international space station


  • Russia’s new primary research module Nauka docked in July 2021,[108] along with the European Robotic Arm which will be able to relocate itself to different parts of the Russian
    modules of the station.

  • [11] Exploration[edit] A 3D plan of the Russia-based MARS-500 complex, used for conducting ground-based experiments that complement ISS-based preparations for a human mission
    to Mars The ISS provides a location in the relative safety of low Earth orbit to test spacecraft systems that will be required for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  • Development and assembly of the station continues, with an experimental inflatable space habitat added in 2016, and several major new Russian elements scheduled for launch
    starting in 2021.

  • [85] Construction Manufacturing[edit] Main article: Manufacturing of the International Space Station ISS module Node 2 manufacturing and processing in the Space Station Processing
    Facility Since the International Space Station is a multi-national collaborative project, the components for in-orbit assembly were manufactured in various countries around the world.

  • Small uncrewed spacecraft can also provide platforms for experiments, especially those involving zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment
    where studies can be performed potentially for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers.

  • It was the third module launched to the station, and provides all of the station’s life support systems, some of which are supplemented in the USOS, as well as living quarters
    for two crew members.

  • An iconic view of the completed station as seen from Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132, 23 May 2010 Main articles: Assembly of the International Space Station and List of ISS
    spacewalks The assembly of the International Space Station, a major endeavour in space architecture, began in November 1998.

  • Roscosmos had endorsed the continued operation of ROS through 2024,[19] having previously proposed using elements of the segment to construct a new Russian space station called

  • [32] Purpose The ISS was originally intended to be a laboratory, observatory, and factory while providing transportation, maintenance, and a low Earth orbit staging base for
    possible future missions to the Moon, Mars, and asteroids.

  • [13] The ISS programme evolved from the Space Station Freedom, a 1984 American proposal to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting station,[14] and the contemporaneous
    Soviet/Russian Mir-2 proposal from 1976 with similar aims.

  • [30] They also agreed, in preparation for this new project, that the United States would be involved in the Mir programme, including American Shuttles docking, in the Shuttle–Mir

  • These two flights each added segments of the station’s Integrated Truss Structure, which provided the station with Ku-band communication for US television, additional attitude
    support needed for the additional mass of the USOS, and substantial solar arrays to supplement the station’s four existing arrays.

  • As of April 2022, 251 astronauts, cosmonauts, and space tourists from 20 different nations have visited the space station, many of them multiple times.

  • [10][11][12] The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  • [28] The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), or Kibō, was announced in 1985, as part of the Freedom space station in response to a NASA request in 1982.

  • As a result of the major expansion of the station’s power-generating capabilities, more pressurised modules could be accommodated, and the Harmony node and Columbus European
    laboratory were added.

  • [72] Through a series of education guides, students develop a deeper understanding of the past and near-term future of crewed space flight, as well as that of Earth and life.

  • [63] Sergey Krasnov, the head of human space flight programmes for Russia’s space agency, Roscosmos, in 2011 suggested a “shorter version” of MARS-500 may be carried out on
    the ISS.

  • [11][59] Freefall[edit] ISS crew member storing samples A comparison between the combustion of a candle on Earth (left) and in a free fall environment, such as that found
    on the ISS (right) Gravity at the altitude of the ISS is approximately 90% as strong as at Earth’s surface, but objects in orbit are in a continuous state of freefall, resulting in an apparent state of weightlessness.

  • [13] Referring to the MARS-500 experiment, a crew isolation experiment conducted on Earth, ESA states that “Whereas the ISS is essential for answering questions concerning
    the possible impact of weightlessness, radiation and other space-specific factors, aspects such as the effect of long-term isolation and confinement can be more appropriately addressed via ground-based simulations”.

  • [edit] In the early 1980s, NASA planned to launch a modular space station called Freedom as a counterpart to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations.

  • [57][58] Remote sensing of the Earth, astronomy, and deep space research on the ISS have dramatically increased during the 2010s after the completion of the US Orbital Segment
    in 2011.

  • “[65] A crewed mission to Mars may be a multinational effort involving space agencies and countries outside the current ISS partnership.

  • [35] Scientific research[edit] Main article: Scientific research on the International Space Station Comet Lovejoy photographed by Expedition 30 commander Dan Burbank Expedition
    8 Commander and Science Officer Michael Foale conducts an inspection of the Microgravity Science Glovebox Fisheye view of several labs CubeSats are deployed by the NanoRacks CubeSat Deployer The ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific
    research, with power, data, cooling, and crew available to support experiments.

  • The ISS is helping further advance near-Earth space exploration and realisation of prospective programmes of research and exploration of the Solar system, including the Moon
    and Mars.

  • If follow-on experiments are necessary, the routinely scheduled launches of resupply craft allows new hardware to be launched with relative ease.

  • [36][37] The ISS simplifies individual experiments by allowing groups of experiments to share the same launches and crew time.

  • Zvezda was initially manufactured in 1985 as a component for Mir-2, but was never launched and instead became the ISS Service Module.

  • The space station was also going to tie the emerging European and Japanese national space programmes closer to the US-led project, thereby preventing those nations from becoming
    major, independent competitors too.

  • ‘Dawn'[b]), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB, is the first module of the ISS to have been launched.

  • The plan spearheaded by Germany and Italy included a module which would be attached to Freedom, and with the capability to evolve into a full-fledged European orbital outpost
    before the end of the century.

  • Currently docked on station, it could not have been easily accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power and bandwidth needs.

