• The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, burns as follows: In inadequate supply of air, carbon monoxide gas and water vapour are formed: Another example is the combustion of propane:
    And finally, for any linear alkane of n carbon atoms, Partial oxidation characterizes the reactions of alkenes and oxygen.

  • Common properties of hydrocarbons are the facts that they produce steam, carbon dioxide and heat during combustion and that oxygen is required for combustion to take place.

  • Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are mainly consumed for fuel, but they are also the source of virtually all synthetic organic compounds, including plastics and pharmaceuticals.

  • Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and may be either linear or branched species.

  • Some large-scale non-fuel applications of hydrocarbons begins with ethane and propane, which are obtained from petroleum and natural gas.

  • Free-radical substitution Main article: Free-radical halogenation Substitution reactions occur also in saturated hydrocarbons (all single carbon–carbon bonds).

  • [22][23] Safety Hydrocarbons are generally of low toxicity, hence the widespread use of gasoline and related volatile products.

  • In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

  • In the fossil fuel industries, hydrocarbon refers to naturally occurring petroleum, natural gas and coal, or their hydrocarbon derivatives and purified forms.

  • [5] There is also potential to harvest hydrocarbons from plants like Euphorbia lathyris and E. tirucalli as an alternative and renewable energy source for vehicles that use

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons containing a double bond between carbon atoms are sometimes referred to as ‘olefins’.

  • Petroleum (literally “rock oil”) and coal are generally thought to be products of decomposition of organic matter.

  • With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures,
    and deeper color.

  • [18] Bioremediation Bioremediation of hydrocarbon from soil or water contaminated is a formidable challenge because of the chemical inertness that characterize hydrocarbons
    (hence they survived millions of years in the source rock).

  • Methane is the predominant component of natural gas.

  • Usage The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source.

  • [8][9] Often this energy is used directly as heat such as in home heaters, which use either petroleum or natural gas.

  • Hydrocarbons are introduced into the environment through their extensive use as fuels and chemicals as well as through leaks or accidental spills during exploration, production,
    refining, or transport of fossil fuels.

  • Combustion of hydrocarbons is the main source of the world’s energy.

  • [16] Mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon phytoremediation[17] When soil is contaminated by hydrocarbons, it can have a significant impact on its microbiological, chemical,
    and physical properties.

  • High-temperature reactions Cracking Main article: Cracking (chemistry) Dehydrogenation Main article: Dehydrogenation Further information: Steam reforming Pyrolysis Main article:
    Pyrolysis Combustion Main article: Combustion Combustion of hydrocarbons is currently the main source of the world’s energy for electric power generation, heating (such as home heating) and transportation.

  • They are collected and widely utilized as roofing compounds, pavement composition (bitumen), wood preservatives (the creosote series) and as extremely high viscosity shear-resisting

  • [6] Furthermore, endophytic bacteria from plants that naturally produce hydrocarbons have been used in hydrocarbon degradation in attempts to deplete hydrocarbon concentration
    in polluted soils.


Works Cited

[‘1. Silberberg, Martin (2004). Chemistry: The Molecular Nature Of Matter and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN 0-07-310169-9.
2. ^ Meierhenrich, Uwe (2008). Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life: Caught in the Act of Formation. Berlin:
Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-76886-9. OCLC 288470227.
3. ^ Barnes, I. “TROPOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND COMPOSITION (Aromatic Hydrocarbons)”. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
4. ^ “Benzene global market volume 2015-2026”. Statista. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
5. ^
Nunes, T.M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Mateus, S.; Nascimento, F.S.; Lopes, N.P.; Zucchi, R. (2009). “Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Stingless Bee Schwarziana quadripunctata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): Differences between Colonies, Castes and Age” (PDF).
Genetics and Molecular Research. 8 (2): 589–595. doi:10.4238/vol8-2kerr012. PMID 19551647. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2015.
6. ^ Calvin, Melvin (1980). “Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations”. Naturwissenschaften.
67 (11): 525–533. Bibcode:1980NW…..67..525C. doi:10.1007/BF00450661. S2CID 40660980.
7. ^ Pawlik, Malgorzata (2017). “Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus
and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 24 (24): 19640–19652. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9496-1. PMC 5570797. PMID 28681302.
8. ^ “Generating Electricity”. Canadian Electricity
Association. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
9. ^ Zou, Caineng; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Guosheng; Xiong, Bo (1 January 2016). “Energy revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era”. Natural Gas Industry B. 3 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.ngib.2016.02.001.
ISSN 2352-8540.
10. ^ Clayden, J., Greeves, N., et al. (2001) Organic Chemistry Oxford ISBN 0-19-850346-6, p. 21.
11. ^ McMurry, J. (2000). Organic Chemistry 5th ed. Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-495-11837-0. pp. 75–81.
12. ^ Sephton,
M. A.; Hazen, R. M. (2013). “On the Origins of Deep Hydrocarbons”. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 75 (1): 449–465. Bibcode:2013RvMG…75..449S. doi:10.2138/rmg.2013.75.14.
13. ^ Dewulf, Jo. “Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere” (PDF). Retrieved
26 October 2020.
14. ^ NASA’s Cassini Spacecraft Reveals Clues About Saturn Moon. Archived 2 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. NASA (12 December 2013).
15. ^ Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K. (2014).
“PAH formation in O-rich planetary nebulae”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 441 (1): 364–377. arXiv:1403.1856. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.441..364G. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu454. S2CID 118540862.
16. ^ “Microbial Degradation of Alkanes (PDF
Download Available)”. ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
17. ^ Rohrbacher, Fanny; St-Arnaud, Marc (9 March 2016). “Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation”. Agronomy.
MDPI AG. 6 (1): 19. doi:10.3390/agronomy6010019. ISSN 2073-4395.
18. ^ “Additives Affecting the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons”, Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils, CRC Press, pp. 353–360, 9 June 2000, doi:10.1201/9781482270235-27,
ISBN 978-0-429-07804-0
19. ^ Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong (2016). “A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil — Present works and future directions”. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 109 (1): 14–45. Bibcode:2016MarPB.109…14L.
doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.04.023. PMID 27267117.
20. ^ Mason OU, Nakagawa T, Rosner M, Van Nostrand JD, Zhou J, Maruyama A, Fisk MR, Giovannoni SJ (2010). “First investigation of the microbiology of the deepest layer of ocean crust”. PLOS ONE.
5 (11): e15399. Bibcode:2010PLoSO…515399M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015399. PMC 2974637. PMID 21079766.
21. ^ Yakimov, M. M.; Timmis, K. N.; Golyshin, P. N. (2007). “Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria”. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18 (3): 257–266.
CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2007.04.006. PMID 17493798.
22. ^ Stamets, Paul (2008). “6 ways mushrooms can save the world” (video). TED Talk. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014.
23. ^ Stamets, Paul (2005). “Mycoremediation”.
Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Ten Speed Press. p. 86. ISBN 9781580085793.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/spjwebster/7320089276/’]