house of habsburg


  • Re-unification and expansion[edit] Habsburg lands (in green), following the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547; excludes Holy Roman Empire, and the Spanish colonial empire In 1457
    Duke Frederick V of Inner Austria also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous had died without issue.

  • Taking advantage of the extinction of the Babenbergs and of his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia at the battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, he appointed his sons as Dukes of
    Austria and moved the family’s power base to Vienna, where the Habsburg dynasty gained the name of “House of Austria” and ruled until 1918.

  • Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs[edit] The Iberian Union in 1598, under Philip II, King of Spain and PortugalThe Spanish and Austrian Habsburg European lands, ca 1700 Charles
    formally became the sole monarch of Spain upon the death of his imprisoned mother Queen Joan in 1555.

  • [20] After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel
    to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory.

  • Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Emperor Charles V and ruled the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in the New World), Southern
    Italy, Austria, and the Low Countries in 1516, with his mother and nominal co-ruler Joanna, who was kept under confinement.

  • His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding “Count of Habsburg” to his title.

  • An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910 On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I of Austria (who also reigned
    as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria’s right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs.

  • Several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial dignity over the years, but success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III
    as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome.

  • [16][17] Following Rudolph’s death in 1291, Albert I’s assassination in 1308, and Frederick the Fair’s failure to secure the German/Imperial crown for himself, the Habsburgs
    temporarily lost their supremacy in the Empire.

  • Frederick’s son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, apparently only started to use the title after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy in 1482, as Archduke never
    appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled “Duke of Austria”).

  • The dynasty was thus long known as the “House of Austria”.

  • The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Austrian branches following the abdication of Emperor
    Charles V in 1556.

  • The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries.

  • The Bohemian kingship was an elected position,[18] and the Habsburgs were only able to secure it on a hereditary basis much later in 1626, following their submission of the
    Czech lands during the Thirty Years’ War.

  • The latter, however, was won by Maria Theresa and led to the succession of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen) becoming the new main branch of
    the dynasty, in the person of Maria Theresa’s son, Joseph II.

  • The Seventeen Provinces and the Duchy of Milan were in personal union under the King of Spain but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire.

  • By contrast, there is little evidence that later Habsburgs in the 17th and 18th centuries spoke Czech, with the probable exception of Ferdinand III who made several stays
    in Bohemia and appears to have spoken Czech while there.

  • After 1307, subsequent Habsburg attempts to gain the Bohemian crown were frustrated first by Henry of Bohemia (a member of the House of Gorizia) and then by the House of Luxembourg.

  • After Maria Theresa married Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, the idea of “Habsburg” as associated with ancestral Austrian rulership was used to show that the old dynasty
    continued as did all its inherited rights.

  • [8][9][10] History Counts of Habsburg[edit] The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as Habsburg, among the houses of Savoy, Zähringer
    and Kyburg The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, and forthwith farther back as the medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, from the Etichonids from which Habsburg

  • In anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis had declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after
    Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.

  • Philip became King of Spain and its colonial empire as Philip II, and ruler of the Habsburg domains in Italy and the Low Countries.

  • House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit] Main article: House of Habsburg-Lorraine On 6 August 1806, Emperor Francis I dissolved the Holy Roman Empire under pressure from Napoleon’s
    reorganization of Germany.

  • The title was first granted to Frederick’s younger brother, Albert VI of Austria (died 1463), who used it at least from 1458.

  • As emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family’s internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium

  • [28][24] The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 led to the War of the Spanish Succession, and that of Emperor Charles VI in 1740 led to the War of the Austrian Succession.

  • ); Country: Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg monarchy, Archduchy of Austria, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Iberian
    Union, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Portugal, Low Countries, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of England[note 1], Kingdom of Ireland[note 1], Other smaller historical states; Etymology:
    Habsburg Castle; Founded: 11th century; Founder: Radbot of Klettgau; Current head: Karl von Habsburg (cognatic line); Final ruler: Charles I of Austria (cognatic line); Motto: A.E.I.O.U.

  • Following his early death in a battle against the Ottomans in 1439 and that of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia once more as well as Hungary,
    for several decades.

  • This new House was created by the marriage between Maria Theresa of Habsburg and Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine[29] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg emperor
    Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) this new House being a cadet branch of the female line of the House of Habsburg and the male line of the House of Lorraine.

  • [38]: 306  In the early years of the family’s ascendancy, neither Rudolf I nor Albert I appear to have spoken French.

  • In the former, the House of Bourbon won the conflict and put a final end to the Habsburg rule in Spain.

  • This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope’s consent.

  • Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty.