  • “[99] Yuri Semenov, the President of Russian Space Corporation Energia at the time, disapproved of the name “Alpha” as he felt that Mir was the first modular space station,
    so the names “Beta” or “Mir 2” for the ISS would have been more fitting.

  • The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, which is used, for example, to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis.

  • [21] The station has since been continuously occupied for 21 years and 254 days,[22] the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous
    record of 9 years and 357 days held by the Mir space station.

  • Beginning in the mid 1990s, the U.S. components Destiny, Unity, the Integrated Truss Structure, and the solar arrays were fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center and
    the Michoud Assembly Facility.

  • These data will be used to determine whether high duration human spaceflight and space colonisation are feasible.

  • [91] The Mobile Servicing System, consisting of the Canadarm2 and the Dextre grapple fixture, was manufactured at various factories in Canada (such as the David Florida Laboratory)
    and the United States, under contract by the Canadian Space Agency.

  • The Space Shuttles Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour delivered the Destiny laboratory and Quest airlock, in addition to the station’s main robot arm, the Canadarm2, and several
    more segments of the Integrated Truss Structure.

  • [23][24] There have been calls to privatize ISS operations after that point to pursue future Moon and Mars missions, with former NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine stating:
    “given our current budget constraints, if we want to go to the moon and we want to go to Mars, we need to commercialize low Earth orbit and go on to the next step.

  • [113] Unity as seen by Space Shuttle Endeavour during STS-88 Unity[edit] Main article: Unity (ISS module) The Unity connecting module, also known as Node 1, is the first U.S.-built
    component of the ISS.

  • All other modules were delivered by the Space Shuttle, which required installation by ISS and Shuttle crewmembers using the Canadarm2 (SSRMS) and extra-vehicular activities
    (EVAs); by 5 June 2011, they had added 159 components during more than 1,000 hours of EVA.

  • [54][55][56] In August 2020, scientists reported that bacteria from Earth, particularly Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria, which is highly resistant to environmental hazards,
    were found to survive for three years in outer space, based on studies conducted on the International Space Station.

  • The latest major pressurised module, Nauka, was fitted in 2021, a little over ten years after the previous major addition, Leonardo in 2011.

  • Items at different locations within the ISS would, if not attached to the station, follow slightly different orbits.

  • In early 1985, science ministers from the European Space Agency (ESA) countries approved the Columbus programme, the most ambitious effort in space undertaken by that organisation
    at the time.

  • This provides experience in operations, maintenance as well as repair and replacement activities on-orbit.

  • These modules were delivered to the Operations and Checkout Building and the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) for final assembly and processing for launch.

  • The US segment includes ten modules, whose support services are distributed 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA and 2.3% for CSA.

  • A passive NASA module, Unity, was launched two weeks later aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-88 and attached to Zarya by astronauts during EVAs.

  • Assembly[edit] Animation of the assembly of the International Space Station The ISS was slowly assembled over more than a decade of spaceflights and crews.

  • However, a considerable amount of crew time is taken up by station maintenance.

  • By matching the orbit of the ISS to that of Vostok 1 as closely as possible, in terms of ground path and time of day, documentary filmmaker Christopher Riley and ESA astronaut
    Paolo Nespoli were able to film the view that Yuri Gagarin saw on his pioneering orbital space flight.

  • The International Space Station (ISS) is a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit.

  • Zvezda added sleeping quarters, a toilet, kitchen, CO2 scrubbers, dehumidifier, oxygen generators, and exercise equipment, plus data, voice and television communications with
    mission control, enabling permanent habitation of the station.

  • [67] Currently, US federal legislation prevents NASA co-operation with China on space projects.

  • At the end of the first day on the station, astronaut Bill Shepherd requested the use of the radio call sign “Alpha”, which he and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev preferred to the
    more cumbersome “International Space Station”.

  • [68] Education and cultural outreach[edit] Original Jules Verne manuscripts displayed by crew inside the Jules Verne ATV The ISS crew provides opportunities for students on
    Earth by running student-developed experiments, making educational demonstrations, allowing for student participation in classroom versions of ISS experiments, and directly engaging students using radio, and email.

  • It is the structural and functional center of the Russian Orbital Segment, which is the Russian part of the ISS.

  • [77] 0:45 Spoken voice recording by ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli on the subject of the ISS, produced in November 2017 for Wikipedia First Orbit is a 2011 feature-length documentary
    film about Vostok 1, the first crewed space flight around the Earth.

  • With the launch and assembly in orbit of other modules with more specialized functionality, Zarya, as of August 2021, is primarily be used for storage, both inside the pressurized
    section and in the externally mounted fuel tanks.

  • [96] The name “Alpha” had previously been used for the station in the early 1990s,[97] and its use was authorised for the whole of Expedition 1.

  • [33] In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given additional roles of serving commercial, diplomatic,[34] and educational purposes.

  • This will help develop essential skills in operating spacecraft farther from Earth, reduce mission risks, and advance the capabilities of interplanetary spacecraft.

  • [83][84] In November 2021, a virtual reality exhibit called The Infinite featuring life aboard the ISS was announced.

  • In 2006, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggested that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after
    a lengthy interplanetary cruise, such as the six-month interval required to travel to Mars.

  • The Unity module has two Pressurised Mating Adapters (PMAs): one connects permanently to Zarya and the other allowed the Space Shuttle to dock to the space station.

  • In areas where radio equipment cannot be used, speakerphones connect students to ground stations which then connect the calls to the space station.


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[‘Temporary docking adapter used till Prichal module arrival
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