homo neanderthalensis


  • The 1912 ‘discovery’ of Piltdown Man (a hoax), appearing much more similar to modern humans than Neanderthals, was used as evidence that multiple different and unrelated branches
    of primitive humans existed, and supported Boule’s reconstruction of H. neanderthalensis as a far distant relative and an evolutionary dead-end.

  • Their easternmost presence is recorded at Denisova Cave, Siberia 85°E; the southeast Chinese Maba Man, a skull, shares several physical attributes with Neanderthals, although
    these may be the result of convergent evolution rather than Neanderthals extending their range to the Pacific Ocean.

  • [18] It is unclear when the line of Neanderthals split from that of modern humans; studies have produced various intervals ranging from 315,000 to more than 800,000 years

  • [66] Neanderthal hunters depicted in the Gallo-Romeins Museum Tongeren The neck vertebrae of Neanderthals are longer and thicker than those of (most) modern humans, leading
    to stability,[clarification needed] possibly due to different head shape and size.

  • [179] Body proportions are usually cited as being “hyperarctic” as adaptations to the cold, because they are similar to those of human populations which developed in cold
    climates[189]—the Neanderthal build is most similar to that of Inuit and Siberian Yupiks among modern humans[190]—and shorter limbs result in higher retention of body heat.

  • Using the latter dates, the split had likely already occurred by the time hominins spread out across Europe, and unique Neanderthal features had begun evolving by 600–500
    thousand years ago.

  • [131] A large part of the controversy stems from the vagueness of the term “species”, as it is generally used to distinguish two genetically isolated populations, but admixture
    between modern humans and Neanderthals is known to have occurred.

  • [173] Map of Europe during the Würm glaciation 70–20 thousand years ago Population[edit] Like modern humans, Neanderthals probably descended from a very small population with
    an effective population—the number of individuals who can bear or father children—of 3,000 to 12,000 approximately.

  • [83] Archaeological evidence suggests that there was a tenfold increase in the modern human population in Western Europe during the period of the Neanderthal/modern human
    transition,[176] and Neanderthals may have been at a demographic disadvantage due to a lower fertility rate, a higher infant mortality rate, or a combination of the two.

  • [93] Although many of the gene variants inherited from Neanderthals may have been detrimental and selected out,[81] Neanderthal introgression appears to have affected the
    modern human immune system,[94][95][96][97] and is also implicated in several other biological functions and structures,[98] but a large portion appears to be non-coding DNA.

  • The date of around 250,000 years ago cites “H. helmei” as being the last common ancestor (LCA), and the split is associated with the Levallois technique of making stone tools.

  • [192] In 2019, English anthropologist John Stewart and colleagues suggested Neanderthals instead were adapted for sprinting, because of evidence of Neanderthals preferring
    more warmer wooded areas over the colder mammoth steppe, and DNA analysis indicating a higher proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibres in Neanderthals than in modern humans.

  • [85] However, it has also been estimated that the age pyramids for Neanderthals and contemporary modern humans were the same.

  • [67] Neanderthals featured a rather large jaw which was once cited as a response to a large bite force evidenced by heavy wearing of Neanderthal front teeth (the “anterior
    dental loading” hypothesis), but similar wearing trends are seen in contemporary humans.

  • [23] The fossil record is much more complete from 130,000 years ago onwards,[144] and specimens from this period make up the bulk of known Neanderthal skeletons.

  • In 1939, American anthropologist Carleton Coon reconstructed a Neanderthal in a modern business suit and hat to emphasise that they would be, more or less, indistinguishable
    from modern humans had they survived into the present.

  • [161] The northernmost bound is generally accepted to have been 55°N, with unambiguous sites known between 50–53°N, although this is difficult to assess because glacial advances
    destroy most human remains, and palaeoanthropologist Trine Kellberg Nielsen has argued that a lack of evidence of Southern Scandinavian occupation is (at least during the Eemian interglacial) due to the former explanation and a lack of research
    in the area.

  • Likewise, Neanderthals and Denisovans share a more recent last common ancestor (LCA) than to modern humans, based on nuclear DNA (nDNA).

  • [162][163] Middle Palaeolithic artefacts have been found up to 60°N on the Russian plains,[164][165][166] but these are more likely attributed to modern humans.

  • [138] Evolution It is largely thought that H. heidelbergensis was the last common ancestor of Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans before populations became isolated
    in Europe, Asia, and Africa, respectively.

  • [140] The taxonomic distinction between H. heidelbergensis and Neanderthals is mostly based on a fossil gap in Europe between 300 and 243 thousand years ago during marine
    isotope stage 8.

  • [110][113] Following Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, Fuhlrott and Schaaffhausen argued the bones represented an ancient modern human form;[26][110][114][115] Schaaffhausen,
    a social Darwinist, believed that humans linearly progressed from savage to civilised, and so concluded that Neanderthals were barbarous cave-dwellers.

  • [156] Demographics Range[edit] Neanderthal skull from Tabun Cave, Israel, at the Israel Museum Pre- and early Neanderthals, living before the Eemian interglacial (130,000
    years ago), are poorly known and come mostly from Western European sites.

  • [129] However, similar anatomy could also have been caused by adapting to a similar environment rather than interbreeding.

  • [23] Neanderthals are known from numerous fossils, especially from after 130,000 years ago.

  • [149] DNA studies have yielded various results for the Neanderthal/human divergence time, such as 538–315, 553–321, 565–503, 654–475, 690–550, 765–550, 741–317, and 800–520
    thousand years ago;[154] and a dental analysis concluded before 800,000 years ago.

  • In 2012, British-American geneticist Graham Coop hypothesised that they instead found evidence of a different archaic human species interbreeding with modern humans, which
    was disproven in 2013 by the sequencing of a high-quality Neanderthal genome preserved in a toe bone from Denisova Cave, Siberia.

