History and artists Chinese painters and their influence on East Asia In Chinese painting, brush painting was one of the “four arts” expected to be learnt by China’s
class of scholar-officials.
• Ma Yuan (1160–1225), Dancing and Singing (Peasants Returning from Work), ink and light lolor on silk, 13th century, Southern Song (Chinese), Palace Museum, Beijing.
Northern School and painters Northern School (běi zōng huà) was a manner of Chinese landscape painting centered on a loose group of artists who worked and lived in Northern
China during the Five Dynasties period that occupied the time between the collapse of the Tang dynasty and the rise of the Song.
 Ink wash painting appeared during the Tang dynasty (618–907), and its early development is credited to Wang Wei (active in the 8th century) and Zhang Zao, among others.
Wang Wei is the most important representative of early Chinese ink wash painting.
His works, together with that of Xia Gui, formed the basis of the so-called Ma-Xia school of painting, and are considered among the finest from the period.
 In China and Japan as well as much less so in Korea, ink wash painting formed a distinct stylistic tradition with a different set of artists working in it than from those
doing other types of painting.
• Detail from the hand scroll Pure and Remote View of Streams and Mountains, ink on Xuan paper, one of Xia Gui’s most important works, 13th century China.
Modern times Modern and contemporary Chinese freehand ink wash painting is the most famous of the Shanghai School, and the most representative ones are the following
 Some Western scholars divide Chinese painting (including ink wash painting) into three periods: times of representation, times of expression, and historical Oriental art.
• Dong Yuan (934–962) Dongtian Mountain Hall, ink and light color on silk, 10th century, the Five Dynasties (Chinese).
• A Duan Inkstone of the Song Dynasty-In for making Chinese ink using water and an inkstick, 10th century, China.
 Li Tang (Chinese pinyin: Lǐ Táng; Wade–Giles: Li T’ang, courtesy name Xigu; c. 1050 – 1130) of the Northern School, especially Ma Yuan (Mǎ Yuǎn; Ma Yüan; c. 1160–65 –
1225) and Xia Gui’s ink wash painting modeling and techniques have a profound influence on Japanese and Korean ink wash paintings.
• Dong Yuan, Jiangnan Summer View, ink and light color on silk, 10th century, the Five Dynasties, China.
 In the Ming dynasty, Dong Qichang would identify two distinct styles: a clearer, grander Northern School; Beizonghua or Beihua, Japanese: Hokushūga or Hokuga), and a freer,
more expressive Southern School (Nanzonghua or Nanhua, Japanese: Nanshūga or Nanga), also called “Literati Painting” (Wenrenhua, Japanese: Bunjinga).
Qi Baishi (qí bái shí, qí huáng 1 January 1864–16 September 1957) was a Chinese painter noted for the whimsical, often playful style of his ink wash painting works.
 It was first mentioned in ancient Chinese books Notes of Past Famous Paintings and New Book of Tang.
His works has inspired both Chinese artists of the Zhe School, as well as the great early Japanese painters Shūbun and Sesshū.
 Chinese historical views have traditionally found it more appropriate to divide the general artistic features of this historical stage by the theory of Southern School
and Northern School, as promulgated Dong Qichang in the Ming Dynasty.
For example, the first monograph on the selection, production and function of a writing brush was written by Cai Yong in the eastern Han dynasty.
• Muqi, Guanyin, Crane, and Gibbons, Southern Song (Chinese), 13th century, set of three hanging scrolls, ink and color on silk, height: 173.9–174.2 cm (68.5–68.6 in), collected
in Daitokuji, Kyoto, Japan.
), Six Persimmons, Chinese: ink on Xuan paper, 13th century, Southern Song (Chinese).
 • Su Shi (Chinese: 1037 – 1101), Withered Tree and Strange Rock, ink on Xuan paper, 11th century, China.
