• [153][143] Early Muslim period Main articles: History of Jerusalem during the Early Muslim period and the Middle Ages 1455 painting of the Holy Land.

  • [84][85] Another name, “Zion”, initially referred to a distinct part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole, and afterwards to represent the whole biblical
    Land of Israel.

  • [106] By around 1550-1200 BCE, Jerusalem was the capital of an Egyptian vassal city-state,[107] a modest settlement governing a few outlying villages and pastoral areas, with
    a small Egyptian garrison and ruled by appointees such as king Abdi-Heba,[108] At the time of Seti I (r. 1290–1279 BCE) and Ramesses II (r. 1279–1213 BCE), major construction took place as prosperity increased.

  • [196] The English reference book Modern history or the present state of all nations, written in 1744, stated that “Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine,
    though much fallen from its ancient grandeaur”.

  • Reverse: “Jerusalem the Holy”, in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE The Siege
    and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850) Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor Hadrian combined Iudaea Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria Palaestina, replacing the name of Judea.

  • The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (623 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according
    to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad’s night journey and ascension to heaven took place.

  • [156] The ban was maintained until the 7th century,[157] though Christians would soon be granted an exemption: during the 4th century, the Roman emperor Constantine I ordered
    the construction of Christian holy sites in the city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

  • David is said to have conquered these in the Siege of Jebus, and transferred his capital from Hebron to Jerusalem which then became the capital of a United Kingdom of Israel,[123]
    and one of its several religious centres.

  • [86] Other early Hebrew sources,[87] early Christian renderings of the verse[88] and targumim,[89] however, put Salem in Northern Israel near Shechem (Sichem), now Nablus,
    a city of some importance in early sacred Hebrew writing.

  • [179] Crusader/Ayyubid period Further information: History of Jerusalem during the Kingdom of Jerusalem In 1099, the Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population
    before Jerusalem was besieged by the soldiers of the First Crusade.

  • [91] However that may be, later Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link Melchizedek to later Temple traditions.

  • However, during the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem was captured from Jordan by Israel, after which it was effectively annexed and incorporated into the other Israeli-held
    parts of the city, together with additional surrounding territory.

  • [174] Animation of Jerusalem around 1050; Latin with English subtitles Over the next four hundred years, Jerusalem’s prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region vied
    for control of the city.

  • [185][186][187][188][189] The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem’s fortifications.

  • [96][97] In contrast, Palestinian nationalists claim the right to the city based on modern Palestinians’ longstanding presence and descent from many different peoples who
    have settled or lived in the region over the centuries.

  • First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge Many Jewish tombs from the Second Temple period have been unearthed in Jerusalem.

  • The southern tribes, together with the Aaronid priesthood, remained in Jerusalem, with the city becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.

  • [27] According to the Hebrew Bible, the city was conquered from the Jebusites by the Israelite king David, who established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel.

  • [170] With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city.

  • [119] Biblical account This period, when Canaan formed part of the Egyptian empire, corresponds in biblical accounts to Joshua’s invasion,[120] but almost all scholars agree
    that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel.

  • [95] Israeli or Jewish nationalists claim a right to the city based on Jewish indigeneity to the land, particularly their origins in and descent from the Israelites, for whom
    Jerusalem is their capital, and their yearning for return.

  • The rest of the city “was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city following the destruction of 70 CE: Aelia Capitolina”.

  • Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem in Byzantine times probably consisted only of Christians.

  • [200] Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to

  • [42][43] As a result of all of these events, despite having an area of only 0.9 km2 (3⁄8 sq mi),[44] the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance; namely
    the Temple Mount (also known as Al-Aqsa or Haram al-Sharif) with the Dome of the Rock, Al-Aqsa Mosque and Western Wall, as well as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

  • However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city’s fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.

  • [129] On Solomon’s death, ten of the northern tribes of Israel broke with the United Monarchy to form their own nation, with its kings, prophets, priests, traditions relating
    to religion, capitals and temples in northern Israel.

  • [note 3][13] A site of permanent inhabitation since at least the 3rd millennium BCE, significant construction activities began throughout the city in the 9th century BCE,
    and by the 8th century BCE, Jerusalem had developed into the capital of the Iron Age Kingdom of Judah.

