths According to legend, Athens was formerly ruled by kings, a situation which may have continued up until the 9th century BC.
 This position may well have resulted from its central location in the Greek world, its secure stronghold on the Acropolis and its access to the sea, which gave it a natural
advantage over inland rivals such as Thebes and Sparta.
Ancient Athens, in the first millennium BC, occupied a very small area compared to the sprawling metropolis of modern Greece.
 Geographical setting There is evidence that the site on which the Acropolis (‘high city’) stands was first inhabited in the Neolithic period, perhaps as a defensible settlement,
around the end of the fourth millennium BC or a little later.
Classical Athens Main article: Classical Athens Further information: Classical Greece Roman statuette of Athena, copy of the Phidias statue, created for the Parthenon
in 447 BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens Early Athenian military history and Persian era Main articles: Ionian Revolt and Graeco-Persian Wars Prior to the rise of Athens, Sparta considered itself to be the leader (or hegemon)
of the Greeks.
Athens and the rise of Macedon Main article: Rise of Macedon By the mid-4th century BC, however, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian
The conflict was a drawn out one that saw Sparta control the land while Athens was dominant at sea, however the disastrous Sicilian Expedition severely weakened Athens and
the war eventually ended in an Athenian defeat following the Battle of Aegospotami which ended Athenian naval supremacy.
Athens remained a wealthy city with a brilliant cultural life, but ceased to be a leading power.
 The sack of the city by the Herules in 267 and by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I (r. 395–410) in 396, however, dealt a heavy blow to the city’s fabric and fortunes,
and Athens was henceforth confined to a small fortified area that embraced a fraction of the ancient city.
The Florentines had to dispute the city with the Republic of Venice, but they ultimately emerged victorious after seven years of Venetian rule (1395–1402).
The new system laid the foundations for what eventually became Athenian democracy, but in the short-term it failed to quell class conflict and after twenty years of unrest
the popular party, led by Peisistratos, seized power.
 However, Athens, like many other Bronze Age settlements, went into economic decline for around 150 years following this.
During Michel Fourmont’s visit in the city in the 1720s, he witnessed much construction going on, and by the time the Athenian teacher Ioannis Benizelos wrote an account of
the city’s affairs in the 1770s, Athens was once again enjoying some prosperity, so that, according to Benizelos, it “could be cited as an example to the other cities of Greece”.
It did not become Greek in government again until the 19th century.
This process of synoikismos – the bringing together into one home – created the largest and wealthiest state on the Greek mainland, but it also created a larger class of people
excluded from political life by the nobility.
After Thebes became a possession of the Latin dukes, which were of the Burgundian family called De la Roche, it replaced Athens as the capital and seat of government, although
Athens remained the most influential ecclesiastical centre in the duchy and site of a prime fortress.
The leading statesman of the mid-fifth century BC was Pericles, who used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments
of classical Athens.
Unlike other Mycenaean centers, such as Mycenae and Pylos, it is unclear whether Athens suffered destruction in about 1200 BC, an event traditionally attributed to a Dorian
invasion (though now commonly attributed to a systems collapse, part of the Late Bronze Age collapse).
 Under Ottoman rule, Athens was denuded of any importance and its population severely declined, leaving it as a “small country town” (Franz Babinger).
Peloponnesian War Main article: Peloponnesian War The resentment felt by other cities at the hegemony of Athens led to the Peloponnesian War, which began in 431 BC and
pitted Athens and its increasingly rebellious overseas empire against a coalition of land-based states led by Sparta.
Peisistratos was in fact a very popular ruler, who made Athens wealthy, powerful, and a centre of culture.
In the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), Philip II’s armies defeated an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes, forcing them into a confederation
and effectively limiting Athenian independence.
Classical period During the 1st millennium BC, Athens succeeded in bringing the other towns of Attica under its rule.
Iron Age burials, in the Kerameikos and other locations, are often richly provided for and demonstrate that from 900 BC onwards Athens was one of the leading centres of trade
and prosperity in the region; as were Lefkandi in Euboea and Knossos in Crete.