  • [172] In 2021, Israeli anthropologist Israel Hershkovitz and colleagues suggested the 140 to 120 thousand years old Israeli Nesher Ramla remains, which feature a mix of Neanderthal
    and more ancient H. erectus traits, represent one such source population which recolonised Europe following a glacial period.

  • [201] Further, a computer reconstruction of the Neanderthal nose and predicted soft tissue patterns shows some similarities to those of modern Arctic peoples, potentially
    meaning the noses of both populations convergently evolved for breathing cold, dry air.

  • [145][146] Dental remains from the Italian Visogliano and Fontana Ranuccio sites indicate that Neanderthal dental features had evolved by around 450–430 thousand years ago
    during the Middle Pleistocene.

  • Also, the sinuses reconstructed wide are not grossly large, being comparable in size to those of modern humans.

  • This involved either introgression coming from an unknown archaic human into Denisovans,[91][92][130][136][137] or introgression from an earlier unidentified modern human
    wave from Africa into Neanderthals.

  • Estimates of 600,000 years ago assume that “H. rhodesiensis” was the LCA, which split off into modern human lineage and a Neanderthal/H.

  • [139][25][21] However, 430,000-year old bones at Sima de los Huesos could represent early Neanderthals or a closely related group,[23][141][142] and the 400,000-year old Aroeira
    3 could represent a transitional phase.

  • [198] However this study was rejected by other researchers who concluded that eyeball size does not offer any evidence the cognitive abilities of Neanderthal or modern humans.

  • It is claimed by some that this feature would be normal for all Homo, even tropically-adapted Homo ergaster or erectus, with the condition of a narrower thorax in most modern
    humans being a unique characteristic.

  • The Neanderthal skull is typically more elongated, but also wider, and less globular than that of most modern humans, and features much more of an occipital bun,[195] or “chignon”,
    a protrusion on the back of the skull, although it is within the range of variation for humans who have it.

  • Two-phase argues that a single major environmental event—such as the Saale glaciation—caused European H. heidelbergensis to increase rapidly in body size and robustness, as
    well as undergoing a lengthening of the head (phase 1), which then led to other changes in skull anatomy (phase 2).

  • [139] Numerous dates for the Neanderthal/human split have been suggested.

  • [147] There are two main hypotheses regarding the evolution of Neanderthals following the Neanderthal/human split: two-phase and accretion.

  • For much of the early 20th century, European researchers depicted Neanderthals as primitive, unintelligent, and brutish.

  • The oldest potential Neanderthal bones date to 430,000 years ago, but the classification remains uncertain.

  • [81][174] Various studies, using mtDNA analysis, yield varying effective populations,[172] such as about 1,000 to 5,000;[174] 5,000 to 9,000 remaining constant;[175] or 3,000
    to 25,000 steadily increasing until 52,000 years ago before declining until extinction.

  • [167] A 2017 study claimed the presence of Homo at the 130,000 year old Californian Cerutti Mastodon site in North America,[168] but this is largely considered implausible.

  • [22] Neanderthals and Denisovans are more closely related to each other than they are to modern humans, meaning the Neanderthal/Denisovan split occurred after their split
    with modern humans.

  • However, there was approximately 1 error for every 200 letters (base pairs) based on the implausibly high mutation rate, probably due to the preservation of the sample.

  • [51] A number of examples of symbolic thought and Palaeolithic art have been inconclusively[52] attributed to Neanderthals, namely possible ornaments made from bird claws
    and feathers[53][54] or shells,[55] collections of unusual objects including crystals and fossils,[56] engravings,[57] music production (possibly indicated by the Divje Babe flute),[58] and Spanish cave paintings contentiously[59] dated to
    before 65,000 years ago.

  • [178] Anatomy Build[edit] Comparisons of a modern eurasian male example (left) and a Neanderthal (right) skull reconstruction at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History Neanderthal
    skull features Neanderthals had more robust and stockier builds than typical modern humans,[69] wider and barrel-shaped rib cages; wider pelvises;[25][179] and proportionally shorter forearms and forelegs.

  • However, if sinus size is not an important factor for breathing cold air, then the actual function would be unclear, so they may not be a good indicator of evolutionary pressures
    to evolve such a nose.

  • This likely resulted from an interbreeding event subsequent to the Neanderthal/Denisovan split which introduced another mtDNA line.

  • However, Neanderthals maintained this very low population, proliferating weakly harmful genes due to the reduced effectivity of natural selection.

  • [62] Neanderthals were likely capable of speech, possibly articulate, although the complexity of their language is not known.

  • [148] 800,000 years ago has H. antecessor as the LCA, but different variations of this model would push the date back to 1 million years ago.

  • [26][114][120] By the middle of the century, based on the exposure of Piltdown Man as a hoax as well as a reexamination of La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (who had osteoarthritis
    which caused slouching in life) and new discoveries, the scientific community began to rework its understanding of Neanderthals.

  • Pre- and early Neanderthals, on the other hand, seem to have continuously occupied only France, Spain, and Italy, although some appear to have moved out of this “core-area”
    to form temporary settlements eastward (although without leaving Europe).

  • [136] Before splitting, Neanderthal/Denisovans (or “Neandersovans”) migrating out of Africa into Europe apparently interbred with an unidentified “superarchaic” human species
    who were already present there; these superarchaics were the descendants of a very early migration out of Africa around 1.9 mya.

  • [79][80] The total population of Neanderthals remained low, proliferating weakly harmful gene variants[81] and precluding effective long-distance networks.

  • [12][13] Theories for their extinction include demographic factors such as small population size and inbreeding, competitive replacement,[14] interbreeding and assimilation
    with modern humans,[15] climate change,[16][17][18] disease,[19][20] or a combination of these factors.

  • [106] The binomial name Homo neanderthalensis—extending the name “Neanderthal man” from the individual specimen to the entire species, and formally recognising it as distinct
    from humans—was first proposed by Irish geologist William King in a paper read to the 33rd British Science Association in 1863.