• Li Tang, Duke Wen of Jin Recovering His State, handscroll, ink and color on silk, collected by the Metropolitan Museum of Art • Li Tang, Boy and water buffalo, collected
by the Palace Museum, Beijing.
Together with Ma Yuan, he founded the so-called Ma-Xia school, one of the most important of the period.
 Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties Western scholars have written that before the Song Dynasty, ink wash was primarily used for representation painting, while
in the Yuan Dynasty, expressive painting predominated.
 Ink wash painting flourished from the Song dynasty in China (960–1279) onwards, as well as in Japan after it was introduced by Zen Buddhist monks in the 14th century.
 The Four Treasures is summarized in a four word couplet: (Pinyin: wénfáng sìbǎo: bǐ, mò, zhǐ, yàn) “The four jewels of the study: Brush, Ink, Paper, Inkstone” by Chinese
scholar-official or literati class, which are also indispensable tools and materials for East Asian painting.
: 703  Four Wangs were four Chinese landscape painters in the 17th century, all called Wang (surname Wang).
 As representatives of scholar painting (or “Literati Painting”, the part of the Southern School), painters such as Su Shi, Mi Fu and Mi Youren, especially Muqi, had
a decisive influence on East Asian ink wash painting.
He is known for leading the Lingnan School’s effort to modernize Chinese traditional ink wash painting as a “new national art.
 • Li Tang (Chinese pinyin: Lǐ Táng; Wade–Giles: Li T’ang, 1050 – 1130), Wind in Pines Among a Myriad Valleys, Chinese: 1124, ink and color on silk, 188.7 cm (74.2 in);
Width: 139.8 cm (55 in), collected by National Palace Museum, Taipei.
), also known as Fachang, was a Chinese Chan Buddhist monk and painter who lived in the 13th century, around the end of the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279).
Nevertheless, a few artists, including the Japanese master Sesshū, continued Xia’s tradition for hundreds of years, until the early 17th century.
• Fragment of ancient Chinese paper map with features in black ink, found on the chest of the occupant of Tomb 5 of Fangmatan, Gansu in China in 1986, from early Western Han,
2nd century BC, 5.6 cm × 2.6 cm (2.2 in × 1.0 in).
: 2056 Important painters who have absorbed Western sketching methods to improve Chinese ink wash painting include Gao Jianfu, Xu Beihong and Liu Haisu, etc.
 Dow’s fascination with ink wash painting not only shaped his own approach to art but also helped free many American modernists of the era, including his student Georgia
O’Keeffe, from what he called a “story-telling” approach.
 The writing brush entered a new stage of development in the Han dynasty.
• An image of a Ming dynasty woodcut describing five major steps in ancient Chinese papermaking process as outlined by Cai Lun in 105 AD.
Very little is known about his life, and only a few of his works survive, but he is generally considered one of China’s greatest artists.
 Xu Wei Xú Wèi; Hsü Wei, 1521–1593) and Chen Chun (1483–1544) are the main painters of the bold and unconstrained style of literati painting, and their ink wash painting
is characterized by the incisive and fluent ink and wash. Their ink wash painting style is considered to have the typical characteristics of the Historical Oriental art.
 East Asian ink wash painting has long inspired modern artists in the West.
• Gao Kegong (1248–1310), Evening Clouds (Chinese), ink and color on Xuan paper mounted on hanging scroll, 13th century, China.
 Xuan paper Paper (Chinese Pinyin: zhǐ) was first developed in China in the first decade of 100 AD.
: 236 Southern School and painters Southern School (nán zōng huà) of Chinese painting, often called “literati painting” (wén rén huà), is a term used to denote
art and artists which stand in opposition to the formal Northern School of painting.
Huzhou has been the center of Chinese brush making since the Qing dynasty.
 Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou is the name for a group of eight Chinese painters active in the 18th century, who were known in the Qing Dynasty for rejecting the orthodox
ideas about painting in favor of a style deemed expressive and individualist.