  • Today, these walls define the Old City, which has historically been split into four areas known since the 19th century as the Jewish Quarter, the Armenian Quarter, the Christian
    Quarter, and the Muslim Quarter (clockwise from the southeast end).

  • During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later
    annexed by Jordan.

  • After taking the solidly defended city by assault, the Crusaders massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, and made it the capital of their Kingdom of Jerusalem.

  • [137][better source needed] Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship.

  • [195]: 589–612  Jerusalem, from ‘Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam’ by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486) Ottoman period (16th–19th centuries) Further information: Expansion of
    Jerusalem in the 19th century In 1517, Jerusalem and its environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917.

  • Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period.

  • [158] In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, ruled from the recently renamed Constantinople, maintained control of the city.

  • Roman rule over Jerusalem and Judea was challenged in the First Jewish–Roman War (66-73 CE), which ended with a Roman victory.

  • [29][30][31] These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people.

  • Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo.

  • [130][131] Classical antiquity Main articles: Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period and Aelia Capitolina In 538 BCE, the Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews
    of Babylon to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.

  • [79] Jebus, Zion, City of David An ancient settlement of Jerusalem, founded as early as the Bronze Age on the hill above the Gihon Spring, was, according to the Bible, named

  • [19][20][21][22] Ownership of the city then passed into Muslim hands with the conquest of the Levant in 638 CE.

  • Taken together, these measures[152][153][154] (which also affected Jewish Christians)[155] essentially “secularized” the city.

  • According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of two names united by God, Yireh (“the abiding place”, the name given by Abraham to the place where he planned to sacrifice
    his son) and Shalem (“Place of Peace”, the name given by high priest Shem).

  • [104][105] Late bronze age Further information: City of David (archaeological site) Stepped Stone Structure from the Bronze Age and Iron Age on the southeastern slope of old
    Jerusalem The earliest evidence of city fortifications appear in the Mid to Late Bronze Age and could date to around the 18th century BCE.

  • [19][20][21][22][146] The contemporary Jewish historian Josephus wrote that the city “was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations,
    that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation.

  • [191] Old gates to the Haram lost importance and new gates were built,[191] while significant parts of the northern and western porticoes along the edge of the Temple Mount
    plaza were built or rebuilt in this period.

  • [164] Among the first Muslims, it was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis (“City of the Temple”),[165] a name restricted to the Temple Mount.

  • [193] The well-known and far-traveled lexicographer Fairuzabadi (1329–1414) spent ten years in Jerusalem.

  • [79] Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE In extra-biblical
    inscriptions, the earliest known example of the -ayim ending was discovered on a column about 3 km west of ancient Jerusalem, dated to the first century BCE.

  • A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a “Golden Age” of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated
    by the Crusades.

  • In the Bible, Jerusalem is defined as lying within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin[122] though still inhabited by Jebusites.

  • [109] Opinion is divided over whether the so-called Large Stone Structure and the nearby Stepped Stone Structure may be identified with King David’s palace, or dates to a
    later period.

  • Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy for the three
    major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

  • In 1538 CE, the surrounding city walls were rebuilt for a last time under Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire.

  • [184] From 1229 to 1244, Jerusalem peacefully reverted to Christian control as a result of a 1229 treaty agreed between the crusading Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and al-Kamil,
    the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, that ended the Sixth Crusade.

  • In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem’s Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva.

  • [32][33] The sobriquet of “holy city”, (‘Ir ha-Qodesh) was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times.

  • Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule, then back to Roman-Byzantine dominion.

  • [115] A huge water reservoir dating from this period was discovered in 2012 near Robinson’s Arch, indicating the existence of a densely built-up quarter across the area west
    of the Temple Mount during the Kingdom of Judah.

  • [note 6] One of Israel’s Basic Laws, the Jerusalem Law of 1980, refers to “complete and undivided” Jerusalem as the country’s capital.

  • [24] Since 1860, Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City’s boundaries.

