The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, burns as follows: In inadequate supply of air, carbon monoxide gas and water vapour are formed: Another example is the combustion of propane:
And finally, for any linear alkane of n carbon atoms, Partial oxidation characterizes the reactions of alkenes and oxygen.
Common properties of hydrocarbons are the facts that they produce steam, carbon dioxide and heat during combustion and that oxygen is required for combustion to take place.
Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are mainly consumed for fuel, but they are also the source of virtually all synthetic organic compounds, including plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and may be either linear or branched species.
Some large-scale non-fuel applications of hydrocarbons begins with ethane and propane, which are obtained from petroleum and natural gas.
Free-radical substitution Main article: Free-radical halogenation Substitution reactions occur also in saturated hydrocarbons (all single carbon–carbon bonds).
 Safety Hydrocarbons are generally of low toxicity, hence the widespread use of gasoline and related volatile products.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
In the fossil fuel industries, hydrocarbon refers to naturally occurring petroleum, natural gas and coal, or their hydrocarbon derivatives and purified forms.
 There is also potential to harvest hydrocarbons from plants like Euphorbia lathyris and E. tirucalli as an alternative and renewable energy source for vehicles that use
Aliphatic hydrocarbons containing a double bond between carbon atoms are sometimes referred to as ‘olefins’.
Petroleum (literally “rock oil”) and coal are generally thought to be products of decomposition of organic matter.
With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures,
and deeper color.
 Bioremediation Bioremediation of hydrocarbon from soil or water contaminated is a formidable challenge because of the chemical inertness that characterize hydrocarbons
(hence they survived millions of years in the source rock).
Methane is the predominant component of natural gas.
Usage The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source.
 Often this energy is used directly as heat such as in home heaters, which use either petroleum or natural gas.
Hydrocarbons are introduced into the environment through their extensive use as fuels and chemicals as well as through leaks or accidental spills during exploration, production,
refining, or transport of fossil fuels.
Combustion of hydrocarbons is the main source of the world’s energy.
 Mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon phytoremediation When soil is contaminated by hydrocarbons, it can have a significant impact on its microbiological, chemical,
and physical properties.
High-temperature reactions Cracking Main article: Cracking (chemistry) Dehydrogenation Main article: Dehydrogenation Further information: Steam reforming Pyrolysis Main article:
Pyrolysis Combustion Main article: Combustion Combustion of hydrocarbons is currently the main source of the world’s energy for electric power generation, heating (such as home heating) and transportation.
They are collected and widely utilized as roofing compounds, pavement composition (bitumen), wood preservatives (the creosote series) and as extremely high viscosity shear-resisting
 Furthermore, endophytic bacteria from plants that naturally produce hydrocarbons have been used in hydrocarbon degradation in attempts to deplete hydrocarbon concentration
in polluted soils.
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