  • Nonetheless, southwestern France has the highest density of sites for pre-, early, and classic Neanderthals.

  • [143] It is also possible that there was gene flow between Western Europe and Africa during the Middle Pleistocene, obscuring Neanderthal characteristics in such specimens,
    namely from Ceprano, Italy, and Sićevo Gorge, Serbia.

  • He explained their body proportions and greater muscle mass as adaptations to sprinting as opposed to the endurance-oriented modern human physique,[65] as persistence hunting
    may only be effective in hot climates where the hunter can run prey to the point of heat exhaustion (hyperthermia).

  • Researchers often explain these features as adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate, but they may also have been adaptations for sprinting in the warmer, forested landscape
    that Neanderthals often inhabited.

  • [24] The type specimen, Neanderthal 1, was found in 1856 in the Neander Valley in present-day Germany.

  • [204] Reconstruction of an elderly Neanderthal man Brain[edit] The Neanderthal braincase averages 1,640 cc for males and 1,460 cc for females,[71][72] which is significantly
    larger than the averages for all groups of extant humans;[73] for example, mo


Works Cited

[‘After being mined for limestone, the cave caved in and was lost by 1900. It was rediscovered in 1997 by archaeologists Ralf Schmitz and Jürgen Thissen.[100]
2. ^ The German spelling Thal (“valley”) was current until 1901 but has been Tal since then.
(The German noun is cognate with English dale.) The German /t/ phoneme was frequently spelled th from the 15th to 19th centuries, but the spelling Tal became standardized in 1901 and the old spellings of the German names Neanderthal for the valley
and Neanderthaler for the species were both changed to the spellings without h.[101][102]
3. ^ In Mettmann, “Neander Valley”, there is a local idiosyncrasy in use of the outdated spellings with th, such as with the Neanderthal Museum (but the name
is in English [German would require Neandertalermuseum]), the Neanderthal station (Bahnhof Neanderthal), and some other rare occasions meant for tourists. Beyond these, city convention is to use th when referring to the species.[102]
4. ^ King made
a typo and said “theositic”.
5. ^ The bones were discovered by workers of Wilhelm Beckershoff and Friedrich Wilhelm Pieper. Initially, the workers threw the bones out as debris, but Beckershoff then told them to store the bones. Pieper asked Fuhlrott
to come up to the cave and investigate the bones, which Beckershoff and Pieper believed belonged to a cave bear.[100]
6. ^ OAS1[397] and STAT2[398] both are associated with fighting viral inflections (interferons), and the listed toll-like receptors
(TLRs)[399] allow cells to identify bacterial, fungal, or parasitic pathogens. African origin is also correlated with a stronger inflammatory response.[94]
7. ^ Higher levels of Neanderthal-derived genes are associated with an occipital and parietal
bone shape reminiscent to that of Neanderthals, as well as modifications to the visual cortex and the intraparietal sulcus (associated with visual processing).[400]
8. ^ Homo floresiensis originated in an unknown location from unknown ancestors
and reached remote parts of Indonesia. Homo erectus spread from Africa to western Asia, then east Asia and Indonesia; its presence in Europe is uncertain, but it gave rise to Homo antecessor, found in Spain. Homo heidelbergensis originated from Homo
erectus in an unknown location and dispersed across Africa, southern Asia and southern Europe (other scientists interpret fossils, here named heidelbergensis, as late erectus). Modern humans spread from Africa to western Asia and then to Europe and
southern Asia, eventually reaching Australia and the Americas. In addition to Neanderthals and Denisovans, a third gene flow of archaic Africa origin is indicated at the right.[409] The chart is missing superarchaic (which diverged from erectus 1.9
mya) introgression into Neanderthal/Denisovan common ancestor.[156]
9. Haeckel, E. (1895). Systematische Phylogenie: Wirbelthiere (in German). G. Reimer. p. 601.
10. ^ Schwalbe, G. (1906). Studien zur Vorgeschichte des Menschen [Studies on the
pre-history of man] (in German). Stuttgart, E. Nägele. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.61918. hdl:2027/uc1.b4298459.
11. ^ Klaatsch, H. (1909). “Preuves que l’Homo Mousteriensis Hauseri appartient au type de Neandertal” [Evidence that Homo Mousteriensis
Hauseri belongs to the Neanderthal type]. L’Homme Préhistorique (in French). 7: 10–16.
12. ^ Romeo, L. (1979). Ecce Homo!: a lexicon of man. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 92. ISBN 978-90-272-2006-6.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e McCown,
T.; Keith, A. (1939). The stone age of Mount Carmel. The fossil human remains from the Levalloisso-Mousterian. Vol. 2. Clarenden Press.
14. ^ Szalay, F. S.; Delson, E. (2013). Evolutionary history of the Primates. Academic Press. p. 508. ISBN 978-1-4832-8925-0.
15. ^
Wells, J. (2008). Longman pronunciation dictionary (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b c Higham, T.; Douka, K.; Wood, R.; Ramsey, C. B.; Brock, F.; Basell, L.; Camps, M.; Arrizabalaga, A.; Baena,
J.; Barroso-Ruíz, C.; C. Bergman; C. Boitard; P. Boscato; M. Caparrós; N.J. Conard; C. Draily; A. Froment; B. Galván; P. Gambassini; A. Garcia-Moreno; S. Grimaldi; P. Haesaerts; B. Holt; M.-J. Iriarte-Chiapusso; A. Jelinek; J.F. Jordá Pardo; J.-M.
Maíllo-Fernández; A. Marom; J. Maroto; M. Menéndez; L. Metz; E. Morin; A. Moroni; F. Negrino; E. Panagopoulou; M. Peresani; S. Pirson; M. de la Rasilla; J. Riel-Salvatore; A. Ronchitelli; D. Santamaria; P. Semal; L. Slimak; J. Soler; N. Soler; A.
Villaluenga; R. Pinhasi; R. Jacobi; et al. (2014). “The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance”. Nature. 512 (7514): 306–309. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..306H. doi:10.1038/nature13621. hdl:1885/75138. PMID 25143113. S2CID 205239973.