  • [124] The choice was perhaps dictated by the fact that Jerusalem did not form part of Israel’s tribal system, and was thus suited to serve as the centre of its confederation.

  • [182] Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent—including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City.

  • Solomon’s Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish religion as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant.

  • [192] When Nachmanides visited in 1267 he found only two Jewish families, in a population of 2,000, 300 of whom were Christians, in the city.

  • One example, discovered north of the Old City, contains human remains in a 1st-century CE ossuary decorated with the Aramaic inscription “Simon the Temple Builder.

  • [172] Christian-Arab tradition records that, when led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray
    in the church so that Muslims would not request conversion of the church to a mosque.

  • Early on, the city was devastated by a brutal civil war between several Jewish factions fighting for control of the city.

  • [132][133] Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple.

  • Greek, Roman and Byzantine names In Greek and Latin, the city’s name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek; in Greek hieròs, means holy), although the city was renamed Aelia
    Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history.


Works Cited

[‘The State of Palestine (according to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards Jerusalem as its capital.[1] However, the documents of the PLO’s Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD) often refer to East Jerusalem (rather than the whole
of Jerusalem) as a future capital, and sometimes as the current capital. One of its 2010 documents, described as “for discussion purposes only”, says that Palestine has a ‘”vision”‘ for a future in which “East Jerusalem … shall be the capital
of Palestine, and West Jerusalem shall be the capital of Israel”,[2][3] and one of its 2013 documents refers to “Palestine’s capital, East Jerusalem”, and states that “Occupied East Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for
the future Palestinian state”, while also stating that “Jerusalem has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine” and that “The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is
a painful compromise”.[4]
o ^ In other languages: official Arabic in Israel: Arabic: أورشليم القدس, romanized: ʾŪršalīm al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); Turkish: Kudüs; Ancient Greek: Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, romanized:
Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; Armenian: Երուսաղեմ, romanized: Erusałēm.
o ^ Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are there. The State of Palestine (according
to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards Jerusalem as its capital.[1] The UN and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations
between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion (see CIA Factbook and “Map of Israel” (PDF). (319 KB)) See Status of Jerusalem for more
o ^ Statistics regarding the demographics of Jerusalem refer to the unified and expanded Israeli municipality, which includes the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities as well as several additional Palestinian villages and neighborhoods
to the northeast. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[26] but their legal statuses have not been reverted.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Much of the information
regarding King David’s conquest of Jerusalem comes from Biblical accounts, but some modern-day historians have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.[28]
o ^ West Jerusalem comprises approximately one third of the municipal area of
Jerusalem, with East Jerusalem comprising approximately two-thirds. On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel also incorporated an area of the West Bank into the Jerusalem municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East Jerusalem
under Jordanian rule.[45][46][47]
o 2003 Amended Basic Law. Basic Law of Palestine. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
o ^ “Jerusalem Non-Paper” (PDF). PLO-NAD. June 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
o ^
“Statements and Speeches”. p. 2. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2014. This paper is for discussion purposes only. Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.Palestinian vision for Jerusalem…Pursuant
to our vision, East Jerusalem, as defined by its pre-1967 occupation municipal borders, shall be the capital of Palestine, and West Jerusalem shall be the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the
o ^ “East Jerusalem today – Palestine’s Capital: The 1967 border in Jerusalem and Israel’s illegal policies on the ground” (PDF). PLO-Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD). August 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved
25 November 2014. … Palestine’s capital, East Jerusalem … The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise: … Jerusalem has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual
