history of gardening


  • For example, a Taoist garden would avoid straight lines and use stone and water instead of trees, whereas Asian cities followed Confucian, geometric designs and North American
    parks typically feature trees and lawns.

  • While the British used nature outside the home to provide privacy, Chinese homes were compounds made of a number of buildings which all faced one or more courtyards or common

  • Individual monasteries might also have had a “green court”, a plot of grass and trees where horses could graze, as well as a cellarer’s garden or private gardens for obedientiaries,
    monks who held specific posts within the monastery.

  • Smaller gardens generally had being a kitchen garden as their first priority, as is still often the case.

  • “[6] From around 1,000 BC, the Assyrian kings developed a style of city garden incorporating a naturalistic layout, running water supplied from river headwaters, and exotic
    plants from their foreign campaigns.

  • The broad traditions that have dominated gardening since ancient times include those of the Ancient Near East, which became the Islamic garden, the Mediterranean, which produced
    the Roman garden, hugely influencing later European gardening, and the Chinese garden and its development on the Japanese garden.

  • However, in the New Kingdom they were often surrounded by walls and their purpose incorporated pleasure and beauty besides utility.

  • Temple gardens developed from the representation of a sacred grove; several distinct styles of royal garden are also known.

  • This garden is built according to an ancient garden form known as char bagh, and is one of the oldest surviving models of this form.

  • The ancient Egyptian garden would have looked different from a modern garden.

  • In the 18th century, the English landscape garden developed, apparently informal and natural, but requiring very large spaces, and by the end of the century dominated all
    Europe in the largest new gardens.

  • Manasollasa, a twelfth century text giving details on garden design, asserts that it should include rocks and raised mounds of summits, manicured with plants and trees of
    diverse varieties, artificial ponds, and flowing brooks.

  • Stepping stones in Kiyosumi Garden, in Fukagawa, Tokyo Traditional Chinese gardens are also more likely to treat the plants in a naturalistic way, while traditional Japanese
    gardens might feature plants sheared into mountain or cloud shapes.

  • The early history of gardening is largely entangled with the history of agriculture, with gardens that were mainly ornamental generally the preserve of the elite until quite
    recent times.

  • Unlike historical European gardens, which seemed carved or re-ordered from within their existing landscape, Persian gardens appeared as impossibilities.

  • The city garden reached its zenith with the palace design of Sennacherib (704–681 BC), whose water system stretched for 50 km into the hills, whose garden was higher and more
    ornate than any others, and who boasted of the complex technologies he deployed, calling his palace and garden “a wonder for all peoples”.

  • Arthashastra, sukraniti, and Kamandakanti mention public gardens which were situated outside the town and provided by the government where people would go and spend whole
    day in picnic, Panini mentions a kind of garden sport peculiar to eastern India (pracam kridayam), Salabhanjika was the activity of plucking sala flowers and spending the time in merry making.

  • Gardens in Indian subcontinent finds mentions in early literature, which mentions different types of gardens and method to build them.

  • Rather than any one particular horticultural technique employed, it is the variety of different purposes the monasteries had for their gardens that serves as testament to
    their sophistication.

  • However, the intended viewpoint of the gardens differs: Chinese gardens were intended to be viewed from within the garden and are intended as a setting for everyday life.

  • The Kama Sutra mentions details on house gardens and that a good wife should plant vegetables, bunches of sugarcane, clumps of the fig trees, mustard, parsley and fennel,
    various flowers like jasmine, rose and others likewise be planted and seats and arbours should be made and the middle of the garden should have a well, a tank or a pond, various other treatises also mention establishing lotus shaped baths,
    lakes, lotus-shaped seats, swings, roundabouts, Menageries.

  • Gardens in private homes and villas before the New Kingdom were mostly used for growing vegetables and located close to a canal or the river.

  • Rather than around the home, the Chinese valued natural spaces inside the compound, which is where the family socialized.

  • Indian gardens were also built around large water reservoirs or water tanks, which were also built along the river.

  • This contrasts with the handling of stone elements: in a Japanese garden, stepping stones are placed in groupings as part of the landscape, but in a Chinese garden, a particularly
    choice stone might even be placed on a pedestal in a prominent location so that it might be more easily appreciated.

  • As temples were representations of heaven and built as the actual home of the god, gardens were laid out according to the same principle.

  • The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are listed by classical Greek writers as one of the Seven Wonders of the World – places to see before you die.

  • At Ugarit (c. 1,400 BC), there was a stone water basin, not located centrally as in later Persian gardens, for the central feature was probably a tree (date, palm, or tamarisk).

  • Moreover, Chinese gardens often included a water feature, while Japanese gardens, set in a wetter climate, would often get by with the suggestion of water (such as sand or
    pebbles raked into a wave pattern).

  • Egyptian gardens[edit] See also: Gardens of Ancient Egypt Rectangular fishpond with ducks and lotus planted round with date palms and fruit trees, in a fresco from the Tomb
    of Nebamun, Thebes, 18th dynasty Gardens were much cherished in the Egyptian times and were kept both for secular purposes and attached to temple compounds.

  • The concept of the heavenly paradise was an enclosed garden style that gained popularity during that time and especially after the iconoclastic period (7th century) with the
    emphasis it placed on divine punishment and repentance.

  • The Persian style often attempts to integrate indoors with outdoors through the connection of a surrounding garden with an inner courtyard.

