The New Hollywood is the emergence of a new generation of film school-trained directors who had absorbed the techniques developed in Europe in the 1960s as a result of the
French New Wave after the American Revolution; the 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde marked the beginning of American cinema rebounding as well, as a new generation of films would afterwards gain success at the box offices as well.
The cinema of the United States, consisting mainly of major film studios (also known metonymously as Hollywood) along with some independent films, has had a large effect on
the global film industry since the early 20th century.
The studio system and the Golden Age of Hollywood succumbed to two forces that developed in the late 1940s: • a federal antitrust action that separated the production of films
from their exhibition; and • the advent of television.
At the same time, one could usually guess which studio made which film, largely because of the actors who appeared in it; MGM, for example, claimed it had contracted “more
stars than there are in heaven.”
 The success of Blair Witch as an indie project remains among the few exceptions, however, and control of The Big Five studios over film making continued to increase through
This changed the paradigm of film making by the major Hollywood studios, as each could have an entirely different cast and creative team.
• The original movies were often second-rate themselves since studios expected that the top productions would sell by themselves.
Certain movie people, such as Cecil B. DeMille, either remained contract artists until the end of their careers or used the same creative teams on their films so that a DeMille
film still looked like one whether it was made in 1932 or 1956.
 The film patents wars of the early 20th century helped facilitate the spread of film companies to other parts of the US, outside New York.
Hollywood is considered to be the oldest film industry, in the sense of being the place where the earliest film studios and production companies emerged.
In the following decades, production of silent film greatly expanded, studios formed and migrated to California, and films and the stories they told became much longer.
Discovery, Warner Bros. Pictures, New Line Cinema, Amazon, MGM; Produced feature films (2016): Fictional: 646 (98.5%); Animated: 10 (1.5%); Number of admissions (2017):
Total: 1,239,742,550; Per capita: 3.9 (2010); Gross box office (2017): Total: $11.1 billion History Origins and Fort Lee See also: Silent film Justus D. Barnes as outlaw leader Bronco Billy Anderson in The Great Train Robbery (1903),
the first western.
They joined a homegrown supply of actors—lured west from the New York City stage after the introduction of sound films—to form one of the 20th century’s most remarkable growth
The Classical style began to emerge in 1913, was accelerated in 1917 after the U.S. entered World War I, and finally solidified when the film The Jazz Singer was released
in 1927, ending the silent film era and increasing box-office profits for film industry by introducing sound to feature films.
 After hearing about Griffith’s success in Hollywood, in 1913, many movie-makers headed west to avoid the fees imposed by Thomas Edison, who owned patents on the movie-making
Throughout the 1930s, as well as most of the golden age, MGM dominated the film screen and had the top stars in Hollywood, and they were also credited for creating the Hollywood
star system altogether.
Inaugurated by the 1969 release of Andy Warhol’s Blue Movie, the phenomenon of adult erotic films being publicly discussed by celebrities (like Johnny Carson and Bob Hope),
and taken seriously by critics (like Roger Ebert), a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of The New York Times, as “porno chic”, and later known as the Golden Age of Porn, began, for the first time, in modern American culture.
 The films that did not obtain a seal of approval from the Production Code Administration had to pay a $25,000 fine and could not profit in the theaters, as the MPPDA
controlled every theater in the country through the Big Five studios.
 On March 16, 2020, Universal announced that The Invisible Man, The Hunt, and Emma—all films in theaters at the time—would be available through Premium video on demand
as early as March 20 at a suggested price of US$19.99 each.
Soon they were the heads of a new kind of enterprise: the movie studio.
While the early New Hollywood films like Bonnie and Clyde and Easy Rider had been relatively low-budget affairs with amoral heroes and increased sexuality and violence, the
enormous success enjoyed by Friedkin with The Exorcist, Spielberg with Jaws, Coppola with The Godfather and Apocalypse Now, Scorsese with Taxi Driver, Kubrick with 2001: A Space Odyssey, Polanski with Chinatown, and Lucas with American Graffiti
and Star Wars, respectively helped to give rise to the modern “blockbuster”, and induced studios to focus ever more heavily on trying to produce enormous hits.
• No longer engage in blind buying (or the buying of films by theater districts without seeing films beforehand) and instead have trade-showing, in which all 31 theater districts
in the US would see films every two weeks before showing movies in theaters.
 In the West, California was already quickly emerging as a major film production center.
The productions were not very successful in their intended markets, due to the following reasons: Brown Derby, an icon that became synonymous with the Golden Age of Hollywood.
At the time, Thomas Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and movie producers on the East Coast acting independently of Edison’s Motion
Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents while movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison’s control.
 The federal suit resulted in five of the eight studios (the “Big Five”: Warner Bros., MGM, Fox, RKO and Paramount) reaching a compromise with Arnold in October 1940
and signing a consent decree agreeing to, within three years: • Eliminate the block-booking of short film subjects, in an arrangement known as “one shot”, or “full force” block-booking.
Meanwhile, in 1922, US politician Will H. Hays left politics and formed the movie studio boss organization known as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America
Griffith stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York.
In 1894, the world’s first commercial motion-picture exhibition was given in New York City, using Thomas Edison’s kinetoscope.
In 1938, Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released during a run of lackluster films from the major studios, and quickly became the highest grossing film released
to that point.