heart of Palestine. Occupied East Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for the future Palestinian state.
o ^ “Population in the Localities 2019” (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
o ^
“Localities, Population and Density per Sq. Km., by Metropolitan Area and Selected Localities”. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
o ^ “פרסומים – מכון ירושלים למחקרי מדיניות” (PDF).
o ^ Israel Central
Bureau of Statistics (29 May 2019). “Communication notice 156/2019: Selected Data on the Occasion of Jerusalem Day (2016-2018)” (PDF) (in Hebrew). Of these, 559,849 were Jews and others (62.1%) – 341,453 Arabs (37.9%)
o ^ Sub-national HDI. “Area
Database”. Global Data Lab.
o ^ A-Z Guide to the Qur’an: A Must-have Reference to Understanding the Contents of the Islamic Holy Book by Mokhtar Stork (1999): “JERUSALEM: Referred to in Arabic as Baitul Muqaddas (The Holy
House) or Baitul Maqdis (The House of the Sanctuary)”.
o ^ Pan-Islamism in India & Bengal by Mohammad Shah (2002), p. 63: “… protector of Mecca, Medina and Baitul Muqaddas, the sacred places of pilgrimage of the Muslim world”
o ^ Jump up to:a
b Elihay, Yohanan (2011). Speaking Arabic: a course in conversational Eastern (Palestinian) Arabic. Rothberg International School ([2009 ed.], reprinted with corr. 2011 ed.). Jerusalem: Minerva. p. 36. ISBN 978-965-7397-30-5. OCLC 783142368.
o ^
Landler, Mark (6 December 2017). “Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move”. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
o ^ Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel’s Past:
The Changing Study of the Bible and History. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0802862600 – via Google Books.
o ^ Naʾaman, N. (2007). When and How Did Jerusalem Become a Great City? The Rise of Jerusalem as Judah’s Premier City in the Eighth-Seventh
Centuries BCE. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 347(1), 21-56. “The urbanization and settlement of Jerusalem and its environs should be seen in conjunction with the development of the kingdom of Judah. The capital city grew and
expanded in the course of the ninth–eighth centuries b.c.e., reaching its zenith at the end of the eighth, on the eve of Sennacherib’s campaign to Judah. The settlement on the Western Hill began in the first half of the eighth century, possibly even
earlier, and culminated in the early seventh century, with the influx of refugees from the devastated cities of Judah.”
o ^ “Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?”. Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
According to Eric H. Cline’s tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
o ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Free Press. p. 307.
ISBN 0-684-86912-8. OCLC 44509358. Intensive excavations throughout Jerusalem have shown that the city was indeed systematically destroyed by the Babylonians. The conflagration seems to have been general. When activity on the ridge of the City of
David resumed in the Persian period, the-new suburbs on the western hill that had flourished since at least the time of Hezekiah were not reoccupied.
o ^ Levine, Lee I. (2002). Jerusalem: portrait of the city in the Second Temple period (538 BCE
– 70 CE) (1st ed.). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, published in cooperation with the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-0-8276-0956-3. OCLC 698161941. Jerusalem’s enhanced stature in the Second Temple period was
the result of both internal and external developments, and its international recognition as a temple-city from the Persian era onward accorded the city a distinguished position in Jewish and non-Jewish eyes alike. As the capital of an extensive kingdom
under the Hasmoneans and Herod, Jerusalem became the seat of all major national institutions – political, social, and religious – as well as the home of important priestly and aristocratic families and a variety of religious sects. […] Jerusalem’s
renown spread throughout the Roman world as ever-increasing numbers of pilgrims visited the city.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Weksler-Bdolah, Shlomit (16 December 2019). Aelia Capitolina – Jerusalem in the Roman period: in light of archaeological research.
p. 3. ISBN 978-90-04-41707-6. OCLC 1170143447. Following the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, a new era began in the city’s history. The Herodian city was destroyed and a military camp of the Tenth Roman Legion established on part
of the ruins. In around 130 CE, the Roman emperor Hadrian founded a new city in place of Herodian Jerusalem next to the military camp. He honored the city with the status of a colony and named it Aelia Capitolina.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Goodman, Martin
(2008). Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations. Penguin. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-14-029127-8. OCLC 1016414322. The capitulation of the rest of Jerusalem was rapid. Those parts of the lower city already under Roman control were deliberately
set on fire. The erection of new towers to break down the walls of the upper city was completed on 7 Elul (in mid-August), and the troops forced their way in. By 8 Elul the whole city was in Roman hands—and in ruins. In recompense for the ferocious