We show that the Mousterian [the Neanderthal tool-making tradition] ended by 41,030–39,260 calibrated years BP (at 95.4% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding ‘transitional’ archaeological industries, one of which has been
linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b Higham, T. (2011). “European Middle and Upper Palaeolithic radiocarbon dates are often older than they look: problems with previous dates and some remedies”.
Antiquity. 85 (327): 235–249. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00067570. S2CID 163207571. Few events of European prehistory are more important than the transition from ancient to modern humans about 40,000 years ago, a period that unfortunately lies near the
limit of radiocarbon dating. This paper shows that as many as 70 per cent of the oldest radiocarbon dates in the literature may be too young, due to contamination by modern carbon.
18. ^ Jump up to:a b Pinhasi, R.; Higham, T. F. G.; Golovanova,
L. V.; Doronichev, V. B. (2011). “Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Palaeolithic in the northern Caucasus”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (21): 8611–8616. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.8611P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1018938108.
PMC 3102382. PMID 21555570. The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 14C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after
39 kya cal BP. […] This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. […] Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ≈40 kya cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia,
including the Caucasus.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Galván, B.; Hernández, C. M.; Mallol, C.; Mercier, N.; Sistiaga, A.; Soler, V. (2014). “New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula”. Journal of Human Evolution. 75: 16–27.
doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.06.002. PMID 25016565.
20. ^ Vaesen, Krist; Dusseldorp, Gerrit L.; Brandt, Mark J. (2021). “An emerging consensus in palaeoanthropology: Demography was the main factor responsible for the disappearance of Neanderthals”.
Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 4925. Bibcode:2021NatSR..11.4925V. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-84410-7. PMC 7921565. PMID 33649483.
21. ^ Vaesen, Krist; Dusseldorp, Gerrit L.; Brandt, Mark J. (2021). “Author correction: ‘An Emerging Consensus in Palaeoanthropology:
Demography Was the Main Factor Responsible for the Disappearance of Neanderthals'”. Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 8450. Bibcode:2021NatSR..11.8450V. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-88189-5. PMC 8044239. PMID 33850254. S2CID 233232999.
22. ^ Jump up to:a b
Wynn, Thomas; Overmann, Karenleigh A; Coolidge, Frederick L (2016). “The false dichotomy: A refutation of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim”. Journal of Anthropological Sciences. 94 (94): 201–221. doi:10.4436/jass.94022. PMID 26708102.
23. ^
Jump up to:a b c Villa, P.; Roebroeks, W. (2014). “Neandertal demise: an archaeological analysis of the modern human superiority complex”. PLOS ONE. 9 (4): e96424. Bibcode:2014PLoSO…996424V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096424. PMC 4005592. PMID 24789039.
24. ^
Jump up to:a b Bradtmöller, M.; Pastoors, A.; Weninger, B.; Weninger, G. (2012). “The repeated replacement model – Rapid climate change and population dynamics in Late Pleistocene Europe”. Quaternary International. 247: 38–49. Bibcode:2012QuInt.247…38B.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b Wolf, D.; Kolb, T.; Alcaraz-Castaño, M.; Heinrich, S. (2018). “Climate deteriorations and Neanderthal demise in interior Iberia”. Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 7048. Bibcode:2018NatSR…8.7048W.
doi:10.1038/s41598-018-25343-6. PMC 5935692. PMID 29728579.
26. ^ Jump up to:a b c Black, B. A.; Neely, R. R.; Manga, M. (2015). “Campanian Ignimbrite volcanism, climate, and the final decline of the Neanderthals” (PDF). Geology. 43 (5): 411–414.
Bibcode:2015Geo….43..411B. doi:10.1130/G36514.1. OSTI 1512181. S2CID 128647846.
27. ^ Jump up to:a b Underdown, S. (2008). “A potential role for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Neanderthal extinction”. Medical Hypotheses. 71 (1):
4–7. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.12.014. PMID 18280671.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b Sullivan, A. P.; de Manuel, M.; Marques-Bonet, T.; Perry, G. H. (2017). “An evolutionary medicine perspective on Neandertal extinction” (PDF). Journal of Human Evolution. 108:
62–71. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.004. PMID 28622932. S2CID 4592682.
29. ^ Jump up to:a b c Stringer, C. (2012). “The status of Homo heidelbergensis (Schoetensack 1908)”. Evolutionary Anthropology. 21 (3): 101–107. doi:10.1002/evan.21311. PMID
22718477. S2CID 205826399.
30. ^ Jump up to:a b Gómez-Robles, A. (2019). “Dental evolutionary rates and its implications for the Neanderthal–modern human divergence”. Science Advances. 5 (5): eaaw1268. Bibcode:2019SciA….5.1268G. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw1268.
PMC 6520022. PMID 31106274.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Meyer, M.; Arsuaga, J.; de Filippo, C.; Nagel, S. (2016). “Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins”. Nature. 531 (7595): 504–507. Bibcode:2016Natur.531..504M.
doi:10.1038/nature17405. PMID 26976447. S2CID 4467094.
32. ^ Jump up to:a b Klein, R. G. (1983). “What Do We Know About Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon Man?”. Anthropology. 52 (3): 386–392. JSTOR 41210959.
33. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Papagianni
& Morse 2013.
34. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Drell, J. R. R. (2000). “Neanderthals: a history of interpretation”. Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 19 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1111/1468-0092.00096. S2CID 54616107.
35. ^ Jump up to:a b Shaw, I.; Jameson,
R., eds. (1999). A dictionary of archaeology. Blackwell. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-631-17423-3.