Two other major religious sites, the Temple of Hephaestus (which is still largely intact) and the Temple of Olympian Zeus or Olympeion (once the largest temple in mainland
Greece but now in ruins) also lay within the city walls.
As the empire became increasingly anti-pagan, Athens became a provincial town and experienced fluctuating fortunes.
Further information: Duchy of Athens and Frankokratia From 1204 until 1458, Athens was ruled by Latins in three separate periods, following the Crusades.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for perhaps 5,000 years.
However, this medieval prosperity was not to last.
 In 1759 the new pasha, a native Muslim, destroyed one of the pillars of the Temple of Olympian Zeus to provide material for a fifth mosque for the city—an illegal act,
as the temple was considered the Sultan’s property.
In 88–85 BC, most Athenian fortifications and homes were leveled by the Roman general Sulla after the Siege of Athens and Piraeus, although many civic buildings and monuments
were left intact.
The Turkish community numbered several families established in the city since the Ottoman conquest; and their relations with their Christian neighbours were friendlier than
elsewhere, as they had assimilated
In addition, no evidence exists of any possible cultural or other ties between Egypt and any part of present-day Greece at such early a date.
The city of Athens was twice captured and sacked by the Persians within one year after Thermopylae.
The poorest class, the Thetai, (Ancient Greek ) who formed the majority of the population, received political rights for the first time and were able to vote in the Ecclesia
(Later the Southern Italian city of Paestum was founded under the name of Poseidonia at about 600 BC.)
Corinthian War and the Second Athenian League Sparta’s former allies soon turned against her, due to her imperialist policy, and soon Athens’ former enemies Thebes and
Corinth had become her allies; they fought with Athens and Argos against Sparta in the indecisive Corinthian War (395 – 387 BC).
The hill of the Pnyx, where the Athenian Assembly met, lay at the western end of the city.
Early modern period Ottoman Athens Leonardos Philaras (c. 1595–1673) was a Greek scholar, born in Athens, and an early supporter of Greek liberation.
During the early Middle Ages, the city experienced a decline, then recovered under the later Byzantine Empire and was relatively prosperous during the period of the Crusades
(12th and 13th centuries), benefiting from Italian trade.
 Athens then took the war to Asia Minor.
The period following the death of Alexander in 323 BC is known as Hellenistic Greece.
One of the most important religious sites in ancient Athens was the Temple of Athena, known today as the Parthenon, which stood on top of the Acropolis, where its evocative
ruins still stand.
However, after losing the fleet one year prior, Polyperchon had to flee Macedon when in 316 BC Cassander secured control of Athens.
 The first Ottoman attack on Athens, which involved a short-lived occupation of the town, came in 1397, under the Ottoman generals Yaqub Pasha and Timurtash.
This system remained remarkably stable and, with a few brief interruptions, it remained in place for 170 years, until Philip II of Macedon defeated Athens and Thebes at the
Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC.
Athens and the rise of the Roman empire After the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) Rome asserted its hegemony over Magna Graecia and became increasingly involved in Greece and
the Balkans peninsula.
Antiquity Origins and early history Athens has been inhabited from Neolithic times, possibly from the end of the fourth millennium BC, or over 5,000 years.
Hellenistic Athens Further information: Hellenistic Greece, Lamian War, Phocion, Demetrius of Phalerum, Chremonidean War, Second Macedonian War, and First Mithridatic
War Shortly after the death of Alexander the Great, Antipater and Craterus became joint generals of Greece and Macedonia.
Athenian coup of 411 BC Main article: Athenian coup of 411 BC The Karyatides statues of the Erechtheion, constructed 421–406 BC on the Acropolis Due to its poor handling
of the war, the democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown by a coup in 411 BC; however, it was quickly restored.
 Its Greek population possessed a considerable degree of self-government, under a council of primates composed of the leading aristocratic families, along with the city’s
A sacred olive tree said to be the one created by the goddess was still kept on the Acropolis at the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD).
Artists and philosophers Main articles: Greek philosophy and Greek theatre See also: Attic Greek The modern Academy of Athens, with Apollo and Athena on their columns,
and Socrates and Plato seated in front The period from the end of the Persian Wars to the Macedonian conquest marked the zenith of Athens as a center of literature, philosophy, and the arts.