fighting they had been required to endure, the soldiers were given free rein to loot and kill, until eventually Titus ordered that the city be razed to the ground, “leaving only the loftiest of the towers, Phasael, Hippicus and Mariamme, and the portion
of the wall enclosing the city on the west: the latter as an encampment for the garrison that was to remain, and the towers to indicate to posterity the nature of the city and of the strong defences which had yet yielded to Roman prowess. All the
rest of the wall encompassing the city was so completely levelled to the ground as to leave future visitors to the spot no ground for believing that it had ever been inhabited.”
o ^ Jump up to:a b Ben-Ami, Doron; Tchekhanovets, Yana (2011). “The
Lower City of Jerusalem on the Eve of Its Destruction, 70 CE: A View From Hanyon Givati”. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 364: 61–85. doi:10.5615/bullamerschoorie.364.0061. ISSN 0003-097X. S2CID 164199980.
o ^ Jump up to:a
b R., Jones, Kenneth (2011). Jewish reactions to the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 : Apocalypses and related Pseudepigrapha. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-21027-1. OCLC 787865898. Scholarly attention has focused primarily on the texts of Josephus to
recapture Jewish opinion in the years after the failure and suppression of the first revolt which ended, excepting the reduction of a few fortresses, with the burning of the temple and razing of Jerusalem.
o ^ Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua (1984). Jerusalem
in the 19th Century, The Old City. Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & St. Martin’s Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-312-44187-8.
o ^ “Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls”. UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
o ^ Tom Teicholz (20 July 2015). “Mr.
Jerusalem: Nir Hasson of Haaretz’s ‘The Jerusalem Blog'”. Forbes Israel. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Laub, Karin (2 December 2006). “Jerusalem Barrier Causes Major Upheaval”. The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 10
March 2007.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c “Table III/9 – Population in Israel and in Jerusalem, by Religion, 1988–2016” (PDF). 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
o ^ Pellegrino, Charles
R. (1995). Return to Sodom & Gomorrah (Second revised ed.). Harper Paperbacks. p. 271. ISBN 0-380-72633-5. [see footnote]
o ^ Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14.
o ^ Mark Smith in “The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel” states
“Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites
and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture… In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information
available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period.” (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) “The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel” (Eerdman’s)
o ^ Jump up
to:a b Rendsberg, Gary (2008). “Israel without the Bible”. In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
o ^ Jump up to:a b Since the 10th century BCE:
 “Israel was first forged into a unified
nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David seized the crown and united the twelve tribes from this city… For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative
councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration.” Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem, University
of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7
 “The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it….
For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists… Though Jerusalem’s sacred character goes back three millennia…”. Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3
 “Ever
since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence.” Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Middle East Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7
 “Jerusalem
became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago” Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6
o ^ “Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem”. Anti-Defamation
League. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national
life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people’s
identity as a nation.”
o ^ Reinoud Oosting, The Role of Zion/Jerusalem in Isaiah 40–55: A Corpus-Linguistic Approach, p. 117, at Google Books Brill 2012 pp. 117–18. Isaiah 48:2; 51:1; Nehemiah 11:1, 18; cf. Joel 4:17: Daniel 5:24. The Isaiah section
where they occur belong to deutero-Isaiah.
o ^ Shalom M. Paul, Isaiah 40–66, p. 306, at Google Books The ‘holiness’ (qodesh) arises from the temple in its midst, the root q-d-š referring to a sanctuary. The concept is attested in Mesopotamian
literature, and the epithet may serve to distinguish Babylon, the city of exiles, from the city of the Temple, to where they are enjoined to return.
o ^ Golb, Norman (1997). “Karen Armstrong’s Jerusalem – One City, Three Faiths”. The Bible and
Interpretation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013. The available texts of antiquity indicate that the concept was created by one or more personalities among the Jewish spiritual leadership, and that this occurred