  • [11] In the 12th century, the Habsburgs became increasingly associated with the Staufer Emperors, participating in the imperial court and the Emperor’s military expeditions;
    Werner II, Count of Habsburg died fighting for Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in Italy.

  • [5][6][7] The Habsburg name was not continuously used by the family members, since they often emphasized their more prestigious princely titles.

  • Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law that revoked Charles’ rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

  • “[43] Latin was the administrative language of the Empire until the aggressive promotion of German by Joseph II in the late 18th century, which was partly reversed by his

  • Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but the latter’s designs were ultimately successful: upon Louis’s death in battle in 1526, Ferdinand
    became king of Bohemia and Hungary.

  • After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg dynasty split into the branch of the Austrian (or German) Habsburgs, led by Ferdinand, and the branch of the Spanish
    Habsburgs, initially led by Charles’s son Philip.

  • Rudolf IV’s brothers Albert III and Leopold III ignored his efforts to preserve the integrity of the family domains and enacted the separation of the so-called Albertinian
    and Leopoldian family lines on 25 September 1379 by the Treaty of Neuberg.

  • [citation needed] Ferdinand I, Maximilian II and Rudolf II addressed the Bohemian Assembly in Czech, even though it is not clear that they were fluent.

  • After the death of Leopold’s eldest son William in 1406, the Leopoldian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest the Iron and
    a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick of the Empty Pockets.

  • The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, the eldest son of Charles I, on 31 May 1961 renounced all claims to the throne.

  • [3][4] The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland by Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg.

  • [14] Archdukes[edit] Through the forged document called privilegium maius (1358/59), Duke Rudolf IV (1339–1365) introduced the title of Archduke to place the Habsburgs on
    a par with the Prince-electors of the Empire, since Emperor Charles IV had omitted to give them the electoral dignity in his Golden Bull of 1356.

  • Meanwhile, the original home territories of the Habsburgs in what is now Switzerland, including the Aargau with Habsburg Castle, were lost in the 14th century to the expanding
    Swiss Confederacy after the battles of Morgarten (1315) and Sempach (1386).

  • 930–985 / 990) Father of:[49] The chronology of the Muri Abbey, burial place of the early Habsburgs, written in the 11th century, states that Guntramnus Dives (Guntram the
    Rich), was the ancestor of the House of Habsburg.

  • The Habsburg dynasty achieved its highest position when Charles V was elected Holy Roman Emperor.

  • In the early 14th century, they also focused on the Kingdom of Bohemia.

  • [22] Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia, Hungary,[23] and archduke of Austria in the name of his brother Charles V became suo jure monarch as well as the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor
    (designated as successor already in 1531).

  • Members of the Habsburg family oversee the Austrian branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George.

  • [14] While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe.

  • In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the “chosen Emperor,” and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances.

  • Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favor of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in

  • Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick’s children and therefore played an important
    role in the family’s rise to prominence.

  • The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Spain, Portugal and Galicia-Lodomeria, with their respective colonies; rulers of several principalities in the
    Low Countries and Italy; and in the 19th century, emperors of Austria and of Austria-Hungary as well as one emperor of Mexico.

  • [41] He gained a decent command of German following the Imperial election of 1519, though he never spoke it as well as French.

  • The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States.

  • On 1 October 1273, he was elected as a compromise candidate as King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.

  • After Frederick III’s coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously until 1806.

  • Founded the Muri Abbey, which became the first burial place of members of the House of Habsburg.

  • The next year, Albert was crowned as King of the Romans, known as such as Albert II.

  • The Holy Roman Empire had been multilingual from the start, even though most of its emperors were native German speakers.

  • [39] The last section of his Golden Bull of 1356 specifies that the Empire’s secular prince-electors “should be instructed in the varieties of the different dialects and languages”
    and that “since they are expected in all likelihood to have naturally acquired the German language, and to have been taught it from their infancy, [they] shall be instructed in the grammar of the Italian and Slavic tongues, beginning with
    the seventh year of their age so that, before the fourteenth year of their age, they may be learned in the same”.

  • Princes and members of the house use the tripartite arms adopted in the 18th century by Francis Stephen.

  • Furthermore, the Spanish king had claims on Hungary and Bohemia.

  • The Spanish Habsburgs also ruled Portugal for a time, known there as the Philippine dynasty (1580–1640).


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 German: Haus Österreich, pronounced [haʊ̯s ˈøːstəʁaɪ̯ç] ⓘ
 Spanish: Casa de Austria
 Dutch: Huis van Oostenrijk [ɦœy̯s vɑn oːstə(n)ɾɛi̯k]
 Polish: Dom
 Latin: Domus Austriæ
 French: Maison d’Autriche
 Hungarian: Ausztria Háza
 Italian: Casa d’Austria
 Portuguese: Casa da Áustria
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