  • Rocks, water, bridges, and pavilions are among the most common features of scholar gardens for the wealthy classes, while courtyards, wells, and terra cotta fish tanks are
    common among the general population.

  • The open views and vistas so much favored by the garden builders of the Roman villas were replaced by garden walls and scenic views painted on the inside of these walls.

  • There are accounts of four kinds of gardens in Ancient India: udyan, paramadodvana, vrikshavatika, and nandanavana.

  • By this time, a separate horticultural tradition formed in China, which was transmitted to Japan, where it developed into aristocratic gardens featuring miniaturized and simulated
    natural landscapes centered on ponds, and the severe Zen garden form featured at temples.

  • Indian text Shilparatna (16th century AD) states that Pushpavatika (flower garden or public park) should be located in the northern portion of the town.

  • These literary sources worked as handbooks, promoting the concepts of walled gardens with plants arranged by type.

  • [7] No specific place has been identified, although there are many theories.

  • A miniature water garden is located to the west of the first water garden, consisting of several small pools and watercourses.

  • Another ancient tradition is of Persia: Darius the Great was said to have had a “paradise garden” and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were renowned as one of the Seven Wonders
    of the Ancient World.

  • Historians imagine the first enclosure was a type of barrier used for excluding animals and marauders, perhaps beginning in West Asia, thereafter spreading to South and East
    Asia, and westward into Greece, and Europe.

  • Bats, dragons, and other mystic creatures carved on wooden doors are also commonly found in Chinese gardens; these are seen as signs of luck and protection.

  • Medieval[edit] Main article: Medieval gardening Monasteries carried on a tradition of garden design and intense horticultural techniques during the medieval period in Europe.

  • This recently discovered smaller garden appears to have been built after the Kashyapan period, possibly between the 10th and 13th centuries.

  • Furthermore, Courtyards in the Chinese home reflected Taoist philosophies, where families would try to create abstractions of nature rather than recreations of it.

  • At Mari on the Middle Euphrates (c. 1,800 BC), one of the huge palace courtyards was called the Court of the Palms in contemporary written records.

  • Flowers like the iris, chrysanthemum, lily, and delphinium (blue), were certainly known to the ancients, but were not featured much in garden scenes.

  • The herb and vegetable gardens served a purpose beyond that of production, and that was that their installation and maintenance allowed the monks to fulfil the manual labour
    component of the religious way of life prescribed by the Rule of St. Benedict.

  • [3] After the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy citizens began creating gardens for purely aesthetic purposes.

  • [5] The courtyard garden was enclosed by the walls of a palace, or on a larger scale was a cultivated place inside the city walls.

  • Three principal gardens are found here.

  • A Babylonian text from the same period is divided into sections, as if showing beds of soil with the names of medicinal, vegetable, and herbal plants written into each square,
    perhaps representing a parterre design.

  • While the basic gardening techniques were fairly well understood by trial and error from early on, the plants available in a particular location have changed enormously, especially
    in recent centuries.

  • Chinese and Japanese gardens[edit] Further information: Chinese garden and Japanese garden Rock sculpture from the ‘Lingering Garden’ of Suzhou, China Both Chinese and Japanese
    garden design traditionally is intended to evoke the natural landscape of mountains and rivers.

  • Circles portray togetherness, especially for family members, and are depicted in moon gates, moon bridges, and round tables placed within square backgrounds.

  • Probably due to this temporal and geographic spread and its turbulent history, there is no single dominant garden style that can be labeled “Byzantine style”.

  • The water gardens of Sigiriya can be seen in the central section of the western precinct.

  • These islands are built in a manner similar to the island in the first water garden.

  • The Chinese garden expresses the relationship to nature and the idea of balance through the art of mimicking natural setting, thus the existence of mountains, rocks, water,
    and wind elements.

  • Many new groups of plants have been introduced from other parts of the world, and the ornamental plants now used are mostly cultivars bred to improve qualities such as colour,
    length of flowering, size and hardiness.

  • They did put gardens around temples, and they adorned walkways and roads with statues, but the ornate and pleasure gardens that demonstrated wealth in the other communities
    is seemingly absent.

  • Avenues leading up to the entrance could be lined with trees, courtyards could hold small gardens and between temple buildings gardens with trees, vineyards, flowers and ponds
    were maintained.

  • Monastic horticultural practices established at that time are still in use in Christian monasteries throughout Greece and the Middle East.

  • From these sources, we learn that monasteries maintained monastic gardens outside their walls and watered them with complex irrigation systems fed by springs or rainwater.

  • Designers often place architectural elements such as vaulted arches between the outer and interior areas to open up the divide between them.

  • The formal garden à la française, exemplified by the Gardens of Versailles, became the dominant horticultural style in Europe until the middle of the 18th century, when the
    English landscape garden and the French landscape garden acceded to dominance.

  • On a larger scale, royal hunting parks were established to hold the exotic animals and plants which the king had acquired on his foreign campaigns.

  • Gardening may be considered as aesthetic expressions of beauty through art and nature, a display of taste or style in civilized life,[1] an expression of an individual’s or
    culture’s philosophy, and sometimes as a display of private status or national pride—in private and public landscapes.

  • The third factor was a fundamental shift in the design of the Byzantine cities after the 7th century when they became smaller in size and population as well as more ruralised.


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