no later than the 6th century B.C.
o ^ Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία.
o ^ Joseph T. Lienhard, The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology, Liturgical Press, 1995 pp. 65–66: ‘The Septuagint is a Jewish
translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Christians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.’
o ^
Jump up to:a b Third-holiest city in Islam:
 Esposito, John L. (2002). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. The Night Journey made Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam
 Brown,
Leon Carl (2000). “Setting the Stage: Islam and Muslims”. Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics. Columbia University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-231-12038-9. The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center…
 Hoppe,
Leslie J. (2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books. p. 14. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3. Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest city in
o ^ Middle East peace plans by Willard A. Beling: “The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina”.
o ^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann, eds. (1986). Cambridge History of
Islam. Cambridge University Press.
o ^ Quran 17:1-3
o ^ Buchanan, Allen (2004). States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52575-6. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
o ^ Kollek, Teddy (1977). “Afterword”.
In John Phillips (ed.). A Will to Survive – Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope Today. Dial Press/James Wade. about 91 ha (225 acres)
o ^ Walid Khalidi (1996) Islam, the West and Jerusalem. Center for Contemporary Arab Studies
& Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, quotes the breakdown as follows: West Jerusalem in 1948: 16,261 dunums (14%); West Jerusalem added in 1967: 23,000 dunums (20%); East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums
(5%); West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000 dunums (61%)
o ^ Aronson, Geoffrey (1995). “Settlement Monitor: Quarterly Update on Developments”. Journal of Palestine Studies. University of California Press,
Institute for Palestine Studies. 25 (1): 131–40. doi:10.2307/2538120. JSTOR 2538120. West Jerusalem: 35%; East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 4%; West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 59%
o ^ Benvenisti, Meron (1976).
Jerusalem, the Torn City. Books on Demand. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7837-2978-7. East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums; West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000
o ^ “Israel plans 1,300 East Jerusalem Jewish
settler homes”. BBC News. 9 November 2010. East Jerusalem is regarded as occupied Palestinian territory by the international community, but Israel says it is part of its territory.
o ^ “The status of Jerusalem” (PDF). The Question of Palestine &
the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian
o ^ “Israeli authorities back 600 new East Jerusalem homes”. BBC News. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
o ^ “Resolution 298 September 25, 1971”. United Nations. 25 September 1971. Archived from the original on 19 August
2013. Retrieved 25 July 2018. Recalling its resolutions… concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,…
o ^ Meir Ben-Dov, Historical Atlas of Jerusalem, Continuum International
Publishing Group, 2002, p. 23.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Binz, Stephen J. (2005). Jerusalem, the Holy City. Connecticut: Twenty-Third Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-1585953653. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
o ^ G. Johannes Bottereck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef
Fabry, (eds.) Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, tr. David E. Green, vol. XV, pp. 48–49 William B. Eeerdmanns Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan/Cambridge UK 2006, pp. 45–46
o ^ Elon, Amos (1996). Jerusalem. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. ISBN
0-00-637531-6. Archived from the original on 10 March 2003. Retrieved 26 April 2007. The epithet may have originated in the ancient name of Jerusalem–Salem (after the pagan deity of the city), which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages
with the words for peace (shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic).
o ^ Ringgren, H., Die Religionen des Alten Orients (Göttingen, 1979), 212.
o ^ Hastings, James (2004). A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume II: (Part II: I – Kinsman), Volume 2. Honolulu,
Hawaii: Reprinted from 1898 edition by University Press of the Pacific. p. 584. ISBN 1-4102-1725-6. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic cities of the Islamic world. The Netherlands: Koninklijke
Brill NV. pp. 225–226. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Denise DeGarmo (9 September 2011). “Abode of Peace?”. Wandering Thoughts. Center for Conflict Studies. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved
17 December 2011.
o ^ Marten H. Wouldstra, The Book of Joshua, William B. Eerdmanns Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan (1981) 1995, p. 169 n.2