Another great achievement of US cinema during this era came through Walt Disney’s animation company.
 This stoked already widespread frustration at the practice of block-booking, in which studios would only sell an entire year’s schedule of films at a time to theaters
and use the lock-in to cover for releases of mediocre quality.
While there, the company decided to explore new territories, traveling several miles north to Hollywood, a little village that was friendly and enjoyed the movie company filming
The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison’s “Black Maria”, the first motion-picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey.
 The major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful and most ticket-selling movies in the world.
The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1910 to 1962 and is still typical of most films made there to this day.
Filmed on a budget of just $35,000, without any big stars or special effects, the film grossed $248 million with the use of modern marketing techniques and online promotion.
 A number of independent film producers were also unhappy with the compromise and formed a union known as the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers and sued
Paramount for the monopoly they still had over the Detroit Theaters—as Paramount was also gaining dominance through actors like Bob Hope, Paulette Goddard, Veronica Lake, Betty Hutton, crooner Bing Crosby, Alan Ladd, and longtime actor for
studio Gary Cooper too- by 1942.
As of 2017, it produced the third-largest number of films of any national cinema, after India and China, with more than 600 English-language films released on average every
 Sound also became widely used in Hollywood in the late 1920s.
Before World War I, films were made in several American cities, but filmmakers tended to gravitate towards southern California as the industry developed.
(1923) The history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey, was the motion-picture capital of America.
The United States produced the world’s first sync-sound musical film, The Jazz Singer, in 1927, and was at the forefront of sound-film development in the following decades.
The Big Five studios did not meet the requirements of the Consent of Decree during WWII, without major consequence, but after the war ended they joined Paramount as defendants
in the Hollywood antitrust case, as did the Little Three studios.
In 1937, Disney created the most successful film of its time, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
A studio could gamble on a medium-budget feature with a good script and relatively unknown actors: Citizen Kane, directed by Orson Welles (1915–1985) and often regarded as
the greatest film of all time, fits this description.
 In the film Titanic, Cameron wanted to push the boundary of special effects with his film, and enlisted Digital Domain and Pacific Data Images to continue the developments
in digital technology which the director pioneered while working on The Abyss and Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
They owned or leased Movie Ranches in rural Southern California for location shooting of westerns and other large-scale genre films, and the major studios owned hundreds of
theaters in cities and towns across the nation in 1920 film theaters that showed their films and that were always in need of fresh material.
Batman Returns (1992) was the first film to make use of the Dolby Digital six-channel stereo sound that has since become the industry standard.
One reason this was possible is that, with so many movies being made, not every one had to be a big hit.
 Rise and decline of the studio system Hollywood movie studios, 1922 Motion picture companies operated under the studio system.
Picture City, Florida, was a planned site for a movie picture production center in the 1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and Picture City
returned to its original name of Hobe Sound.
An attempt to establish a film production center in Detroit also proved unsuccessful.
 A side effect of the “talkies” was that many actors who had made their careers in silent films suddenly found themselves out of work, as they often had bad voices or
could not remember their lines.
 In the early 20th century, when the medium was new, many Jewish immigrants found employment in the US film industry.
They were able to make their mark in a brand-new business: the exhibition of short films in storefront theaters called nickelodeons, after their admission price of a nickel
RKO (a 1928 merger between Keith-Orpheum Theaters and the Radio Corporation of America) also responded to the Western Electric/ERPI monopoly over sound in films, and developed
their own method, known as Photophone, to put sound in films.
 Many of Hollywood’s highest-grossing movies have generated more box-office revenue and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere.
These parallel versions had a lower budget, were shot at night and were directed by second-line American directors who did not speak the foreign language.
 While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand also produce films in the same language, they are not part of the Hollywood system.
 This distinction was promptly topped in 1939 when Selznick International created what is still, when adjusted for inflation, the most successful film of all time in Gone
with the Wind.
 The three most notable examples of this are Coppola’s Apocalypse Now and One From The Heart and particularly Michael Cimino’s Heaven’s Gate, which single-handedly
bankrupted United Artists.
 During the pandemic, public health officials temporarily closed movie theaters in some jurisdictions, large studios suspended production for weeks at a time, and some
actors came down with the flu.
Percentage of the US population that went to the cinema on average, weekly, 1930–2000 Walt Disney introduces each of the seven dwarfs in a scene from the original 1937 Snow
White movie trailer.
While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the emerging industry.
Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has primarily been based in and around the thirty-mile zone centered in the Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles County,
 Rise of the modern blockbuster and independent films Actor Tom Hanks In the US, the PG-13 rating was introduced in 1984 to accommodate films that straddled the
line between PG and R, which was mainly due to the controversies surrounding the violent content of the PG films Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and Gremlins (both 1984).
At motion pictures’ height of popularity in the mid-1940s, the studios were cranking out a total of about 400 movies a year, seen by an audience of 90 million Americans per
 Bosworth’s widow suggested the city had got the date and location wrong, and that the film was actually shot in nearby Venice, which at the time was an independent city.
One of the solutions was creating parallel foreign-language versions of Hollywood films.
Also, foreign unemployed actors, playwrights, and winners of photogenia contests were chosen and brought to Hollywood, where they shot parallel versions of the English-language
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