36. ^ Jump up to:a b Lycett, S. J.; von Cramon-Taubadel, N. (2013). “A 3D morphometric analysis of surface geometry in Levallois cores: patterns of stability
and variability across regions and their implications”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 40 (3): 1508–1517. Bibcode:2013JArSc..40.1508L. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.11.005.
37. ^ Jump up to:a b Sorensen, A. C.; Claud, E.; Soressi, M. (2018). “Neandertal
fire-making technology inferred from microwear analysis”. Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 10065. Bibcode:2018NatSR…810065S. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28342-9. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6053370. PMID 30026576.
38. ^ Jump up to:a b Brittingham, A.; Hren, M. T.;
Hartman, G.; Wilkinson, K. N.; Mallol, C.; Gasparyan, B.; Adler, D. S. (2019). “Geochemical evidence for the control of fire by Middle Palaeolithic hominins”. Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 15368. Bibcode:2019NatSR…915368B. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-51433-0.
PMC 6814844. PMID 31653870.
39. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Hayden, B. (2012). “Neandertal social structure?”. Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 31 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0092.2011.00376.x.
40. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kedar, Y.; Barkai,
R. (2019). “The significance of air circulation and hearth location at Paleolithic cave sites”. Open Quaternary. 5 (1): 4. doi:10.5334/oq.52.
41. ^ Jump up to:a b Schmidt, P.; Blessing, M.; Rageot, M.; Iovita, R.; Pfleging, J.; Nickel, K. G.; Righetti,
L.; Tennie, C. (2019). “Birch tar production does not prove Neanderthal behavioral complexity”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (36): 17707–17711. Bibcode:2019PNAS..11617707S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1911137116. PMC 6731756. PMID 31427508.
42. ^
Jump up to:a b Hoffecker, J. F. (2009). “The spread of modern humans in Europe”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (38): 16040–16045. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616040H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903446106. PMC 2752585. PMID 19571003.
43. ^
Jump up to:a b Hardy, B. L.; Moncel, M.-H.; Kerfant, C.; et al. (2020). “Direct evidence of Neanderthal fibre technology and its cognitive and behavioral implications”. Scientific Reports. 10 (4889): 4889. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.4889H. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61839-w.
PMC 7145842. PMID 32273518.
44. ^ Jump up to:a b Ferentinos, G.; Gkioni, M.; Geraga, M.; Papatheodorou, G. (2012). “Early seafaring activity in the southern Ionian Islands, Mediterranean Sea”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 39 (7): 2167–2176.
Bibcode:2011JQS….26..553S. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.01.032.
45. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Strasser, T. F.; Runnels, C.; Wegmann, K. W.; Panagopoulou, E. (2011). “Dating Palaeolithic sites in southwestern Crete, Greece”. Journal of Quaternary Science.
26 (5): 553–560. Bibcode:2011JQS….26..553S. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.01.032.
46. ^ Jump up to:a b c Buckley, S.; Hardy, K.; Huffman, M. (2013). “Neanderthal self-medication in context”. Antiquity. 87 (337): 873–878. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00049528.
S2CID 160563162.
47. ^ Jump up to:a b c Lev, E.; Kislev, M. E.; Bar-Yosef, O. (2005). “Mousterian vegetal food in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 32 (3): 475–484. Bibcode:2005JArSc..32..475L. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2004.11.006.
48. ^
Power, R. C.; Salazar-García, D. C.; Rubini, M.; Darlas, A.; Harvati, K.; Walker, M.; Hublin, J.; Henry, A. G. (2018). “Dental calculus indicates widespread plant use within the stable Neanderthal dietary niche”. Journal of Human Evolution. 119: 27–41.
doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.02.009. hdl:10550/65536. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 29685752. S2CID 13831823.
49. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Spikins, P.; Needham, A.; Wright, B. (2019). “Living to fight another day: The ecological and evolutionary significance
of Neanderthal healthcare”. Quaternary Science Reviews. 217: 98–118. Bibcode:2019QSRv..217…98S. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.08.011.
50. ^ Jump up to:a b c Valensi, P.; Michel, V.; et al. (2013). “New data on human behavior from a 160,000 year
old Acheulean occupation level at Lazaret cave, south-east France: An archaeozoological approach”. Quaternary International. 316: 123–139. Bibcode:2013QuInt.316..123V. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.10.034.
51. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Krief, S.; Daujeard,
C.; Moncel, M.; Lamon, N.; Reynolds, V. (2015). “Flavouring food: the contribution of chimpanzee behaviour to the understanding of Neanderthal calculus composition and plant use in Neanderthal diets”. Antiquity. 89 (344): 464–471. doi:10.15184/aqy.2014.7.
S2CID 86646905.
52. ^ Jump up to:a b Hardy, K.; Buckley, S.; Collins, M. J.; Estalrrich, A. (2012). “Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus”. The Science of Nature. 99 (8): 617–626. Bibcode:2012NW…..99..617H.
doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0942-0. PMID 22806252. S2CID 10925552.
53. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Dusseldorp, G. L. (2013). “Neanderthals and cave hyenas: co-existence, competition or conflict?” (PDF). In Clark, J. L.; Speth, J. D. (eds.). Zooarchaeology and
modern human origins. Vertebrate paleobiology and paleoanthropology. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. pp. 191–208. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6766-9_12. ISBN 978-94-007-6765-2.
54. ^ Jump up to:a b c Richards, M. P.; Pettitt, P. B.; Trinkaus,
E.; Smith, F. H.; Paunović, M.; Karavanić, I. (2000). “Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (13): 7663–7666. Bibcode:2000pnas…97.7663r. doi:10.1073/pnas.120178997.