o ^ Bosworth, Francis Edward (1968). Millennium: a Latin reader, A. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University
Press. p. 183. ASIN B0000CO4LE. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
o ^ Wallace, Edwin Sherman (August 1977). Jerusalem the Holy. New York: Arno Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-405-10298-4. A similar view was held by those who give the Hebrew dual to the word
o ^
Smith, George Adam (1907). Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 251. ISBN 0-7905-2935-1. The termination -aim or -ayim used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual
of nouns, and was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities (see Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70, Volume 1, p. 251, at Google Books)
o ^ Sethe, Kurt (1926) “Die Ächtung feindlicher Fürsten,
Völker und Dinge auf altägyptischen Tongefäßscherben des Mittleren Reiches nach den Originalen im Berliner Museum herausgegeben und erklärt” in Abhandlungen der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1926 issue, philosophisch-historische Klasse,
number 5, page 53
o ^ Hoch, James E (1994). Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
o ^ David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (2000). Eerdmans dictionary
of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–95. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4. Retrieved 19 August 2010. Nadav Na’aman, Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., Eisenbrauns, 2005 pp. 177ff. offers a dissenting opinion, arguing for the transcription Rôsh-ramen,
etymologized to r’š (head) and rmm (be exalted), to mean ‘the exalted Head’, and not referring to Jerusalem.
o ^ G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (eds.) Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, (tr. David E. Green) William B. Eerdmann,
Grand Rapids Michigan, Cambridge, UK 1990, Vol. VI, p. 348
o ^ Vaughn, Andrew G.; Ann E. Killebrew (1 August 2003). “Jerusalem at the Time of the United Monarchy”. Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: the First Temple Period. Atlanta: Society of
Biblical Literature. pp. 32–33. ISBN 1-58983-066-0.
o ^ Shalem, Yisrael (3 March 1997). “History of Jerusalem from its Beginning to David”. Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University, Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem
Studies. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
o ^ “The El Amarna Letters from Canaan”. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
o ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Volume I: The Akedah (Translated
by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
o ^ Writing, Literacy, and Textual Transmission: The Production of Literary by Jessica N. Whisenant p. 323
o ^ King Manasseh and Child Sacrifice: Biblical Distortions of Historical
Realities by Francesca Stavrakopoulou p. 98
o ^ Oral World and Written Word: Ancient Israelite Literature by Susan Niditch p. 48
o ^ The Mountain of the Lord by Benyamin Mazar p. 60
o ^ Blessing and Curse in Syro-Palestinian Inscriptions by
T. G Crawford p. 137
o ^ Joseph Naveh (2001). “Hebrew Graffiti from the First Temple Period”. Israel Exploration Journal. 51 (2): 194–207.
o ^ Discovering the World of the Bible by LaMar C. Berrett p. 178
o ^ Jump up to:a b Baruch, Yuval; Levi,
Danit; Reich, Ronny (2020). “The Name Jerusalem in a Late Second Temple Period Jewish Inscription”. Tel Aviv. 47 (1): 108–18. doi:10.1080/03344355.2020.1707452. S2CID 219879544.
o ^ Judges 19:10: יְב֔וּס הִ֖יא יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם: “Jebus, it [is] Jerusalem”
o ^
“Bible, King James Version”. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
o ^ The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Greece and Rome, Volume 1, p. 113, at Google Books, p. 113
o ^ 2 Samuel 5:7,9. Cited in Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihai (2007). Brian
B. Schmidt (ed.). The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
o ^ Bar-Kochva, Bezalel (2002). Judas Maccabeus:
The Jewish Struggle Against the Seleucids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 447. ISBN 0-521-01683-5.
o ^ Mazar, Eilat (2002). The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount Excavations. Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication. p. 1.
ISBN 965-90299-1-8.
o ^ Genesis 14:18
o ^ E.g., Jubilees 1:30, the Septuagint version of Jeremias 48:5 (as Συχὲμ) and possibly the Masoretic text of Genesis 33:18 (see KJV and the margin translation of the Revised Version).
o ^ E.g., the Vulgate
and Peshitta versions. J.A. Emerton, “The site of Salem: the City of Melchizedek (Genesis xiv 18),” pp. 45–72 of Studies in the Pentateuch ed. by J.A. Emerton, vol. 41 of Supplements to Vetus Testamentum (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990) (“Emerton”), p.
45. See also John 3:23 where “Salim” or “Sylem” (Συχὲμ) is said to be near Ænon, thought to be in the valley of Mount Ebal, one of two mountains in the vicinity of Nablus.
o ^ Onklelos, Pseudo-Jonathan and Neofiti I. Emerton, p. 45.
o ^ Genesis
12:6–7 (where Abram built an altar), Genesis 33:18–20, Deuteronomy 11:29 & 28:11, Joshua 8:33, 1 Kings 12. Emerton, p. 63.