 This story is not supported by any scholarly evidence, as no Athenian state is known to have existed during the 10th millennium BC.
 Invasion of the empire by the Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and the ensuing civil wars, largely passed the region by and Athens continued its provincial
From later accounts, it is believed that these kings stood at the head of a land-owning aristocracy known as the Eupatridae (the ‘well-born’), whose instrument of government
was a Council which met on the Hill of Ares, called the Areopagus and appointed the chief city officials, the archons and the polemarch (commander-in-chief).
The Greeks saw this as a symbol that Athena still had her mark there on the city.
[‘o “Name of Athena”. greeka.com.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Herodotus, The Histories, 8.55
o ^ Bibliotheca, 3.14
o ^ Plutarch, Themistocles Them. 19
o ^ Instead of a spring, Ovid says Poseidon offered a horse.
o ^ [Pausa%3D1%3Achapter%3D27%3Asection%3D2
o ^ Plato, Cratylus, Plat. Crat. 407b
o ^ Schneider, Lambert & Christoph Hoecker (2001). Die Akropolis von Athen, Darmstadt, pp. 62–63.
o ^ Immerwahr, S. (1971). The Athenian Agora XII: the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Princeton.
Jump up to:a b Iakovides, S. (1962). E mykenaïke akropolis ton Athenon. Athens.
o ^ Broneer, Oscar (1939). “A Mycenaean Fountain on the Athenian Acropolis”, Hesperia VIII.
o ^ Osborne, R. (1996, 2009). Greece in the Making 1200 – 479 BC.
Garvey, Tom (2008). “Plato’s Atlantis Story: A Prose Hymn to Athena”. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, vol. 48, pp. 381-392.
o ^ “Roman aqueducts: Athens (Greece)”. romanaqueducts.info.
o ^ Lewis, John David (25 January 2010). Nothing Less
than Victory: Decisive Wars and the Lessons of History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400834303. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
o ^ Salomon, Marilyn J. (1974). Great Cities of the World 3: Next Stop… Athens. The Symphonette Press. p. 16.
Salomon, Marilyn J. (1974). Great Cities of the World 3: Next Stop… Athens. The Symphonette Press. p. 19.
o ^ Worthinton, Ian (2001). Dinarchus, Hyperides & Lycurgus. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. pp. 80–86. ISBN 0-292-79143-7.
Henderson, J. (1993). Comic Hero versus Political Elite, pp. 307–19 in Sommerstein, A. H.; S. Halliwell; J. Henderson; B. Zimmerman, eds. (1993). Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis. Bari: Levante Editori. ISBN 88-7949-026-5.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Worthington,
Ian (2021). Athens after empire : a history from Alexander the Great to the Emperor Hadrian. New York, NY. ISBN 978-0-19-063399-8. OCLC 1157812352.
o ^ “Antipater”. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
o ^ “Craterus – Livius”. www.livius.org.
Retrieved 20 May 2021.
o ^ From Polis to Empire–The Ancient World, c. 800 B.C. – A.D. 500: A Biographical Dictionary (The Great Cultural Eras of the Western World): “Antipater (c.400-319 B.C) Antipater was a Macedonian nobleman who served Kings
Philip II and Alexander the Great”
o ^ Athenaeus, vi.272, xii.542; Aelian, Varia Historia, ix. 9; Polybius, xii.13.
o ^ Tung, Anthony (2001). Preserving the World’s Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York:
Three Rivers Press. pp. 256–260. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
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o ^ Travlos, John (1971). Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens. London: Thames and Hudson, passim
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b c d e f g h i j Tung, Anthony (2001). “The City of the Gods Besieged”. Preserving the World’s Great Cities:The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York: Three Rivers Press. pp. 260, 263, 265. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
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to:a b c d e f g Gregory, Timothy E.; Ševčenko, Nancy Patterson (1991). “Athens”. In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 221–223. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
o ^ Alan Cameron,
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o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Babinger, Franz (1986). “Atīna”.