His ink wash painting style is considered by Dong Qichang to be the most typical style of Southern School.
 Chinese name: Transcriptions: Standard Mandarin, Hanyu Pinyin, Shuǐ Mò Huà; Korean name: Transcriptions: Revised Romanization, Sumukhwa; Japanese name: Transcriptions:
Revised Hepburn, suibokuga, sumie Philosophy East Asian writing on aesthetics is generally consistent in saying that the goal of ink and wash painting is not simply to reproduce the appearance of the subject, but to capture its spirit.
• Huang Shen (Chinese: 1687–1772) (one of the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou), Firsherman and Fisherwoman, ink on Xuan paper, 18th century, Qing Dynasty, China, collection of
the Nanjing Museum.
• Huang Gongwang (Chinese: 1269－1354), Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains, Chinese, ink on Xuan paper, 1348 and 1351, collected by National Palace Museum, Taipei.
 Chinese scholars have their own views which may be different; they believe that contemporary Chinese ink wash paintings are the pluralistic continuation of multiple
His ink wash painting style has a huge influence on East Asia, especially Japan.
Several methods of paper production developed over the centuries in China.
• Image from the 17th-century technical document Tiangong Kaiwu detailing how pine is burned in a furnace at one end and its soot collected at the other for making inkstick,
• Ma Yuan, Immortal Riding a Dragon, Chinese: ink and light colors on silk, height: 108.1 cm (42.5 in), width: 52.6 cm (20.7 in), hanging scroll, Southern Song Dynasty, early
Rice and several other materials were later added to the recipe in the Song and Yuan Dynasties.
• Wu Zhen (Chinese: 1280–1354), Crooked Pine, 1335, ink on silk, collected by Metropolitan Museum of Art.
• Zhu Da (Chinese: 1626–1705), Lotus and Birds, ink on Xuan paper, 17th century, Qing Dynasty, China, Shanghai Museum.
Ink wash painting (Chinese pinyin: shuǐmòhuà; Japanese, romanized: suiboku-ga or Japanese, romanized: sumi-e; Korean, romanized: sumukhwa) is a type of Chinese ink brush painting
which uses black ink, such as that used in Asian calligraphy, in different concentrations.
• Xu Gu (Xū Gǔ; Hsü Ku, 1824–1896), High Mountains and Streams, Chinese: ink on Xuan paper, 19th century, Qing Dynasty, China.
 Chinese collectors liked to stamp paintings with their seals and usually in red inkpad; sometimes they would add poems or notes of appreciation.
 • Ink brush with golden dragon design, used by the Ming Wanli Emperor (1563-1620), China.
Although Xia was popular during his lifetime, his reputation suffered after his death, together with that of all Southern Song academy painters.
 • Shen Zhou (Chinese: 1427–1509), Lofty Mount Lu (Chinese: ), Ming dynasty, 1467 (), Medium: Hanging scroll, ink and colors on Xuan paper, Dimensions: 193.8 × 98.1 cm
(height × width), China.
In his classic book Composition, American artist and educator Arthur Wesley Dow (1857–1922) wrote this about ink wash painting: “The painter… put upon the paper the fewest
possible lines and tones; just enough to cause form, texture and effect to be felt.
 Muqi’s style of painting has also profoundly impacted painters from later periods to follow, especially monk painters in Japan.
In Korea, painters were less segregated, and more willing to paint in two techniques, such as mixing areas of colour with monochrome ink, for example in painting the faces
Today, he is considered to be one of the greatest Chan painters in history.
It was often produced by the scholar-official or literati class, ideally illustrating their own poetry and producing the paintings as gifts for friends or patrons, rather
than painting for payment.
His theoretical system has a great influence on the painting concept and practice of East Asian countries, including Japan and Korea.
These skills are closely related to those needed for basic writing in East Asian characters, and then for calligraphy, which essentially use the same ink and brushes.
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