o ^ Paul Winter, “Note on Salem – Jerusalem”, Novum Testamentum, vol. 2, pp. 151–152 (1957).
o ^ Raymond Hayward. “Melchizedek
as Priest of the Jerusalem Temple in Talmud, Midrash, and Targum” (PDF). The Temple Studies Group. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
o ^ “The Official Website of Jerusalem”. Municipality of Jerusalem. 19 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27
April 2007.
o ^ Sonbol, Amira (1996). Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History. p. 133.
o ^ “Israeli Archaeologists Discover 7,000-Year-Old Settlement”. The New York Times. 17 February 2016. Archived from the original on 29 February
2016. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
o ^ “No city in the world, not even Athens or Rome, ever played as great a role in the life of a nation for so long a time, as Jerusalem has done in the life of the Jewish people.” David Ben-Gurion, 1947
o ^ “For
three thousand years, Jerusalem has been the center of Jewish hope and longing. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout
centuries of exile, Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of Jews everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. This heart and soul of the Jewish people engenders the thought
that if you want one simple word to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be ‘Jerusalem.'” Teddy Kollek (DC: Washington Institute For Near East Policy, 1990), pp. 19–20.
o ^ John Quigley (1998). The Palestine Yearbook of International
Law, 1996–1997. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 32–. ISBN 90-411-1009-7. Palestine’s claim to Jerusalem is founded on the longtime status of the Palestinian Arabs as the majority population of Palestine. On that basis the Palestinians claim sovereignty
over all of Palestine. including Jerusalem, both East and West. The Palestinians claim descent from the Canaanites, the earliest recorded inhabitants of Palestine. Although political control changed hands many times through history, this population,
which was Arabized by the Arab conquest of the seventh century A.D., remained into the twentieth century.
o ^ “(With reference to Palestinians in Ottoman times) Although proud of their Arab heritage and ancestry, the Palestinians considered themselves
to be descended not only from Arab conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial, including the ancient Hebrews and the Canaanites before them. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness
of Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations.” Walid Khalidi, 1984, Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876–1948. Institute for Palestine Studies
o ^ Bisharat, George
(2010). “Maximizing Rights”. In Susan M. Akram; Michael Dumper; Michael Lynk (eds.). International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-136-85098-1. As we have noted
previously the international legal status of Jerusalem is contested and Israel’s designation of it as its capital has not been recognized by the international community. However its claims of sovereign rights to the city are stronger with respect
to West Jerusalem than with respect to East Jerusalem.
o ^ Eric H. Cline. “How Jews and Arabs Use (and Misuse) the History of Jerusalem to Score Points”. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
o ^ Eli E. Hertz. “One Nation’s Capital Throughout History”
(PDF). Retrieved 22 September 2010.
o ^ Greenberg, Raphael; Mizrachi, Yonathan (10 September 2013). “From Shiloah to Silwan – A Visitor’s Guide”. Emek Shaveh. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
o ^ Negev, Avraham; Gibson, Shimon (2001). “Jerusalem”. Archaeological
Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London. pp. 260–61. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
o ^ Freedman, David Noel (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 694–95. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5. 1. Ceramic evidence indicates
some occupation of Ophel as early as early as the Chalcolithic period. 2. Remains of a building witness to a permanent settlement on Ophel during the early centuries (ca. 3000–2800 B.C.E.) of the Early Bronze Age
o ^ Nadav Naʼaman, Canaan in the
2nd Millennium B.C.E., p. 180.
o ^ Jane M. Cahill, ‘Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy’, in Andrew G. Vaughn, Ann E. Killebrew (eds.) Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, Society of Biblical Literature, 2003 p.
o ^ Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts, Simon and Schuster 2002 p. 239.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, Keys to Jerusalem: Collected
Essays, Oxford University Press, 2012 pp. 5–6.
o ^ Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14
o ^ Mark Smith in “The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel” states “Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people
of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest
that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture… In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites
and Israelites for the Iron I period.” (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) “The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel” (Eerdman’s)
o ^ Robb Andrew Young, Hezekiah in Hi Photo credit:’]