The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 738–739. ISBN 90-04-08114-3.
o ^ Hutton, James (1946). The Greek anthology in France and in the Latin writers of the Netherlands to the year 1800 Volume 28. Cornell
University Press. p. 188. OCLC 3305912. LEONARD PHILARAS or VILLERET (c. 1595–1673) Philaras was born in Athens of good family and spent his childhood there. His youth was passed in Rome, where he was educated, and his manhood
o ^ Merry, Bruce (2004).
Encyclopedia of modern Greek literature. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 442. ISBN 0-313-30813-6. Leonardos Filaras (1595–1673) devoted much of his career to coaxing Western European intellectuals to support Greek liberation. Two letters from Milton
(1608–1674) attest Filaras’s patriiotic crusade.
o ^ Augustinos, Olga (2007). “Eastern Concubines, Western Mistresses: Prévost’s Histoire d’une Grecque moderne”. In Buturović, Amila; Schick, İrvin Cemil (eds.). Women in the Ottoman Balkans: Gender,
Culture and History. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84511-505-0.
o ^ “and (Dontas, The Acropolis and its Museum, 16)”. Ancient-greece.org. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
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William (1921). The Turkish restoration in Greece, 1718–1797. London and New York: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, The Macmillan Company.
o ^ Valeriano, Pierio; Gaisser, Julia Haig (1999). Pierio Valeriano on the ill fortune of learned
men: a Renaissance humanist and his world. University of Michigan Press. p. 281. ISBN 9780472110551. Demetrius Chalcondyles was a prominent Greek humanist. He taught Greek in Italy for over forty years.
o ^ “Demetrius Chalcondyles.”. Encyclopædia
Britannica. Retrieved 25 September 2009. Demetrius Chalcondyles published the first printed editions of Homer (1488), of Isocrates (1493), and of the Suda lexicon (1499), and a Greek grammar (Erotemata) in question-and-answer form.
o ^ “Laonicus
Chalcocondyles.”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Laonicus Chalcocondyles Byzantine historianal so spelled Laonicus Chalcondyles or Laonikos Chalkokondyles born c. 1423, Athens, Greece, Byzantine Empire [now in Greece] died 1490?
Chalcocondyles was a great admirer of Herodotus and roused the interest of contemporary Italian humanists in that ancient historian. He strove for objectivity and, in spite of some inaccuracies and the interpolation of far-fetched anecdotes, is one
of the most valuable of the later Greek historians.
o ^ Buhayer, Constantine (2006). Greece: a quick guide to customs & etiquette. Kuperard. p. 36. ISBN 1-85733-369-1. The Athenian politician and medical doctor Leonardos Philaras (1595–1673) was
an advisor to the French court, enjoying the patronage of Cardinal Richelieu
o ^ Parker, William Riley – Campbell, Gordon (1996). Milton: The life. Oxford University Press. pp. 418–419. ISBN 0-19-812889-4. The writer was a Greek, Leonard Philaras
(or Villere, as he was known in France), an able diplomat and scholar, ambassador to the French court from the Duke of Parma
o ^ Merry, Bruce (2004). Encyclopedia of modern Greek literature. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 442. ISBN 0-313-30813-6.
Leonardos Filaras (1595–1673) devoted much of his career to coaxing Western European intellectuals to support Greek liberation. Two letters from Milton (1608–1674) attest Filaras’s patriotic crusade.
o ^ Milton, John – Diekhoff, John Siemon (1965).
Milton on himself: Milton’s utterances upon himself and his works. Cohen & West. p. 267. OCLC 359509. Milton here refuses a request from Philaras for the assistance of his pen in the freeing of the Greeks from Turkish rule on the basis of his confidence
that only those people are slaves who deserve to be.
o ^ “World Gazetter City Pop:Athens”. world-gazetter.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007.
o ^ “World Gazetter Metro Pop:Athens”. world-gazetter.com. Archived from the original
on 1 October 2007.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c “Population of Greece”. General Secretariat Of National Statistical Service Of Greece. statistics.gr. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tusnelda/9159362388/’]