JSTOR 122870. PMC 16602. PMID 10852955.
55. ^ Jump up to:a b Henry, A. G.; Brooks, A. S.; Piperno, D. R. (2011). “Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II,
Belgium)”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (2): 486–491. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108..486H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1016868108. PMC 3021051. PMID 21187393.
56. ^ Jump up to:a b Shipley, G. P.; Kindscher, K. (2016). “Evidence for the paleoethnobotany
of the Neanderthal: a review of the literature”. Scientifica. 2016: 1–12. doi:10.1155/2016/8927654. PMC 5098096. PMID 27843675.
57. ^ Jump up to:a b Madella, M.; Jones, M. K.; Goldberg, P.; Goren, Y.; Hovers, E. (2002). “The Exploitation of plant
resources by Neanderthals in Amud Cave (Israel): the evidence from phytolith studies”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 29 (7): 703–719. Bibcode:2002JArSc..29..703M. doi:10.1006/jasc.2001.0743. S2CID 43217031.
58. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Brown
59. ^ Jump up to:a b Shipman 2015, pp. 120–143.
60. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Tattersall 2015.
61. ^ Jump up to:a b d’Errico, F.; Tsvelykh, A. (2017). “A decorated raven bone from the Zaskalnaya VI (Kolosovskaya) Neanderthal site, Crimea”.
PLOS ONE. 12 (3): e0173435. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1273435M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173435. PMC 5371307. PMID 28355292.
62. ^ Jump up to:a b c Finlayson 2019.
63. ^ Jump up to:a b Hoffman, D. L.; Angelucci, D. E.; Villaverde, V.; Zapata, Z.; Zilhão,
J. (2018). “Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals 115,000 years ago”. Science Advances. 4 (2): eaar5255. Bibcode:2018SciA….4.5255H. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aar5255. PMC 5833998. PMID 29507889.
64. ^ Jump up to:a
b c Moncel, M.-H.; Chiotti, L.; Gaillard, C.; Onoratini, G.; Pleurdeau, D. (2012). “Non utilitarian objects in the Palaeolithic: emergence of the sense of precious?”. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 401: 25–27. doi:10.1016/j.aeae.2012.05.004.
65. ^
Jump up to:a b c Majkić, A.; d’Errico, F.; Stepanchuk, V. (2018). “Assessing the significance of Palaeolithic engraved cortexes. A case study from the Mousterian site of Kiik-Koba, Crimea”. PLOS ONE. 13 (5): e0195049. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1395049M.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195049. PMC 5931501. PMID 29718916.
66. ^ Jump up to:a b Turk, M.; Turk, I.; Dimkaroski, L. (2018). “The Mousterian musical instrument from the Divje Babe I Cave (Slovenia): arguments on the material evidence for Neanderthal
musical behaviour”. L’Anthropologie. 122 (4): 1–28. doi:10.1016/j.anthro.2018.10.001. S2CID 133682741. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
67. ^ Jump up to:a b Aubert, M.; Brumm, A.; Huntley, J. (2018). “Early
dates for ‘Neanderthal cave art’ may be wrong”. Journal of Human Evolution. 125: 215–217. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.004. PMID 30173883. S2CID 52145541.
68. ^ Jump up to:a b Pike, A. W.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Pettitt, P. B.; García-Diez, M.; Zilhão,
J. (2017). “Dating Palaeolithic cave art: Why U–Th is the way to go” (PDF). Quaternary International. 432: 41–49. Bibcode:2017QuInt.432…41P. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.12.013.
69. ^ Jump up to:a b Hoffmann, D. L.; Standish, C. D.; García-Diez,
M.; Pettitt, P. B.; Milton, J. A.; Zilhão, J.; Alcolea-González, J. J.; Cantalejo-Duarte, P.; Collado, H.; de Balbín, R.; Lorblanchet, M.; Ramos-Muñoz, J.; Weniger, G.-C.; Pike, A. W. G. (2018). “U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neandertal
origin of Iberian cave art”. Science. 359 (6378): 912–915. Bibcode:2018Sci…359..912H. doi:10.1126/science.aap7778. PMID 29472483.
70. ^ Jump up to:a b Wunn, I. (2000). “Beginning of religion”. Numen. 47 (4): 417–452. doi:10.1163/156852700511612.
71. ^
Jump up to:a b c Dediu, D.; Levinson, S. C. (2018). “Neanderthal language revisited: not only us”. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 21: 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.001. hdl:21.11116/0000-0000-1667-4. S2CID 54391128.
72. ^ Jump up
to:a b D’Anastasio, R.; Wroe, S.; Tuniz, C.; Mancini, L.; Cesana, D. T. (2013). “Micro-biomechanics of the Kebara 2 hyoid and its implications for speech in Neanderthals”. PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e82261. Bibcode:2013PLoSO…882261D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082261.
PMC 3867335. PMID 24367509.
73. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Stewart, J.R.; García-Rodríguez, O.; Knul, M.V.; Sewell, L.; Montgomery, H.; Thomas, M.G.; Diekmann, Y. (2019). “Palaeoecological and genetic evidence for Neanderthal power locomotion as
an adaptation to a woodland environment”. Quaternary Science Reviews. 217: 310–315. Bibcode:2019QSRv..217..310S. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.12.023. S2CID 133980969.
74. ^ Jump up to:a b Kislev, M.; Barkai, R. (2018). “Neanderthal and woolly mammoth
molecular resemblance”. Human Biology. 90 (2): 115–128. doi:10.13110/humanbiology.90.2.03. PMID 33951886. S2CID 106401104.
75. ^ Jump up to:a b de Azevedo, S.; González, M. F.; Cintas, C.; et al. (2017). “Nasal airflow simulations suggest convergent
adaptation in Neanderthals and modern humans”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (47): 12442–12447. Bibcode:2017PNAS..11412442D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1703790114. PMC 5703271. PMID 29087302.
76. ^ Rae, T. C.; Koppe, T.; Stringer, C.
B. (2011). “The Neanderthal face is not cold adapted”. Journal of Human Evolution. 60 (2): 234–239. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.10.003. PMID 21183202.
77. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Helmuth, H. (1998). “Body height, body mass and surface area of the Neanderthals”.
Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie. 82 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1127/zma/82/1998/1. JSTOR 25757530. PMID 9850627.
78. ^ Stringer, C. (1984). “Human evolution and biological adaptation in the Pleistocene”. In Foley, R. (ed.). Hominid evolution
and community ecology. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-261920-5.
79. ^ Jump up to:a b Holloway, R. L. (1985). “The poor brain of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis: see what you please”. In Delson, E. (ed.). Ancestors: The hard evidence. Alan R. Liss.
ISBN 978-0-471-84376-4.
80. ^ Jump up to:a b c Amano, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Morita, Y.; Kondo, O.; Suzuki, H.; et al. (2015). “Virtual reconstruction of the Neanderthal Amud 1 cranium” (PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 158 (2): 185–197.
doi:10.1002/ajpa.22777. hdl:10261/123419. PMID 26249757. S2CID 36974955.
81. ^ Jump up to:a b Beals, K.; Smith, C.; Dodd, S. (1984). “Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines” (PDF). Current Anthropology. 12 (3): 301–30. doi:10.1086/203138.
S2CID 86147507.
82. ^ Bruner, Emiliano (2004). “Geometric Morphometrics and Paleoneurology: Brain Shape Evolution in the Genus Homo”. Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (5): 279–303. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.03.009. PMID 15530349.
83. ^ Bruner, Emiliano
(2010). “Morphological Differences in the Parietal Lobes with the Human Genus: A Neurofunctional Perspective”. Current Anthropology. 51 (1): S77–S88. doi:10.1086/650729. S2CID 146587487.
84. ^ Bruner, Emiliano; Manzi, Giorgio; Arsuaga, Juan Luis
(2003). “Encephalization and Allometric Trajectories in the Genus Homo: Evidence from the Neandertal and Modern Lineages”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (26): 15335–15340. Bibcode:2003PNAS..10015335B.
doi:10.1073/pnas.2536671100. PMC 307568. PMID 14673084.
85. ^ Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Neubauer, Simon; Gunz, Philipp (2015). “Brain Ontogeny and Life History in Pleistocene Hominins”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series
B, Biological Sciences. 370 (1663): 1–11. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0062. PMC 4305163. PMID 25602066. S2CID 1518695.
86. ^ Weaver, Anne (2005). “Reciprocal Evolution of the Cerebellum and Neocortex in Fossil Humans”. Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (10): 3576–3580. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.3576W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500692102. PMC 553338. PMID 15731345.
87. ^ Jump up to:a b c Bruner, Emiliano; Ogihara, Naomichi; Tanabe, Hiroki C. (December 28, 2017).
Digital Endocasts: From Skulls to Brains. Springer. p. 25. ISBN 978-4-431-56582-6.
88. ^ Nishiaki, Yoshihiro; Jöris, Olaf (November 27, 2019). Learning Among Neanderthals and Palaeolithic Modern Humans: Archaeological Evidence. Springer Nature.
p. 19. ISBN 978-981-13-8980-1. “indicates that the volumes of the parietal cortex and cerebellum in the Neanderthal brain seemed to be smaller than those in modern humans, while the region from the posterior temporal to occipital cortex seemed to
be larger in Neanderthals…”
89. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Juric, I.; Aeschbacher, S.; Coop, G. (2016). “The strength of selection against Neanderthal introgression”. PLOS Genetics. 12 (11): e1006340. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006340. PMC 5100956. PMID
90. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ruebens, K. (2013). “Regional behaviour among late Neanderthal groups in Western Europe: A comparative assessment of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tool variability”. Journal of Human Evolution. 65 (4): 341–362.
doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.06.009. PMID 23928352.
91. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Fabre, V.; Condemi, S.; Degioanni, A. (2009). “Genetic evidence of geographical groups among Neanderthals”. PLOS ONE. 4 (4): e5151. Bibcode:2009PLoSO…4.5151F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005151.
PMC 2664900. PMID 19367332.
92. ^ Jump up to:a b c Demay, L.; Péan, S.; Patou-Mathis, M. (2012). “Mammoths used as food and building resources by Neanderthals: zooarchaeological study applied to layer 4, Molodova I (Ukraine)” (PDF). Quaternary International.
276–277: 212–226. Bibcode:2012QuInt.276..212D. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.11.019. hdl:2268/190618.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Trinkaus, E. (1995). “Neanderthal mortality patterns”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 22 (1): 121–142. Bibcode:1995JArSc..22..121T.
94. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Green, R. E.; Krause, J.; Briggs, A. W.; et al. (2010). “A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome”. Science. 328 (5979): 710–722. Bibcode:2010Sci…328..710G. doi:10.1126/science.1188021.
PMC 5100745. PMID 20448178.
95. ^ Jump up to:a b Sankararaman, S.; Mallick, S.; Patterson, N.; Reich, D. (2016). “The combined landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans”. Current Biology. 26 (9): 1241–1247. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.037.
PMC 4864120. PMID 27032491.
96. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Sankararaman, S.; Mallick, S.; Dannemann, M.; Prüfer, K.; Kelso, J.; Pääbo, S.; Patterson, N.; Reich, D. (2014). “The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans”. Nature.
507 (7492): 354–357. Bibcode:2014Natur.507..354S. doi:10.1038/nature12961. PMC 4072735. PMID 24476815.
97. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Peyrégne, S.; Slon, V.; Mafessoni, F.; et al. (2019). “Nuclear DNA from two early Neandertals reveals 80 ka of genetic
continuity in Europe”. Science Advances. 5 (6): eaaw5873. Bibcode:2019SciA….5.5873P. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw5873. PMC 6594762. PMID 31249872.
98. ^ Jump up to:a b Kuhlwilm, M. (2016). “Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into eastern Neanderthals”.
Nature. 530 (7591): 429–433. Bibcode:2016Natur.530..429K. doi:10.1038/nature16544. PMC 4933530. PMID 26886800.
99. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Prüfer, K.; et al. (2014). “The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains”. Nature.
505 (7481): 43–49. Bibcode:2014Natur.505…43P. doi:10.1038/nature12886. PMC 4031459. PMID 24352235.
100. ^ Jump up to:a b c Pennisi, E. (2013). “More genomes from Denisova Cave show mixing of early human groups”. Science. 340 (6134): 799. Bibcode:2013Sci…340..799P.
doi:10.1126/science.340.6134.799. PMID 23687020.
101. ^ Jump up to:a b Vernot, B.; Akey, J. M. (2014). “Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes”. Science. 343 (6174): 1017–1021. Bibcode:2014Sci…343.1017V. doi:10.1126/science.1245938.
PMID 24476670. S2CID 23003860.
102. ^ Jump up to:a b c Nédélec, Y.; Sanz, J.; Baharian, G.; et al. (2016). “Genetic ancestry and natural selection drive population differences in immune responses to pathogens”. Cell. 167 (3): 657–669. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.025.
PMID 27768889.
103. ^ Jump up to:a b Ségurel, L.; Quintana-Murci, L. (2014). “Preserving immune diversity through ancient inheritance and admixture”. Current Opinion in Immunology. 30: 79–84. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2014.08.002. PMID 25190608.
104. ^
Zeberg, Hugo; Pääbo, Svante (March 2, 2021). “A genomic region associated with protection against severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neandertals”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (9): e2026309118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11826309Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.2026309118.
ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7936282. PMID 33593941. S2CID 231943450.
105. ^ Zeberg, Hugo; Pääbo, Svante (September 30, 2020). “The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neanderthals”. Nature. 587 (7835): 610–612. Bibcode:2020Natur.587..610Z.
doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2818-3. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 32998156. S2CID 222148977.
106. ^ Jump up to:a b Dolgova, O.; Lao, O. (2018). “Evolutionary and medical consequences of archaic introgression into modern human genomes”. Genes. 9 (7): 358. doi:10.3390/genes9070358.
PMC 6070777. PMID 30022013.
107. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Reich 2018.
108. ^ Jump up to:a b c Schmitz, R. W.; Serre, D.; Bonani, G.; et al. (2002). “The Neandertal type site revisited: interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains
from the Neander Valley, Germany”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (20): 13342–13347. Bibcode:2002PNAS…9913342S. doi:10.1073/pnas.192464099. PMC 130635. PMID 12232049.
109. ^ Howell, F. C. (1957). “The evolutionary significance
of variation and varieties of ‘Neanderthal’ man”. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 32 (4): 330–347. doi:10.1086/401978. JSTOR 2816956. PMID 13506025. S2CID 10857962.
110. ^ Jump up to:a b “Neandertal oder Neanderthal? Was ist denn nun richtig?”
[Neandertal or Neanderthal? So which is actually right?]. Kreisstadt Mettmann. Retrieved February 1, 2017. Heute sollten Ortsbezeichnungen das ‘Neandertal’ ohne ‘h’ bezeichnen. Alle Namen, die sich auf den prähistorischen Menschen beziehen, führen
das ‘h’. (Nowadays, place names should refer to the Neander Valley [‘Neandertal’] without an ‘h’. All names referring to the prehistoric humans have the ‘h’.)
111. ^ “Neanderthal”. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
112. ^
“Neanderthal”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
113. ^ “Neanderthal”. American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
114. ^ Vogt, K. C. (1864). Lectures on man: his place in creation, and in the history of the
earth. London, UK: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts. pp. 302, 473.
115. ^ King, W. (1864). “On the Neanderthal skull, or reasons for believing it to belong to the Clydian Period and to a species different from that represented by man”. Report
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Notices and Abstracts, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1863. 33: 81–82 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
116. ^ Murray, J.; Nasheuer, H. P.; Seoighe, C.; McCormack, G. P.; Williams, D. M.; Harper,
D. A. T. (2015). “The contribution of William King to the early development of palaeoanthropology”. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences. 33: 1–16. doi:10.3318/ijes.2015.33.1. JSTOR 10.3318/ijes.2015.33.1. S2CID 131804686.
117. ^ Winner, A. K. (1964).
“Terminology”. Current Anthropology. 5 (2): 119–122. doi:10.1086/200469. JSTOR 2739959. S2CID 224796921.
118. ^ Jump up to:a b c King, W. (1864). “The reputed fossil man of the Neanderthal” (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Science. 1: 96.
119. ^ Schmerling,
P. (1834). Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles découverts dans les cavernes de la province de Liége [Research on the fossil specimens discovered in the caves of Liège]. P. J. Collardin. pp. 30–32. hdl:2268/207986.
120. ^ Menez, A. (2018). “Custodian
of the Gibraltar skull: the history of the Gibraltar Scientific Society”. Earth Sciences History. 37 (1): 34–62. Bibcode:2018ESHis..37…34M. doi:10.17704/1944-6178-37.1.34.
121. ^ Schaaffhausen, H. (1858). “Zur Kenntnis der ältesten Rassenschädel”
[Acknowledging the oldest racial skull]. Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medicin (in German): 453–478.
122. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Schlager, S.; Wittwer-Backofen, U. (2015). “Images in paleoanthropology: facing our ancestors”.
In Henke, W.; Tattersall, I. (eds.). Handbook of paleoanthropology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 1019–1027. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39979-4_70. ISBN 978-3-642-39978-7.
123. ^ Fuhlrott, J. C. (1859). “Menschliche Überreste aus einer Felsengrotte
des Düsselthales” [Human remains from a rock grotto in Düsseltal] (PDF). Verh Naturhist Ve Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/73230975@N03/6808860548/’]